International Journal of Environment, Ecology

,
Family and Urban Studies (IJEEFUS)
ISSN(P): 2250-0065; ISSN(E): 2321-0109
Vol. 6, Issue 4, Aug 2016, 15-24
© TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.

SYSTEMATIC ENUMERATION OF WOODY PLANT IN
AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS AT LOWER HILLS OF MELGHAT REGION,
CHIKHALDARA TEHSIL
SANJAY BHOYAR1, H. K. DESHMUKH2, NAVIN SHARMA3,
BABITA BOHRA4, R. V. MAHAJAN 5 & D. N. NALGE6
1,2,5,6

Agro Product Development Research Centre, Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola, Maharashtra, India
3,4

World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi, Kenya

ABSTRACT
The present research paper deals with enumeration and systematic survey of tree component in agroforestry
systems found at foot hills of Chikhaldara tehsil, Melghat region, Maharashtra State, India, carried out during
2014-16. The study is based on interview methods and extensive and intensive field survey of the tree components in
agroforestry of the region using questionnaire and observations in field. Total 89 plant species belonging to 76 genera
and 33 families were recorded in the agroforestry systems found in lower hills of Melghat region. Out of 89 species,

05 species (5.61%) with 2 families and 4 genera. Total 72 trees and woody perennials are recorded in the agroforestry
systems of study area. The farmers are practicing 07 different types of agroforestry systems in project area namely;
Boundary plantation, Bund plantation, Agrihorticulture system, Agrisilviculture with scattered plantation, planting
near water sources, Homestead and Poultry based agroforestry practices. Location wise it is observed that 7 different
locations at homestead, 4 locations at community land and 5 different locations on the farms were observed where

Original Article

di-cotyledons represented 84 (94.38%) species with 31 families and 72 genera, whereas, monocotyledons represented by

farmers use to plant the trees.
KEYWORDS: Agroforestry Systems, Melghat Forest, Vegetation Survey

Received: Jul 01, 2016; Accepted: Jul 28, 2016; Published: Aug 03, 2016; Paper Id.: IJEEFUSAUG20163

INTRODUCTION
Floral diversity is necessary for human survival and economic wellbeing as it provides food, medicine,
industrial raw material and offers potential for providing many yet unknown benefits to future generation. Forests
of India are most important natural resources for the sustenance of human kind since time immemorial. It play
vital role in environmental conservation and support to land based production systems, besides meeting the
demand of forest produce. It can say rightly that the plants can live in the absence of human beings but the
existence of the man without plants is beyond imagination. Cultivation of tree species in association with the
agriculture crops is an age old practice but the use of term agroforestry to it is quite recent (Tewari, 1995). India
has a long tradition of agroforestry. Farmers and landowners in different part of country integrate a variety of
woody perennials in their crops and livestock production depending upon the agro-climatic conditions and local
needs (Mughal and Bhattacharya, 2002). The product and services provided by the agroforestry are many. This
dynamic and ecologically based natural system management aims at diversifying social, economic and
environmental benefits on the sustainable basis. Now a days this system has gained the attention of researchers
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editor@tjprc.org

16

Sanjay Bhoyar, H.K Deshmukh, Navin Sharma,
Babita Bohra , R.V Mahajan & D. N. Nalge

