Presentation by

ANISHA-K
3rd Semester MCA

Contents
Introduction
Types of Night Vision
Night Vision approaches
Night Vision Devices
Working of Night Vision Devices
Parts of Night Vision Devices
Generations
Advantages
Disadvantages
Applications
Future scope
Conclusion
References

Introduction

Night vision technology allows one to see in the
dark.

It is originally developed for military use.

In other words we can say that Night vision
technology is a type of image processing where
we get to see images in the dark.

With the proper night vision equipment we can
see a person standing over 200 yards(183
meters) away on a moonless cloudy night.

It is quite easy to see everything
during the day…….

But at night, we can see
little.

Night Vision device lets us see again

Types of Night Vision  Be it biological or technical it based on two Night vision approaches:  Spectral range  Intensity range  Depending upon the way it is implemented it is broadly classified into two types  Biological Night Vision  Technical Night Vision .

Some animals can see well into the infrared and/or ultraviolet compared to humans enough to help them see in conditions human cannot.Night Vision Approaches  Spectral range: Night-useful spectral range techniques make the viewer sensitive to types of light that would be invisible to a human observer. Human vision is confined to a small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum called visible light. Enhanced spectral range allows the viewer to take advantage of non-visible sources of electromagnetic radiation. .

Many animals have better night vision than humans do. in theory. or other very low-noise and highintensity array of photo detectors. Intensity range Sufficient intensity range is simply the ability to see with very small quantities of light. . the neurological noise filters limit sensitivity to a few tens of photons even in ideal conditions. Enhanced intensity range is achieved via technological means through the use of an image intensifier. Although the human visual system can. detect single photons under ideal conditions.

 Why do NVD devices always show images in hues off green? The image is green because the phosphor is green in colour that is good for human eye to pick up detail. .

A tank from World war II equipped with a search light used for night combat .

 They are most often used by the military and law enforcement agencies. .  The figure shows night vision goggle.Night Vision Devices  A night vision device (NVD) is an optical instrument that allows images to be produced in levels of light approaching total darkness. but are available to civilian users.

Night Vision Devices (contd….)  Night vision devices are basically divided into four categories:  Scopes  Goggles  Cameras  Contact Lenses .

SCOPES  Normally handheld or mounted on a weapon scopes are monocular (one eye-piece). .  It is good for when you want to get a better look at a specific object and then return to normal viewing conditions.

such as moving around in a dark building. depending on the model. they are most often worn on the head.GOGGLES  While goggles can be handheld.  Goggles are binocular (two eye-pieces) and may have a single lens or stereo lens. .  Goggles are excellent for constant viewing.

 When night-vision capability is desired in a permanent location.CAMERAS  Cameras with night vision technology can send the image to a monitor for display. such as on a building. .

.CONTACT LENSES  Night vision contact lenses allow a person to see clearly in low light environments by enhancing ambient light up to 200 percent.

An AN/PVS-14 is a monocular night vision device in use with the US military as well as by civilians.EXAMPLES: 1. It may be mounted on the user’s head for handsfree use with a harness or helmet attachment. .

 Another example is binoculars night vision device. or binoculars (also known as field glasses). . allowing the viewer to use both eyes (binocular vision) when viewing distant objects.  Binocular telescopes.2.are two identical or mirror-symmetrical telescopes mounted side-by-side and aligned to point accurately in the same direction.

Another example is monocular situated on the gun. The figure shows this type of night vision devices .3.

Working of Night Vision Devices  Night vision technology consists of two major types:  Image intensification (light amplification) and  Thermal imaging (infrared) .

 It is less expensive than thermal.  It takes the small amount of light such as moonlight or starlight.IMAGE INTENSIFICATION  It is also called light amplification. . into electrical energy (electrons). that is in the surrounding area and converts the light energy (scientists call it photons).

As the electrons travel through and strike the walls of the channels. . These multiplied electrons then bounce off of a phosphor screen which converts the electrons back into photons and lets you see an impressive night time view even when it’s really dark. This electrons pass through a thin disk that’s about the size o a quarter and contains over 10 million channels. thousands more electrons are released.

