FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY

The Fluid Mechanics Laboratory covers practical aspects of fluid flow for both compressible and
incompressible fluids and its properties. It features the following equipment: Bernoulli's apparatus, Osborne
Reynolds Demonstration unit, Multi Pump Test Rig, Fluid Friction Measurement unit, Fixed and Fluidized
Bed Equipment, centrifugal fan and centrifugal pump
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Equipment in Fluid Mechanics Laboratory
Name of Equipment
Mode/Model Number

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Waste papers and other garbage should not be thrown into the various water tanks in the laboratory. eating. Experiment Number and Title ii. 3. Reasons for discrepancies should be given. 4. Water used by the equipment should not be used for any other purpose. smoking. 2. If not sure. Materials and Equipment/ Apparatus iii. Do not overload of overfill equipment such that it exceeds its maximum safetolerances. When conducting or observing experiments. Recognize possible hazardous locations especially if the experiment involvesoperation of the larger equipment. 4. D. Watch out for edges in the equipment. Do not prolong exposure of your hands and skin to the mercury. Determine first the nature of the liquid before disposing. andsleeping are NOT ALLOWED inside the laboratory. 3. LABORATORY POLICIES 1. Computation v. read carefully and take note of the followinginstructions: A. Take special precaution in minimizing spillage of water or of any other liquidsnear electrical outlets. Do not transfer them to other containers. References 3. Discussion and/or Analysis vii. 2. In the discussion. 2. ask the laboratory technician to verify it. identical to the engineering field note. C. Tabulated Data and Results iv. 2|D e p a r t m e n t o f C i v i l E n g in e e r i n g . When handling mercury. The following should be included in the report: i. For liquids that are to be re-used. take precaution in preventing spillage and accidental disposal. OBSERVATIONS AND REPORTS 1. Students who are absent during the performance of the experiments willobtain a zero mark in the corresponding experiments. GENERAL LIQUID HANDLING 1. Minimize the spillage of water inside the laboratory.Before beginning the experiments. B. 3. the results of the experiment should be interpreted in the light of existing theories and facts. GENERAL EQUIPMENT OPERATIONS 1. 2. Sketch and/or Layout vi. store them back on their previous containers after the experiment. Do not let any person who is not enrolled in this laboratory course enter thesaid laboratory. Do not play with the various valves and switches present on the equipment. 5. playing. Conclusion viii. Reports and observations should be written in ink and should be submitted in a bounded note-form.

4. Conclusions should be in the student’s own words and it must be related to the objective of the experiment 3|D e p a r t m e n t o f C i v i l E n g in e e r i n g .

EXPLAIN THE IMPORTANCE OF THE PROPERTY/ THEORY UNDER INVESTIGATION TO THE STUDY OFFLUID MECHANICS. OBJECTIVE:  TO DETERMINE THE DENSITY OF THE LIQUID BY VOLUMETRIC METHOD.EXPERIMENT #1 DETERMINATION OF DENSITY OF A LIQUID INTRODUCTION: Density is an elementary physical property of matter. the volume of the substance increases while its mass is remained. The density of a substance is varies with the change of temperature at surrounding. the density of a substance will be decreased. READ AND RECORD THE VOLUME OF THE LIQUID. WEIGH THE EMPTY GRADUATED CYLINDER. The SI unit of density is always expressed in the unit of kg m 3 or g. GET A LIQUID JUST ENOUGH TO FILL THE GRADUATED CYLINDER TO ITS DESIRED NECK LEVEL.cm3. 2. 2. 4|D e p a r t m e n t o f C i v i l E n g in e e r i n g . ANALYSIS: 1. 4. this will be discussed later in discussion. 3. APPARATUS: (A) GRADUATED CYLINDERS (B) METER STICK (C) LIQUID (D) WEIGHING BALANCE PROCEDURE: 1. As the temperature increases. WEIGH THE GRADUATED CYLINDER WITH LIQUID IN IT. It is defined as the ratio of mass to volume of a substance as shown in the following: Density= Mass Volume Numerically it represents the mass per unit volume of matter. By referring to the formula given. When thermal expansion occurs. the density of the substance decreases as the temperature increase. DISCUSS THE THEORY PERTINENT TO THE EXPERIMENT PERFORMED.

