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**The Prandtl number
**

is a dimensionless number that is defined as the ratio of

momentum diffusivity (kinematic viscosity) to thermal diffusivity. It is named

after the German physicist Ludwig Prandtl.

It is defined as:

where:

: kinematic viscosity,

: thermal diffusivity,

: dynamic viscosity, (SI units : Pa s = N s/m2

, (SI units : m2/s)

, (SI units : m2/s)

: thermal conductivity, (SI units : W/(m K) )

: specific heat, (SI units : J/(kg K) )

: density, (SI units : kg/m3 ).

Grashof’s Number :

The Grashof number (Gr) is a dimensionless number in fluid

dynamics and heat transfer which approximates the ratio of

the buoyancy to viscous force acting on a fluid. It frequently arises in the study

of situations involving natural convection. It is named after the German

engineer Franz Grashof.

for vertical flat plates

for pipes

for bluff bodies

In this context. where T is absolute temperature) Ts = surface temperature . which describes the relationship between momentum diffusivity and thermal diffusivity. Named after Wilhelm Nusselt. convection includes both advection and diffusion. Hence the Rayleigh number itself may also be viewed as the ratio of buoyancy and viscosity forces times the ratio of momentum and thermal diffusivities. ν = kinematic viscosity The transition to turbulent flow occurs in the range for natural convection from vertical flat plates. Raleigh’s number: The Rayleigh number is named after Lord Rayleigh and is defined as the product of the Grashof number. At higher Grashof numbers. for ideal fluids. which describes the relationship between buoyancy and viscosity within a fluid. . it is a dimensionless number.where the L and D subscripts indicate the length scale basis for the Grashof Number. T∞ = bulk temperature L = characteristic length D = diameter . the Nusselt number (Nu) is the ratio of convective to conductive heat transfer across (normal to) the boundary. Nusset’s Number: In heat transfer at a boundary (surface) within a fluid. the boundary layer is laminar. at lower Grashof numbers. and the Prandtl number. g = acceleration due to Earth's gravity β = volumetric thermal expansion coefficient (equal to approximately 1/T. the boundary layer is turbulent.

it is defined as: . for ideal gases. the Peclet number is equivalent to the product of the Reynolds number and the Prandtl number. In the context of species or mass transfer. the distance from the leading edge) Rax = Rayleigh number at position x Grx = Grashof number at position x Pr = Prandtl number g = acceleration due to gravity Ts = Surface temperature (temperature of the wall) T∞ = Quiescent temperature (fluid temperature far from the surface of the object) ν = Kinematic viscosity α = Thermal diffusivity β = Thermal expansion coefficient (equals to 1/T.where x = Characteristic length (in this case. In the context of the transport of heat. the Péclet number is the product of the Reynolds number and the Schmidt number. It is named after the French physicist Jean Claude Eugène Péclet. The Péclet number is defined as: For diffusion of matter (mass diffusion). It is defined to be the ratio of the rate of advection of a physical quantity by the flow to the rate of diffusion of the same quantity driven by an appropriate gradient. where T is absolute temperature) Péclet number (Pe) The Péclet number (Pe)is a dimensionless number relevant in the study of transport phenomena in fluid flows.

and α the thermal diffusivity. where k is the thermal conductivity.For diffusion of heat (thermal diffusion). the Péclet number is defined as: where L is the characteristic length. D the mass diffusion coefficient. U the velocity. PNR enquiry . and cp the heat capacity. ρ the density.

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