All images intensified night vision products on the market today have one thing in common: they produce a green output image .

Parts of Night Vision Device  Image intensifier tube  Phosphor screen  Objective lens  Infrared illuminator .

 The pattern created is translated into electric impulses. .THERMAL IMAGING All objects emit infrared energy as a function of their temperature.  The focused light is scanned and create temperature pattern.  A lens focuses the infrared light.

 The impulses are sent to a circuit board that translates the information into data for the display. where it appears as various colors depending on the intensity of infrared emission. .  The signal processing unit sends the information to the display.

Thermal imaging process .

.  Some thermal cameras show images in color. Thermal images are normally black and white in nature. This false color distinguishes between objects at different temperatures. where black objects are cold and white objects are hot.

2.  Infrared-detector elements are sealed inside a container that cools them to below 32 F.  Bulky in size. . Un-cooled Infrared Detector:  Common type  The infrared-detector elements are contained in a unit that operates at room temperature.Types of Thermal imaging detectors 1. Cooled Infrared Detector:  Expensive and susceptible to damage.  Cooled systems can see a distance more than 1000 ft (300m) away.

Generations .

Generation-0  Created by US Army  Uses active infrared  A projection unit called IR illuminator is attached with NVD  Use anode in conjunction with cathode to accelerate the electrons  Problems: acceleration causes distortion of image and reduction of the life of the tube  Duplicated by the hostile nations .

Generation-1  Uses passive infrared  Uses ambient light provided by the moon and stars  Doesn’t require a source of projected infrared light  Doesn’t work well on cloudy or moonless nights  Uses same image-intensifier tube technology as Generation-0  Same problems as faced by the Generation-0 .

Generation-2  Offer improved resolution and performance over Generation-1 devices.  Considerably more reliable.  The images are less distorted and brighter. .  Able to see in extreme low light conditions due to the addition of micro channel plate(MCP) to the image-intensifier tube.

 Better resolution and sensitivity.  Tube life is increased.  Photocathode is made up of Gallium Arsenide efficient of converting photons to electrons.Generation-3  Currently used by the US Army.  MCP is coated with an ion barrier. .

 Enhances signal to noise ratio.  Non ion barrier in MCP.  Shows significant improvement in both high and low level light environments.  Images are less distorted and brighter. .Generation-4  Known as filmless and gated technology.  Reduced background noise.

 The larger the object the easier it is to see.  Second. The more ambient light we have the better and further we will be able to see. .How far we can see??  There are many different variables that can effect the distance that we see with a night vision device. another variable is lighting condition.  First which object we want to see.

 If there is ambient light then we can see about 500 yards. If it is cloudy and overcast then we typically state that we can tell the difference between a male and a female or a dog and a deer at about 75 to 100 yards. .

.  High speed imaging capability.Advantages  High sensitivity in low light.  Able to detect people and vehicles at great distances.  Eliminates shadows and reveal identifying lettering numbers and objects.

night vision images gets partially or completely distorted. × Blooming (state of reflectiveness). .Disadvantages × You can get blind if you look at something bright. × Optical distortion during manufacturing.

Applications o o o o o o o o o Military Hunting Wildlife observation Surveillance Security Navigation Hidden object detection Entertainment Automobiles .

 Scientists are experimenting with Panoramic Night Vision Goggles(PNVGs) which double the user’s field of view to around 95 degrees by using 16mm image intensifiers tubes rather than the more standard two 18mm tubes.Future scope  Future night vision goggles are being designed not just to see at night but also to allow soldiers to share images of what they see with other soldiers who may be miles away. And lets hope that more and more advancements will be made in the field of night vision technologies. .

 In the present scenario the applications of night vision technology is very essential to combat terrorism which is a major problem being faced by mankind.Conclusion  Today in the 21st century we have come a long way in the development of night vision technology. .  Night vision devices are basically designed for utmost defensive purposes. from the early 1950’s.

References  www.wikipedia.com .com/about/how-thermalimaging-works/  www.infrared.org/wiki/Night_Vision_Device  http://morovision.