and planners because of its potential in discharging multiple ecosystem services apart from giving livelihood security to the
rural poor (Behera and Dhir, 2013). Agro forestry solutions are often location specific in their relevance, performance and
farmers acceptability ( Pattanayak et al 2005).
The Melghat is a vast forested tract spread over two tehsils of Amravati district of Maharashtra namely;
Chikhaldara and Dharni. The inhabitants are mainly tribal, largely of the Korku tribe (80 per cent) and others like Gond,
Nihal, Balai, Gaolan, Gawali, Halbi, Wanjari, etc. All inhabitants depend on the forest for bonafide domestic needs of
firewood, timber, fodder, medicinal plants, and non-timber forest products like fruit, flowers, gum and medicinal plants.
Their main source of income is from labor and rainy season agriculture. Unfortunately no such effort has been made to
explore, identify, document the trees components in agroforestry in systematic way and improve the agroforestry in tribal
area of Melghat region of Maharashtra. The systematic enumeration of the trees and woody components found in the
agroforestry systems and its documentation will help to decide on the choice of the species of local importance for the
agroforestry and also will help in building the knowledge treasure of the science of agroforestry. It may also help in
implementing some of the most promising agroforestry models directly on the farmers field in the study area, beside future
planning of agroforestry research. Therefore, it is essential to prepare systematic of the trees and woody perennials in
agroforestry is required to assess the present situation and strategies to introduce the potential best agroforestry model for
the future plan. Looking to the significance of the problem, present study was conducted for systematic enumeration of the
tree and woody components in the existing agroforestry systems practiced by farmers in lower hills of Melghat region of
Maharashtra.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
The present study was carried out in cluster of four villages namely; Dharamdoh, Bahardarpur, Ruiphata and Satti
located at lower hills of Melghat region, Chikhaldara tehsil, Amravati district, Maharashtra State, India. The villages
Dharamdoh lies between latitude 21.305410 N and longitude 77.311872E, Bahardarpur lies between lattitude 21.295545 N
and longitude 77.305184 E, Satti and Ruiphatalies between latitude 21.284150 N and longitude 77.272652 E. The forest is
tropical dry deciduous in nature, dominated by Tectona grandis. The Reserve is a catchment area for five major rivers: the
Khandu, Khapra, Sipna, Gadga and Dolar, all of which are tributaries of the river Tapti. The Melghat area was declared a
Tiger Reserve in 1974. Presently, the total area of the Reserve is around 1677 km2. There are no villages in the core area.

Figure 1: Location of Study Area

Impact Factor (JCC): 3.7216

Naas Rating: 3.63

Systematic Enumeration of Woody Plant in Agroforestry Systems at
Lower Hills of Melghat Region Chikhaldara Tehsil, Maharashtra, India

17

The area shows considerable variation in climate especially in summer’s temperature. The annual temperature of
the study area varies between 120C to 430C and the highest summer temperature is about 48 0C, while the mean annual
rainfall ranges between 750 mm to 1150 mm. The bulk of the rainfall is received from south –west monsoon, which
usually breaks in the latter half of June. It continues for three months and usually ends in the latter half of September.

METHODS OF SAMPLING
For conducting the present study field survey, complete enumeration and exploratory design of social research has
been used. Four villages namely; Dharamdoh, Bahadarpur, Ruiphata and Satti were randomly selected for present study. A
list of the 439 respondents was collected from Grampanchyat office of village. The data was collected with 100 percent
sampling size from the respondent and the information was collected by questionnaire methods, informal interview,
personal interview of the respondent at home, farm and institution on the various aspect related to objective, participatory
rural appraisal, transect walk along with farmers and personal observation.
In agroforestry survey the data of the tree and woody perennial was collected through survey of individual farms
of the farmers and observation by researchers. The data of an area over 1963.8 ha was collected carefully examined before
tabulation and simple statistical tools were used.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
The systematic enumeration of plants species found in agroforestry systems in study area is presented in Table 1.
Table 1: Systematic Enumeration of Plant Species found in Agroforestry System in Study Area
Species
84

Genera
72

Families
31

Monocot

05

04

02

Total

89

76

33

Dicot

Total 89 plant species belonging to 76 genera and 33 families were recorded in project area. The species in the
project during survey was enumerated systematically according to Bentham and Hookers systems of classification. Out of
89 species, di-cotyledons represented 84 (94.38%) species with 31 families and 72 genera, whereas monocotyledons
represented by 05 species (5.61%) with 2 families and 4 genera. In study di-cotyledon species constitute 94.38% and
monocotyledon species constitutes 5.61% shown in Figure 1. Similar type of work was done by Brandis (1906), Rao and
Razi ( 1981), Manilal ( 1988), Uniyal and Rao ( 1993), Shital Ramdas Thakare (2014) and Kar, A et al (2015).