INSTALL THE SET . THE TIME TAKEN BY THE FALL TO FALL THROUGH KNOWN DISTANCE L.UP OF THE EXPERIMENT AS SHOWN IN THE FIGURE. 2. APPARATUS: (A) LIQUID OF UNKNOWN VISCOSITY (B) SPHERICAL BALL (C) STOPWATCH (D) METER STICK (E) CALIPER PROCEDURE: 1. THUS. IS OBSERVED. THE CONSTANT VELOCITY IS: L V= t THE VISCOSITY OF THE LIQUID WITH RELATION TO THE OTHER IS GIVEN BY THE EQUATION: D 2 (W s−W ) U= 18V WHERE: V = VELOCITY OF THE SPHERE L = DISTANCE OF THE FALL T = TIME OF THE FALL D = DIAMETER OF THE SPHERE (WS – W) = SUBMERGED WEIGHT OF SPHERE IN THE LIQUID OBJECTIVE:  TO DETERMINE THE VISCOSITY OF A LIQUID BY FALLING SPHERE METHOD. 5|D e p a r t m e n t o f C i v i l E n g in e e r i n g . AFTER A CONSTANT VELOCITY HAS BEEN ATTAINED BY THE BALL. 3. IT CONSISTS OF A LONG VERTICAL CONTAINER WHICH IS FILLED WITH THE LIQUID WHOSE VISCOSITY IS TO BE DETERMINED. DETERMINE THE UNIT WEIGHT OF THE FLUID.EXPERIMENT #2 DETERMINATION OF VISCOSITY OF FLUID INTRODUCTION: THIS METHOD WAS BASED ON STOKE'S LAW ON VISCOSITY. DETERMINE THE DENSITY OF THE SPHERE.

6. Repeat the procedure for two more trials using the same set-up. UNIT WEIGHT OF LIQUID W = _______________________________. USE A FUNNEL IN POURING THE LIQUIDS. SIMULTANEOUSLY SET THE TIME ON AS WITH PROCEDURE #5. 10. DROP THE SPHERICAL BALL WITH THE INITIAL POSITION OF THE BALL JUST NEAR THE LIQUID SURFACE. THIS WILL BE THE INITIAL POINT OF THE MEASUREMENT OF THE DISTANCE. WEIGHT OF BEAKER WITH LIQUID W 1 = _____________________________. SET THE TIME OFF WHEN THE BALL REACHES THE BOTTOM OF THE CYLINDER. VOLUME OF LIQUID V 1 = ______________________________. DISCUSS STOKE'S LAW ON VISCOSITY. WEIGHT OF THE SPHERICAL BALL WS = ______________________________. MEASURE THE DISTANCE DROPPED FROM THE INITIAL MARKED POINT TO THE FINAL POSITION OF THE BALL. Liquid A: Trial No. EXPLAIN THE IMPORTANCE OF THE PROPERTY/THEORY. 2. 7. MARK THE POINT WHERE THE VELOCITY OF THE BALL STARTS TO BECOME UNIFROM. 2. REMOVE ANY TRAPPED AIR INSIDE THE TUBE BY TAPPING. 8. PRECAUTIONS: 1.4. DERIVE THE FORMULA USED IN THE EXPERIMENT. 6|D e p a r t m e n t o f C i v i l E n g in e e r i n g Viscosity (U) . 9. 3. OBSERVATIONS: (SAMPLE DATA SHEET) THE LIQUID USED HERE IS _____________________________. WEIGHT OF THE EMPTY BEAKER W B = _____________________________. Distance (L) Time (t) Velocity (V) AVERAGE VISCOSITY OF THE LIQUID: ANALYSIS: 1. DIAMETER OF THE SPHERE DS = ______________________________. 5. Repeat using different unknown liquid.

DO NOT THROW AWAY THE LIQUID ESPECIALLY THE MERCURY.3. DIP SOME TISSUE PAPER IN THE MIXTURE TO CLING TO THE PAPER. IN REMOVING IMPURITIES FROM THE MERCURY. 7|D e p a r t m e n t o f C i v i l E n g in e e r i n g . LET THE LABORATORY ASSISTANT DO THE CLEANING.

