CHAPTER 8

INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS
8.1 INTRODUCTION
Protective relay of the A.C type are actuated by current and voltage supplied by
current and voltage transformer. The secondary of current transformer has a current 1.2 or
5A which is definite fraction of the load current. Similarly the voltage or potential
transformer has a secondary potential difference which is a small definite friction of the
110V.The chief advantage of these transformers is that they provide insulation against the
high voltage of power and also supply the relay with quantities proportional to those of
the power circuit, but sufficiently reduced in magnitude so that the relay can be made
relatively small and inexpensive

8.2 CURRENT TRANSFORMERS
Current transformers are the devices used for monitoring current or for
transforming primary current into reduced secondary current used for meters, relays,
control equipment and other instruments. CT‘s that transform current isolate the high
voltage primary, permit grounding of the secondary, and step-down the magnitude of the
measured current to a standard value that can be safely handled by the instrument.

8.2.1 Design
Like any other transformer, a current transformer has a primary winding, a
magnetic core, and a secondary winding. The alternating current flowing in the primary
produces a magnetic field in the core, which then induces a current in the secondary
winding circuit. A primary objective of current transformer design is to ensure that the
primary and secondary circuits are efficiently coupled, so that the secondary current bears
an accurate relationship to the primary current.
The most common design of CT consists of a length of wire wrapped many times
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around a silicon steel ring passed over the circuit being measured. 1. Burden 2.2 Accuracy The accuracy of a CT is directly related to a number of factors including: 1. The CT's primary circuit therefore consists of a single 'turn' of conductor. The selected tap. Some CT configurations slip around the bushing of a high-voltage transformer or circuit breaker.2. with a heavy copper bar to carry current through the magnetic core. Temperature and 7. for multi-ratio CTs We will explain here only few factors. slight inaccuracies may occur. Physical configuration. Load 5. Rating factor 4. The primary winding may be a permanent part of the current transformer. which automatically centers the conductor inside the CT window. Typical examples of low voltage single ratio metering current transformers are either ring type or plastic moulded case. 8. Burden class/saturation class 3. which can have circuit cables run through the middle of an opening in the core to provide a single-turn primary winding. 8. When conductors passing through a CT are not centered in the circular (or oval) opening. High-voltage current transformers are mounted on porcelain bushings to insulate them from ground. with a secondary of many hundreds of turns. Window-type current transformers are also common. Shapes and sizes can vary depending on the end user or switchgear manufacturer. Burden: The load or burden in CT metering circuit is (largely resistive) impedance presented to 95 . External electromagnetic fields 6.

Often.3 Rating of Ct Installed At Sahiwal Grid Table 8.its secondary winding. The most common source of excess burden in a current measurement circuit is the conductor between the meter and the CT. Rating Factor: Rating factor is a factor by which the nominal full load current of a CT can be multiplied to determine its absolute maximum measurable primary current.2. m a n u f a c t u r e r s h a v e b e e n m o v i n g t o w a r d s l o w e r nominal primary currents with greater rating factors." The rating factor of a CT is largely dependent upon ambient temperature. It is important to be mindful of ambient temperatures and resultant rating factors when CTs are installed inside padmounted t r a n s f o r m e r s . No.T Ratio: 4 132 KV CCW4 LK-NES LK-NES LK-NES 300-600/5 A 5 132 KV E10-Q1 ASEA ASEA ASEA 300-600-1200/5 A 6 132 KV 101 LK-NES LK-NES LK-NES 300-600/5 A 96 . 8. meters and intermediate conductors. substation meters are located significant distances from the meter cabinets and the excessive length of small gauge conductor creates a large resistance. 2. Recently.1 Sr. Code 1 132 KV E11-Q1 2 3 132 KV E1-Q1 132 KV CCW3 R Make: Phase: Y B Available: SIEMENS SIEMENS SIEMENS 4-300/5 A MGRINI MGRINI MGRINI 150-300-600/5 A ASEA ASEA ASEA 150-300-1200/5 A C. Conversely. Items that contribute to the burden of a current measurement circuit are switch-blocks. This problem can be solved by using CT with 1 ampere secondary’s which will produce less voltage drop between a CT and its metering devices. the minimum primary current a CT can accurately measure is "light load.

Code: 1 132 KV Busbar P. No.T Make: Phase: R Y B MGRINI MGRINI MGRINI Date of Commissioning: P. The secondary voltage of a PT is usually110 or 120 V with corresponding line-to-neutral values. The majority of protection relays have nominal voltages of 110 or 63.1 Rating Of Pt Installed At Sahiwal Grid: Table 8. capacitive voltage transformer (CVT) 8. PTs are designed in such a way that the voltage drops in the windings are small and the flux density in the core is well below the saturation value so that the magnetization current is small.T Ratio: 21-05-2001 132 KV/110 V 97 . Potential transformer are required for 1.5 V.2 Sr. Electromagnetic voltage transformer b) Capacitive voltage divider type. For Relaying and Protection In protective system two types of potential transformers are used a) Conventional type two winding. depending on whether their connection is line-to-line or line-to-neutral.3 POTENTIAL TRANSFORMERS With Potential transformers (PTs) it is essential that the voltage from the secondary winding should be as near as possible proportional to the primary voltage.3. For Metering 2. In order to achieve this. in this way magnetization impedance is obtained which is practically constant over the required voltage range.8.