Figure 2: Status of Docotyledons and Monocotyledons
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editor@tjprc.org

18

Sanjay Bhoyar, H.K Deshmukh, Navin Sharma,
Babita Bohra , R.V Mahajan & D. N. Nalge

Table 2: Economic Utility of the Plant Species in Agroforestry
Systems at Lower Hills of Melghat Region Study Area
S.
N
o
1
2
3
4
5

6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

17

18
19
20
21

Name of
Species
Tectona
grandis
Azadirach
ta indica
Anogeissu
s latifolia
Emblica
officinalis
Ziziphus
mourintia
na
Ficus
beghalens
is
Ficus
religiosa
Ficus
glomerata
Ficus
infectoria
Dalbergia
paniculat
a
Bouhinia
recemosa
Lannnea
grandis
Madhuca
latifolia
Termenali
a
bellarica
Wrightia
tinctroria
Morinda
citrifolia
Chloroxyl
on
swienteni
a
Ailanthus
excels
Annona
squamosa
l
Mangifera
indica
Butea
monosper
ma

Vegeta
ble

Oil
see
d

Religiou
s
Importa
nt/
Worship

Orna
ment
al

Fen
cin
g

Med
icina
l

-

-

-

+

+

+

+

+

+

-

+

+

+

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+

+

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+

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-

+

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+

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+

+

+

+

+

-

-

+

+

-

-

+

-

+

+

-

-

-

-

-

+

-

Fuel
woo
d

Fo
dder

Agricultu
ralImple
ments

Furnitu
re

Frui
ts

+

-

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Impact Factor (JCC): 3.7216

Naas Rating: 3.63

Systematic Enumeration of Woody Plant in Agroforestry Systems at
Lower Hills of Melghat Region Chikhaldara Tehsil, Maharashtra, India

19

Table 2: Contd.,
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32

33

34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48

Moringa
oleifera
Citrus
sinensis
Psidium
gujuava
Melia
azadirach
Albizia
lebbeck
Mitragnya
parvifolia
Tamarind
us indica
Schleinch
era oleosa
Poswellia
strrata
Termeneli
a arjuna
Buchanan
ia lanzan
Semecarp
us
anacardiu
m
Termeneli
a alata
Annona
reticulate
Bombax
cieba
Cassia
fistula
Aegle
marmelos
Ougeinia
dalbergioi
des
Syzygiun
cumini
Eucalyptu
s obligua
Vachellia
nilotica
Pomgami
a pinata
Diospyros
melanoxyl
on
Phanera
variegata
Gimelina
pinata
Prunus
dulcis
Terminalia chebula

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-

+

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-

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+

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+

editor@tjprc.org

20

Sanjay Bhoyar, H.K Deshmukh, Navin Sharma,
Babita Bohra , R.V Mahajan & D. N. Nalge

Table 2: Contd.,
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65

66

67
68
69
70
71
72

Erithrina
indica
Acatia
leucophlo
ea
Nerium
olender
Calotropi
s giganta
Punica
granatum
Vitex
nigundo
Lantana
camara
Citrus
aurientifol
ia
Carica
papaya
Jatropha
curcus
Michelia
champaca
Delonix
regia
Ricinus
communis
Musa
paradesic
a
Rosa
indica
Bambusa
Caesalpin
ia
seplaria
Symphore
ma
involeratu
m
Tabernam
ontana
coronaria
Occium
sanctum
Hibiscus
rosasinen
sis
Murraya
koengii
Sesbania
grandiflor
a
Carissa
carandas

-

-

-

-

-

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Impact Factor (JCC): 3.7216

Naas Rating: 3.63

Systematic Enumeration of Woody Plant in Agroforestry Systems at
Lower Hills of Melghat Region Chikhaldara Tehsil, Maharashtra, India

