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Acknowledgement

First of all we would like to thank Almighty ALLAH who gives us the opportunity and
strength to complete our higher education up to undergraduate level. We are heartily thankful
to our supervisor, Engr. Rasool Bux, whose encouragement; support and guidance from the
initial to final level enable us to develop an understanding of the subject.

Finally we would like to thank our family members and friends for their continuous
encouragement and moral support.

Amir Ali
Muazam Nawaz Alvi
Muhammad Umair Shoukat
Muhammad Arslan Jafar

Abstract
The Power System in 21st Century is very complex so protection of power is necessary.
Objective of protection is to keep the power system stable by isolating the components that
are under fault, while leaving as much of the network as possible still in operation. Function
of protection system is safety of human beings and electrical components. For this reason the
technology and philosophies utilized in protection schemes can often be old and wellestablished because they must be reliable.
This thesis demonstrates the particle implementations and also based upon theoretical portion
for basic understanding of design and protection schemes of lines, bus bar, transformer, and
feeder.

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Table of Contents
Acknowledgement .................................................................................................................... i
Abstract..................................................................................................................................... ii
Chapter No: 1
Introduction

1.1 Purpose of substation ...........................................................................................................1


1.2 Functions Of Substation ......................................................................................................2
1.3 Essential Features Of Substation ........................................................................................3
1.4 Classification Of Substations ..............................................................................................4
1.4.1 According to Voltage Level ..........................................................................................4
1.4.2 According to Constructional Features ...........................................................................5
Chapter No: 2
Substation Layout

2.1 Layout Of Substation ...........................................................................................................7


2.2 Different Layout For Substation ..........................................................................................8
2.2.1 Single Bus Bar Arrangement.........................................................................................8
2.2.2 Sectionalized Bus Bar Arrangement .............................................................................9
2.2.3 Main And Transfer Bus Bar Arrangement ..................................................................12
2.2.4 Ring Bus Bar Arrangement .........................................................................................15
2.2.5 Breaker and-a-Half Arrangement................................................................................17
2.2.6 Double Breaker-Double Bus ......................................................................................20
2.3 Substation Equipment ........................................................................................................21
2.3.1 Bus Bar ........................................................................................................................22
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2.3.2 Insulator.......................................................................................................................22
2.3.3 Isolating Switches .......................................................................................................22
2.3.4 Instrument Transformer...............................................................................................23
2.3.5 Metering and Indicating Instrument ............................................................................23
2.3.6 Protective Relay ..........................................................................................................24
2.3.7 Circuit Breaker ............................................................................................................24
2.3.8 Power Transformer......................................................................................................25
2.3.9 Conductor System .......................................................................................................27
2.3.10 Lighting Arrestors .....................................................................................................27
2.3.11 Wave Trap .................................................................................................................28
2.3.12 Over Head Terminate ................................................................................................28
2.3.13 Miscellaneous Equipments........................................................................................29
2.4 One Line Diagram..............................................................................................................29
Chapter No: 3
Power System Protection

3.1 Basics of Power System.....................................................................................................31


3.1.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................32
3.1.2 Fundamentals of Protection Practice ...........................................................................33
3.2 Need For Protection ...........................................................................................................33
3.3 Important Considerations When Design Protection System .............................................34
3.4 Sub station Protection ........................................................................................................34
3.5 Categories of Protection ....................................................................................................36
3.5.1 Concept of Backup Relay............................................................................................37
3.5.2 Method of Backup Protection .....................................................................................38
3.6 Types of Protection ............................................................................................................38
3.6.1 High Voltage Transmission Network..........................................................................38
3.6.2 Over Load ...................................................................................................................39
3.6.3 Earth Fault ...................................................................................................................39
3.6.4 Distance .......................................................................................................................39
3.6.5 Low Voltage Network .................................................................................................39
3.7 Protection Scheme In Sahiwal Sub Station........................................................................40
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3.7.1 Protection Scheme In Transmission Line....................................................................40


3.7.2 Bus Bar Protection ......................................................................................................42
3.7.3 Transformer Protection ...............................................................................................42
3.7.4 Feeder Protection.........................................................................................................43
Chapter No: 4
Power Transformer