OBJECTIVE:  To determine the specific gravity of an unknown liquid using a U tube-manometer. One of the most common is the water filled u-tube manometer used to measure pressure difference in pitot or orifices located in the airflow in air handling or ventilation system. Adding of heads is positive when going down.EXPERIMENT #3 DETERMINATION OF THE SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF AN UNKNOWN LIQUID INTRODUCTION: 1. The pressure at any point under a liquid is proportional to the depth from the surface to the point in consideration. APPARATUS: (a) Liquid of unknown specific gravity (b) manometer stand (c) plastic tubing (d) meter stick (e) water (f) beaker (g) funnel (h) glycerin 8|D e p a r t m e n t o f C i v i l E n g in e e r i n g . p=wh 2. h=p/w Pressure measuring devices using liquid columns in vertical or inclined tubes are called manometers. The pressure head at any point is the sum of the heads of the liquid/s expressed in their equivalent head to a single liquid. and negative when going up.

Pour some amount of water in the other side. Conduct three trials for this procedure. 4.PROCEDURE: A. Pour some amount of glycerin inside the U – tube. Measure the difference in liquid level of each liquid. 4. Conduct three trials. Sample Data Sheet Liquid A: Trial No. Pour a quantity of unknown liquid on the other side of the U – tube. 3. 1. 4. H Figure: 9|D e p a r t m e n t o f C i v i l E n g in e e r i n g . 2. 6. Measure the difference in the liquid level of each liquid. Pour a quantity of water into the U – tube. 3. Pour some amount of liquid in one side of the U – tube. H Figure: Liquid B: Trial No. 5. B.

10 | D e p a r t m e n t o f C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g .EXPERIMENT #4 DETERMINATION OF PRESSURE DIFFERENCE OF TWO PIPES INTRODUCTION: Frequently in hydraulic problems. 4. Discuss the theory pertinent to the experiment performed. Observe the reading of the pressure from the pressure gages. between the pipes. thereby losing the mercury liquid. Sudden opening of the gate valve will tend to push away the mercury to the interior part of the pipe. OBJECTIVE:  To determine the difference in pressure between two pipes using the pressure gage meter. Observe and records the readings. APPARATUS: (a) meter stick (b) two pipes of different energy potentials (c) pressure – gage meter PROCEDURE: 1. Open slowly the gate valve. Remove the presence of any air bubbles inside the plastic tubing. the difference in pressure at two points inpipeline or between two pipes is desired without necessarily knowing thepressure in either one of the pipe. 3. Perform three trials. Explain the importance of the property / theory under investigation to the study of fluid mechanics. This can create error in the computation of the difference in pressure between pipes. ANALYSIS: 1. 2. PRECAUTIONS: 1. 2. Measure the differences in elevation between the centerlines of the two pipes. 2.

.EXPERIMENT #5 DETERMINATION OF HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE ON A SUBMERGED SURFACE INTRODUCTION: Figure 5. When the device is properly balanced the face of the sector that is not attached to the beam is directly below (coplanar) with the pivot axis. As a resultWL is equal to the moment due to the hydrostatic force F acting on the vertical plane surface AB. Figure 3. Thedepth of the centroid below the surface of the water is h. When the water level is as shown in the figure.2 shows the submerged surface viewed from the left side of the tank in Figure 3.1.The counterweight is adjusted so that the beam is horizontal when there is no water in the tankand no weight in the pan.1 is a sketch of the device used to measure the center of pressure on a submerged vertical surface. (a) (b) Figure 5. The x-y coordinate system has its originat the centroid. §2. The solid sector and the balance beam is supported above a tank of0020water.BS and AT. Since BS and AT are concentric cylindrical surfaces with the common axis passingthrough O. 11 | D e p a r t m e n t o f C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g . y R.1 (a) Apparatus for measuring the location of the center of pressure. The y-direction position of the center of pressure.1. The location of the center of pressure can be measured using the apparatus sketched in Figure 5.8) Where Ixc is the moment of inertia of the surface about the x-axis. When the tank is filled with water the unbalanced hydrostatic forcecauses the beam to tilt. (b) Detailed nomenclature for locating the center of pressure. Adding weight W to the pan at a distance L from the pivot O exertsa moment WL that counterbalances the resultant moment due to the hydrostatic forces on thequarter-annulus-shaped body ABPQ. It consists of an annular sector of solid material attached to a balance beam. and A is the surface area. there are hydrostatic forces on surfaces AB. is (Munson et al. the hydrostatic forces on BS and AT do not exert any moment about O.