21

The data on economic utility of the plant species found in agroforestry systems at lower hills of Melghat given
Table 2. Total 72 trees and woody perennials are recorded in agroforestry systems of lower hills of Melghat region of
Maharashtra. It includes wide range of multipurpose trees species categories based on economic utility of trees namely:
fuel wood, fodder, fencing, medicinal, ornamental, fruit, religious value, timber, oilseeds and vegetable crops
Table 3: Number of Species and their Utilization in Agroforestry Systems in Study Area
Sr. No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Utilization of Species
Fuel wood
Fodder
Agriculture implements
Furniture
Fruits
Vegetables trees
Oilseeds
Religious important / Worship
Ornamental
Fencing
Medicinal value

Number of Species
36
32
18
13
25
06
10
20
26
30
26

The data on the classification of the species based on utilization is presented in Table 3. It is observed from the
data that, on the basis of utilization the species are classified under eleven categories. Out of which maximum numbers of
species are fuel wood (36 nos.), followed by fodder (32), fencing (30), medicinal and ornamental (26 nos.), fruits (25 nos.),
religious value (20 nos.), Argil. Implements (18 nos.), furniture (13 nos.), Oilseeds (10 nos.), whereas minimum i.e. 06
Nos. of species were recorded as vegetables trees crops. Similar kind of work was done by Chauhan (1995), Chauhan
(1984), Hande et al (2014) and Kar, A. et al.2015.
The data pertaining on prominent agroforestry practices followed by the farmers in Lower platue of Chikhaldara
tehsil, Maharashtra State are given in Table 3.
Table 3: Components of Existing Agroforestry Systems of Project Area
Sr. No.

Existing Agroforestry
Systems

1.

a. Tectona grandis based

b. Wrightia tinctoria based

c. Mixed tree species boundary
plantation
2.

a. Tectona grandis based

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Agroforestry Components
Boundary Plantation
Tree components: Major tree - Tectona grandis,
Other tree spp: Butea monosperma/ Wrightia tinctoria/ Terminalia bellirica/ Diospyros
melanoxylon/ Ailanthus excelsa/ +
Agriculture components: Kharif: Soybean/ Ground nut/ Sorghum/ Pigeon pea/ Cotton/
Greengram/ Blackgram/Til/ Sunflower +
Vegetable: Capsicum annum / Solanum melongena
Tree components: Major tree - Wrightia tinctoria
Other tree spp: Butea monosperma, Azadirachta indica, Ailanthus excelsa +
Agriculture components: Kharif: Soybean/ Ground nut/ Sorghum/ Pigeon pea/ Cotton/
Greengram/ Blackgram/Sunflower +
Vegetable: Capsicum annum
Tree components: Mixed treespp: Tectona grandis, Wrightia tinctoria, Butea monosperma,
Azadirachta indica, Ailanthus excelsa, Diospyros melanoxylon, +
Agriculture components: Kharif: Soybean/ Ground nut/ Sorghum/ Pigeon pea/ Cotton/
Greengram/ Blackgram/ Sunflower/Til +
Vegetable: Capsicum annum
Bund Plantation
Tree components: Major tree - Tectona grandis,
Other tree spp: Butea monosperma, Azadirachta indica +
Agriculture components: Kharif: Soybean/ Ground nut/ Sorghum/ Pigeon pea/ Cotton/
Greengram/ Blackgram/ Sunflower +
Vegetable: Capsicum annum /Solanum melongena
editor@tjprc.org

22

Sanjay Bhoyar, H.K Deshmukh, Navin Sharma,
Babita Bohra , R.V Mahajan & D. N. Nalge

Table 3: Contd.,
b. Azadirachta indica based

c. Buchanania lanzan nuts based

d. Ailanthus based

e. Semecarpus anacardium based

f. Mixed tree species based bund
plantation
3.
a. Citrus based Agrihorticulture
systems
b. Mangifera indica
Agrihorticulture systems

based

c. Psidium guajava
Agrihorticulture systems

based

4.

5.
6.

7.