4.1 Introduction........................................................................................................................45
4.2 Principle of Transformer....................................................................................................45
4.3 Effect of Transformer On Frequency.................................................................................46
4.4 Construction of Transformer..............................................................................................46
4.4.1 Primary Winding .........................................................................................................46
4.4.2 Secondary Winding .....................................................................................................46
4.4.3 Core .............................................................................................................................46
4.5 Star Delta Connection ........................................................................................................47
4.6 Losses ................................................................................................................................48
4.6.1 Iron Losses ..................................................................................................................48
4.6.2 Eddy Current and Hysteresis Losses ...........................................................................48
4.6.3 Copper Losses .............................................................................................................48
4.6.4 No Load Losses ...........................................................................................................48
4.6.5 Load Losses.................................................................................................................48
4.7 Transformer At Sahiwal Substation...................................................................................49
4.8 Rating of A Transformer At Sahiwal Substation ...............................................................49
4.9 Control of Transformer Voltage ........................................................................................49
4.9.1 On Load Tap Changer .................................................................................................50
4.9.2 Sequence of Tap Changing .........................................................................................51
4.10 Parallel Operation of Transformer ...................................................................................51
4.11 Transformer Protection ....................................................................................................51
4.11.1 Differential Protection...............................................................................................52
4.11.2 Bucholz Relay ..........................................................................................................56
4.11.3 Dissolved Gas Analysis.............................................................................................57
4.11.4 Temp. Measuring Device ..........................................................................................61
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Chapter No: 5
Circuit Breaker

5.1 Introduction........................................................................................................................63
5.1.1 Arc Interruption...........................................................................................................63
5.1.2 Operating Times .........................................................................................................64
5.1.3 Rating of Circuit Breaker ...........................................................................................64
5.1.4 Trip Circuit of a Circuit Breaker ................................................................................64
5.2 Operating Mechanism ........................................................................................................65
5.3 Classification of Circuit Breaker .......................................................................................66
5.4 Circuit Breaker Used On 132kV Substation .....................................................................66
5.5 SF6 Breaker At Sahiwal Substation...................................................................................71
Chapter No: 6
Protective Relays

6.1 Operating Mechanism Of Relay ........................................................................................72


6.2 Characteristics of Relay .....................................................................................................72
6.3 Types of Relays..................................................................................................................73
6.3.1 Over Current Relay ...................................................................................................73
6.3.2 Distance Relay ............................................................................................................77
6.3.2 Auto Reclouser Relay..................................................................................................78
6.3.2 Current Differential Relay...........................................................................................79
6.3.2 Breaker Failure Relay..................................................................................................80
6.4 Relay Nomenclature...........................................................................................................81
6.5 Relay Number And Their Nomenclature ...........................................................................82
6.6 Protective Relay Used In Substation..................................................................................84
Chapter No: 7
Isolator

7.1 Diagram of Isolator ............................................................................................................88


7.1.1 Features .......................................................................................................................89
7.2 Types of Isolator ................................................................................................................89
7.3 Operating Mechanism .......................................................................................................90
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7.3.1 Motor Operating Mechanism .....................................................................................90


7.3.2 Manual Operating Mechanism ....................................................................................91
7.4 Maintenance ......................................................................................................................92
7.1 Isolators At Sahiwal Grid...................................................................................................93
Chapter No: 8
Instrument Transformer

8.1 Introduction........................................................................................................................94
8.2 Current Transformer .........................................................................................................94
8.2.1 Design..........................................................................................................................94
8.2.2 Accuracy......................................................................................................................95
8.2.3 Rating of Cts Installed at Sahiwal Grid.......................................................................96
8.3 Potential Transformer .......................................................................................................97
8.3.1 Rating of Pts Installed at Sahiwal Grid .......................................................................97
Chapter No: 9
Surge Arrester and Line Trap

9.1 Surge Arrester ...................................................................................................................98


9.1.1 Characteristics of Lighting Arrester ............................................................................98
9.1.2 Selection of Lighting Arrester.....................................................................................99
9.1.3 Lighting Arrester Installed at Sahiwal Grid ..............................................................106
9.2 Line Trap .........................................................................................................................106
9.2.1 Basic Function of Line Trap......................................................................................106
9.2.2 Design & Construction of Plc Line Trap ..................................................................107
Conclusion ............................................................................................................................110
References .............................................................................................................................111

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