Add weights to the pan to restore the beam to a horizontal position. For that data point. Add water up to some level.m. During the lab you will use at least four water levels. 5. Adjust the counterweight so that the balance the beam is horizontal with no water in thetank.Measure H. Discuss the theory pertinent to the experiment performed. 2.In this experiment the force F is not measured. how much of a changein the measured yR would be caused by an error of 10 grams in the weight measurement? 12 | D e p a r t m e n t o f C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g . Instead the theoretical value F =ghA isassumed. ANALYSIS: 1. Make suresome water levels leave part of the vertical face exposed. Balancing the moments about O gives WL=F (H + y R) Substituting F = ghA and solving for yR yields WL yR = −H ρghA OBJECTIVE:  To determine the hydrostatic pressure on a submerged surface. 2. How does the design of the apparatus enable the resultant force on the vertical surface to bemeasured? Are any significant forces being neglected? Does the section of the vertical surfacethat is above the water surface contribute any error to the measurement? 4. where h is the depth of the centroid of the surface. APPARATUS: (a) hydrostatic pressure apparatus (b) weights (c) scale ruler PROCEDURES: 1. Explain the importance of the property / theory under investigation to the studyof fluid mechanics.th and compare to yR. 3. Calculate yR. Record the weight. If the values are not reasonably close. Compare the experimental and theoretical values of yR and explain any discrepancy. Return to step 2 and repeat the measurements using at least three other water levels. check yourmeasurement procedure. Pick onepoint in the middle of the range of measurements. 6. 4. Measure and record h. 3. The moment due to F is measuredand the theoretical value of F is used to compute the location of the center of pressure.

5. Observe the angle indicator reading from the normal position and the titled position. The sliding weight scan be fixed in any positions using knurled screws.EXPERIMENT #6 DETERMINATION OF METACENTRIC HEIGHT OF A FLOATING BODY OBJECTIVES:  To determine the metacentric height of a floating body  To illustrate the relationship of the metacentric height of a floating body and its stability. Observe and record the inclination or tilt. APPARATUS: (a) metacentric height apparatus The unit shown inFigure6. Figure 6. 7. Observe and record the offset from the center or the angle of inclination or tilt. Move again the load a quarter distance or place it three – four distance from the centre going to the edge.1 Different parts of experimental apparatus (b) Weight (c) Basin of water PROCEDURE: 1. 6. Measure the dimensions of the scow. 3. DISCUSSION: 13 | D e p a r t m e n t o f C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g . Make sure that the plumb line is vertical. Measure the depth of floatation of the block in water for the different magnitude of load. 2. Determine the weight of the scow together with the set of weight. The rectangular pontoon is fitted with a vertical sliding weight (2) which permits adjustment of the height of the centre of gravity and a horizontal sliding weight (3) that generates a defined tilting moment. A heel indicator (7) is also available for measuring the heel angle. Move the load in a quarter distance going to the centre edge of the block. 4. Repeat the procedure for two more trials. The positions (4.1 consists of a pontoon (1) and a water tank as float vessel. 5) of the sliding weights and the draught (6) of the pontoon can be measured using the scales.

Discuss the theory pertinent to the experiment performed. 5.1. Derive and measure the buoyancy force exerted to the experimental setup when the vertical weight is at the bottom and the horizontal weight is at the center. 2. What will happen if the center of gravity and the center of buoyancy of a floating object are the same? 4. Sample Data Sheet No. 3. Explain the importance of the property / theory under investigation to the study fluid mechanics. When and why will the floating object become unstable? Compare theoretical expectations to your lab observations and discuss any differences. of Observation Displacement of weight Angle of Rotation R 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14 | D e p a r t m e n t o f C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g CM L .