Agri-silviculture with
scattered plantation
Planting near water
source
Poultry
based
agroforestry practice

Homestead

Tree components: Major tree - Azadirachta indica +
Agriculture components: Kharif: Soybean/ Ground nut/ Sorghum/ Pigeon pea/ Cotton/
Greengram/ Blackgram/ Sunflower +
Vegetable: Capsicum annum
Tree components: Major tree – Buchanania lanzan
Other tree spp: Butea monosperma +
Agriculture components: Kharif: Soybean/ Ground nut/ Sorghum/ Pigeon pea/ Cotton/
Greengram/ Blackgram/ Sunflower +
Vegetable: Capsicum annum
Tree components: Major tree – Ailanthus excels
Other tree spp: Wrightia tinctoria +
Agriculture components: Kharif: Soybean/ Ground nut/ Sorghum/ Pigeon pea/ Cotton/ Green
gram/ Black gram/ Sunflower +
Vegetable: Capsicum annum
Tree components: Major tree – Semecarpus anacardium
Other tree spp: Acacia louocophloea, +
Agriculture components: Kharif: Soybean/ Ground nut/ Sorghum/ Pigeon pea/ Cotton/
Greengram/ Blackgram/ Sunflower +
Vegetable: Capsicum annum
Tree components: Mixed tree –Tectona grandis, Azadirachta indica, Buchanania lanzan,
Semecarpus anacardium, Butea monosperma, Ailanthus excelsa, Wrightia tinctoria, +
Agriculture components: Kharif: Soybean/ Ground nut/ Sorghum/ Pigeon pea/ Cotton/
Greengram/ Blackgram/ Sunflower +
Vegetable: Capsicum annum
Agrihorticulture Systems
Fruit Tree components: Citrus aurantium +
Agriculture components: Kharif: Soybean/ Ground nut/ Paddy /Til +
Vegetable: Capsicum annum
Fruit Tree components: Mangifera indica +
Agriculture components: Kharif: Soybean/ Ground nut/ Paddy / Sorghum/Pigeon pea/
+Vegetable: Capsicum annum
Fruit Tree components: Psidium guajava +
Agriculture components: Kharif: Soybean/ Ground nut/ Sorghum/Pigeon pea/ Sunflower +
Vegetable: Capsicum annum
Tree components: Mixed tree – Madhuka latifolia/ Mangifera indica/ Umbar/ Ficus
benghalensis/ Tectona grandis/ Azadirachta indica/ Butea monosperma / Ailanthus excelsa +
Agriculture components: Kharif: Soybean/ Ground nut/ Sorghum/ Pigeon pea/ Cotton/
Greengram/ Blackgram/ Matki/ Sunflower/Til +
Vegetable: Capsicum annum / Solanum melongena/ Phaseolus vulgaris /
Tree components: Mixed tree – Madhuka latifolia/ Butea monosperma / Tectona grandis/
Bihada/ Pimri/ Ficus benghalensis/ Psidium guajava/ Terminalia arjuna/ Carica papaya.
Agriculture component: Soybean/ Pigeon pea/ Groundnut/ Sorghum/ +
Poultry component: Rearing of Indigenous breed of poultry
Tree components: Mixed tree – Pongamia pinnata/ Butea monosperma /Azadirachta indica/
Bauhinia purpurea/ Bhingri/ Ficus benghalensis/ Ficus religiosa/Sesbania grandiflora/ Albizia
saman/ +
Fruit crops component: Annona reticulata/ Punica granatum/ Psidium guajava/Carica papaya/
Musa paradisiaca /Murraya koenigii/ Citrus lemon/ Syzygium cumini / Moringa oleifera
oleifera +
Agriculture components: Kharif: Sorghum +
Vegetable/ Climbers/ Creepers/ Runners: Capsicum annum / Solanum melongena/ Momordica
charantia/ Phaseolus vulgaris/ Spinacia oleracea/ Pumkin/ Vigna sinensis/ Solanum
lycopersicum/ Abelmoschus esculentus +
Religious value plant species: Tulsi/ +
Ornamental: Periwinkle/ Tagar/ Hibiscus/ Nerium/

The study on survey of agroforestry systems reveled that, the farmers are practicing seven different types of
agroforestry systems in study area namely; Boundary plantation, Bund plantation, Agrihorticulture system, Agrisilviculture
with scattered plantation, planting near water sources, poultry based agroforestry practices and homestead. Out of the seven
agroforestry systems, six agroforestry systems namely; Boundary plantation, Bund plantation, Homestead,
Impact Factor (JCC): 3.7216

