Chapter: 1

INTRODUCTION
A substation is a part of an electrical generation, transmission, and distribution
system. Substations transform voltage from high to low, or the reverse, or perform any of
several other important functions. Electric power may flow through several substations
between generating plant and consumer, and its voltage may change in several steps.
A substation that has a step-up transformer increases the voltage while decreasing
the current, while a step-down transformer decreases the voltage while increasing the current
for domestic and commercial distribution.
Substations generally have switching, protection and control equipment, and
transformers. In a large substation, circuit breakers are used to interrupt any short circuits or
overload currents that may occur on the network. Smaller distribution stations may use
reclosing circuit breakers or fuses for protection of distribution circuits. Substations
themselves do not usually have generators, although a power plant may have a substation
nearby. Other devices such as capacitors and voltage regulators may also be located at a
substation.
Substations may be on the surface in fenced enclosures, underground, or located in
special-purpose buildings. High-rise buildings may have several indoor substations. Indoor
substations are usually found in urban areas to reduce the noise from the transformers, for
reasons of appearance, or to protect switchgear from extreme climate or pollution conditions.

1.1 PURPOSE OF SUBSTATION
Following are the main purposes which can be obtained from the substations:
1.

Switching

In grid station there is number of lines coming from different generating stations and
going up to different feeders, therefore switching is necessary in grid station. Switching
means connecting or disconnecting two or more transmission line to which two or more
sources of power are connected.
1

2.2 FUNCTIONS OF SUBSTATION The substations apart from the distribution of the electricity have many other functions as follows: 1. it results in lower transmission losses. Protection Protection devices having the ability to detect the fault and disconnect the faulty apparatus from rest of power system are at the grid. 3. 4. hence there is the need of stepping up and stepping down the voltage. Step up and step down of the voltage for transmission and distribution: As for the same power transmitted at a higher voltage the current is lower. At the grid station regulating transformer and synchronous condenser can do regulation of voltage or power factor improvement. audible and visible warnings signal devices and emergency alarm signaling devices are also located on the board. The devices by which the circuit breaker and isolator position is indicated. The various stages are involved in the process of the design. Control In the grid station a control board is provided. 1. Regulation of voltage When load changes the transmission lines suffer inherent voltage variations at receiving end of the grid station. it monitors the operation of the equipment in all parts of the grid station. Transformation High voltage received from grid station or generating station is stepped down to low voltage by keeping the same power. Switching and isolating the circuits for maintenance: 2 .2. 5. Indicating and metering instrument are mounted on this board associated with the main element of the grid station.

Closing and opening of feeder circuits in accordance with load variations. Medium voltage Switchgear. load shedding is done through substations on distribution circuits to maintain balance. 3.Bus-Bar schemes. 1. Load shedding: When the power demand is more than the supply.High voltage Switchgear.Outdoor Switchyard having any one of the above. 4 .3 ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF SUBSTATION Essential features of substation as follows: 1 . 5. needs to be done for the safety of the generating plants. Correction of power factors: The power factor has to be kept at the correct value when reactive loads are there. 6 . Safety devices like circuit breakers and fuses: Safety devices are provided for protecting the machineries on the distribution circuit as well as in the substation against high short circuit currents.Office building. 3 .Roads and rail track for transporting equipment. 5 .Incoming line towers and outgoing line towers/cables. Bus bars for splitting the power for distribution: Thick bars of copper to which various distribution circuits are connected by nuts and bolts are known as bus bars.Switching is also an important function of substations. to protect the generating plant and increase efficiency. 6. 2 . Low voltage Switchgear and control room. 3 . 4.

A transmission station may have transformers to convert between two transmission voltages. voltage control/power factor correction devices such as capacitors. substations are classified as:  Transmission substation  Distribution substation  Switching substation Transmission Substation: A transmission substation connects two or more transmission lines. The simplest case is where all transmission lines have the same voltage. 12 . 8 . drinking water system. Supply system.Maintenance workshop (if required). 10 . the substation contains high-voltage switches that allow lines to be connected or isolated for fault clearance or maintenance.Drainage system.Store. In such cases. 15 .Battery room and low voltage DC. Security system etc. 13 . 16 .Fence and gates. 4 .Fire fighting system.4 CLASSIFICATION OF SUBSTATIONS 1.7 . 11 . 9 . etc. 14 . 17 .Cooling water system.Substation lighting system etc.Auxiliary power supply Low voltage AC. reactors or static VAR compensators and equipment such as phase shifting transformers to control power flow between two adjacent power systems. overhead shielding.1 According to Voltage Level: According to voltage level.Station Earthing system. 1.Lighting protection system.4.

Indoor Substation. for example. 4. Switching Substation: A switching substation is a substation which does not contain transformers and operates only at a single voltage level. Distribution substations are typically the points of voltage regulation. voltage regulation equipment may also be installed along the line.4 and 33 kV depending on the size of the area served and the practices of the local utility. 5 . The feeders run along streets overhead (or underground. Distribution voltages are typically medium voltage. Underground substation. between 2. 1. substations are classified as: 1. in some cases) and power the distribution transformers at or near the customer premises. Pole-mounted substation. unless they use large amounts of power. Input voltage may be. 115 kV.2 According to Constructional Features: According to constructional features. The input for a distribution substation is typically at least two transmission or subtransmission lines. 3. The output is a number of feeders. although on long distribution circuits (of several miles/kilometers). Switching substations are sometimes used as collector and distribution stations. It is uneconomical to directly connect electricity consumers to the main transmission network. or whatever is common in the area. 2. Outdoor Substation.4. distribution substations also isolate faults in either the transmission or distribution systems. so the distribution station reduces voltage to a value suitable for local distribution. In addition to transforming voltage. Sometimes they are used for switching the current to back-up lines or for parallelizing circuits in case of failure.Distribution Substation: A distribution substation transfers power from the transmission system to the distribution system of an area.

The transformer steps down the voltage to 400 V (3 phase. There should be good ventilation. It is the cheapest from of substation for voltages not exceeding 11KV (or 33KV in some cases).T side automatically isolates the mounted substation. when the atmosphere is contaminated with impurities. The lightning arresters are installed on the H. However. Underground Substation: In thickly populated areas.T side to protect the sub-station from lightning strokes. the clearances between conductor and the space required for switches. The oil circuit breaker installed on the L. the substation is built underground. 4 wire supply). and other equipment becomes so great that it is not economical to install the equipment indoor. the space available for equipment and building is limited and the cost of the land is high. 2. The design of underground substation requires more careful consideration.Outdoor Sub-Station: For voltages beyond 66KV. Pole-mounted Substation: This is an outdoor substation with equipment installed overhead on H-pole or 4-pole structure. C. 3. equipment is invariably installed outdoor. the equipment of the substation is installed indoor because of economic consideration. these sub-stations can be erected for voltage up-to 66KV. The size of the substation should be as small as possible. There should be reasonable access for both equipment & staff. Indoor Substation: For voltage up-to 11KV. Under such situations. 1. The voltage between any two lines is 400 V & between line & neutral is 230V. Electric power is almost distributed in localities through such substations. There should be provision for emergency lighting and protection against fire.B. 4. 6 . It is because for such voltages. The 11KV line is connected to the transformer (11KV/440V) through isolators and fuses.