Diff.78 cm D2Diameter of throat: 1. Determine the difference in pressure between the inlet and throat using the pressure gage meters.98 cm Trial No. 5. The procedure is repeated using different discharges by regulating the supply valve. Measure the diameter of the inlet of the venturimeter. 4.EXPERIMENT #7 DETERMINATION OF COEFFICIENT OF DISCHARGE OF A VENTURIMETER OBJECTIVES: To determine the coefficient of discharge of a given venturimeter APPARATUS: (a) (b) (c) (d) venturimeter manometer measuring tank stop watch PROCEDURE: 1. 3. The time is determined with the help of a stopwatch. The liquid is collected. The diameter for the throat is given below. The observations are taken when the flow becomessteady. Open the supply valve. in Volume 15 | D e p a r t m e n t o f C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g Time Discharge Cd . 2. DRAWING Figure 7.1 Ideal Conditions in a Venturi meter OBSERVATIONS: D1 Diameter of inlet: 3.

Pressure (P1 – P2) Average Cd = _________________________ Formula to be used: Where: Q = volume flux AA and AB = cross sectional areas hAand hB= heights in the piezometer tubes DISCUSSION: 1. 16 | D e p a r t m e n t o f C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g (Q) . Discuss the theory pertinent to the experiment performed.

Flow in an orifice can either be discharge into free air or through a submerged orifice. The discharge in a submerged orifice is given by: Q a=CA √ 2 g (h1−h2) Where: Qa = actual discharge collected C = coefficient of discharge of the submerged orifice ( h1−h2 ) = difference in water level at the upstream and downstream A = area of the orifice OBJECTIVES:  To determine the coefficient of discharge C of a submerged orifice APPARATUS: (a) flume (b) orifice (c) measuring tank (d) caliper (e) stopwatch PROCEDURE: 1. or rectangular. Orifices may have any shape. 3. 8. Measure the diameter of the orifice. although they are usually round. The observations are taken when the difference in water level is already constant. 2. Open the supply valve. a set-up with a submerged office is to be used. Explain the importance of the property/theory under investigation to the study fluid mechanics.EXPERIMENT #8 DETERMINATION OF COEFFICIENT OF DISCHARGE OF A SUBMERGED ORIFICE INTRODUCTION: Fig. For this experiment.1 Wholly submerged orifice An orifice is an opening with a closed perimeter through which water flows.2. 17 | D e p a r t m e n t o f C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g . Install the plate with the orifice across the flume. square.

Measure the difference in water level. Specific gravity of water must nearly equal to 1. which is obtained by regulating the supply valve. OBSERVATIONS: Diameter of orifice d = ____________________ cm Trial No. 18 | D e p a r t m e n t o f C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g . 2. Record the time. 3. The liquid is collected in the measuring tank. h1 h2 h1 – h2 Volume Time Q C Average value of C PRECAUTIONS: 1.0 if not it should be measured by a hydrometer in case there are water impurities. Discuss the theory pertinent to the experiment performed. The volume is taken by volume on a scale indicator installed at the side of the collecting tank. Stopwatch should be operated instantaneously with the volume reading in the tank. 4. Choose the appropriate size of the orifice such that for a certain discharge it will create a noticeable difference in head. which is taken simultaneously with the collection of water. 6. The procedure is repeated for different discharges. ANALYSIS: 1. Explain the importance of the property/theory under investigation to the study of fluid mechanics. 5. There should be no seepage of water along the sides of the walls of the channel.4. 2.

). Retrieved 21 05. from http://www. 2015.d. from http://www. 2015.php (n. 2015.ca/~mbahrami/ENSC %20283/Lab/Buoyancy%20and%20Stability%20of%20a%20Floating %20Body. Retrieved May 21. from http://www. Retrieved May 21.pdf 19 | D e p a r t m e n t o f C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g .d.pdx.com/library/engineering/fluid_mechanics/orifice/geometr y/submerged-orifice.d.REFERENCES (n.).d.edu/~gerry/class/EAS361/lab/pdf/lab3_hydrostatics.codecogs.).pdf (n.com/u-tubemanometer-d_611.cecs. 2015.html (n.engineeringtoolbox. from web. Retrieved May 20.sfu.).