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POINT: Yes. urgently • “Without an extended evolutionary framework. the theory neglects the key processes” • Extended Evolutionary synthesis .

Extended Evolutionary synthesis • maintains important drivers of evolution (ones that can’t be reduced to genes) • Living things do not evolve to fit into the preexisting environments. but co construct and co evolve with their environments. in the process changing the structure of ecosystems .

Phenomena which Extended Evolutionary synthesis consider as causes of evolution: • • • • Developmental bias Plasticity Niche construction Extra-genetic inheritance .

Developmental Bias • how physical development influences the generation of variation • explain how organisms adapt to their environments and diversify .1.

• (hypothesis) developmental bias and natural selection work together rather than selection being free to traverse across any physical possibility. it is guided along specific routes opened up by the processes of development • Cichlid fishes in Lake Malawi and Lake Tanganyika .

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2. Plasticity • individuals respond to their environment by changing forms • plausible first step in adaptive evolution • plasticity not only allows organisms to cope in new environmental conditions but to generate traits that are wellsuited to them .

3. Niche Construction • organisms co-direct their own evolution by systematically changing environments and thereby biasing selection • Example: Lemon Ants .

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such as nut cracking in chimpanzees or the migratory patterns of reef fishes • Parent offspring similarities .4. Extra-genetic inheritance • transmission of epigenetic marks and socially transmitted behavior in animals.

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all is well • ---“Theory accommodates evidence through relentless synthesis” • Modern Synthesis .COUNTERPOINT: No.

to a lesser extent. paleontology and systematics. two of the most fundamental evolutionary processes.Modern Synthesis • united Darwin’s concept of natural selection with the field of genetics and. • It laid the theoretical foundations for a quantitative and rigorous understanding of adaptation and speciation. .

old concept • 2. Genes are central . New word. Modern Expansion • 3.Three reasons why the topics in Extended Evolutionary Synthesis is already receive their due in current evolutionary theory • 1.

1. old concept • evolutionary phenomena (of EES) are already well integrated into evolutionary biology. New word. where they have long provided useful insights • Niche construction • Phenotypic plasticity .

2. • “standard evolutionary theory” --caricature that views the field as static and monolithic . Modern Expansion • the phenomena are just four among many that offer promise for future advances in evolutionary biology.

” . especially those that bestow some selective advantage.3. broadly applicable and empirically validated component of evolutionary theory • genetic assimilation • “What matters is the heritable differences in traits. Genes are central • genes--most powerfully predictive.