Naas Rating: 3.63

Systematic Enumeration of Woody Plant in Agroforestry Systems at
Lower Hills of Melghat Region Chikhaldara Tehsil, Maharashtra, India

23

Agrisilviculuture with scattered plantation, plantation near water source and poultry based agroforestry practices are
traditional agroforestry systems, whereas agrihorticulture practice comes under agrisilviculture system. The prominent tree
species found in boundary plantation are; Tectona grandis, Wrightia tinctoria, Butea monosperma, Azadirachta indica,
Ailanthus excelsa, Diospyros melanoxylo. Where as in bund plantations the major species are; Tectona grandis,
Azadirachta indica, Buchanania lanzan, Semecarpus anacardium, Butea monosperma, Ailanthus excelsa, Wrightia
tinctoria. In agrihorticulture system , the Mangifera indica based,based Citrus

and Psidium guajava based agri-

horticulture system were observed, where as in agrisilviculture with scattered plantation the major species recorded are
Mangifera indica, Madhuka latifolia, Ficus racemosa, Ficus benghalensis, Tectona grandis, Azadirachta indica, Butea
monosperma, Ailanthus excelsa. The trees species like; Madhuka latifolia, Butea monosperma, Tectona grandis,
Mangifera indica, Carica papaya, Terminalia bellirica, Ficus benghalensis, Psidium guajava and Terminalia arjuna, etc.
were planted near water source under Planting near waster source practice. In homestead the Tree components includes;
Pongamia pinnata, Butea monosperma, Shivan, Bauhinia purpurea, Bhingri, Ficus benghalensis, Ficus religiosa, Albizia
saman for the fuel wood, fodder, shade and for fresh air. Whereas fruit tree components includes; Annona reticulata,
Punica granatum, Psidium guajava, Carica papaya, Musa paradisiaca , Murraya koenigii, lemon, Syzygium cumini and
Moringa oleifera for the self consumption, fodder and for the shade. Rai and Shivshankar (1994), Madiwalar and
Devaranavadgi (2003), Mughal and Bhattacharya (2002), Devaranavadgi et. al ( 2010) and Behera and Dhir (2013) have
reported similar choice of trees species by the farming community.

CONCLUSIONS
According to classification based on Bentham and Hookers systems it is observed that, total 89 plant species
belonging to 76 genera and 33 families were documented in agroforestry systems at lowerhills of Melghat region,
Maharashtra. The di-cotyledons constitute 94.38% whereas monocotyledons constitute 5.61%. Total 72 trees and woody
perennials are recorded in agroforestry systems at lowerhills of Melghat region, Maharashtra.
The farmers are practicing seven different types of agroforestry systems at lowerhills of Melghat region,
Maharashtra. project area namely; Boundary plantation, Bund plantation, Agrihorticulture system, Agrisilviculture with
scattered plantation, planting near water sources, homestead and poultry based agroforestry practices.
Seven different locations were observed, where villagers use to plants at homestead. Out of four, three different
locations were identified, where trees are planted at village community land. The study revealed that, five different
locations on farms were identified where the farmers plant the trees namely; Boundary, Bund, In alleys and rows, scattered
in the field and near water source- along irrigation canal, farm ponds/ well etc.
It is observed that agroforestry is the study area is based particularly on the natural tree occurrence. The traditional
agroforestry practices to some extent have helped farmers in meeting the diverse need i.e. food, fodder, fuel wood and
timber but the farmers of the area being marginal are not in position to get all their consumption needs from the farm in
adequate quantities. All the systems observed do not have optimum representation of all components apart from the low
yield of food, fodder and fuel wood. For making the models viable research and proper extension work is needed in the
area focusing on improving the productivity of land and production as far.

www.tjprc.org

editor@tjprc.org

24

Sanjay Bhoyar, H.K Deshmukh, Navin Sharma,
Babita Bohra , R.V Mahajan & D. N. Nalge

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Impact Factor (JCC): 3.7216

Naas Rating: 3.63