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SOL 4.

1 STUDY CARDS

Scientific Method

The process scientists use to conduct an


investigation or solve a problem

Observation

The use of the (5) senses to collect


information about the environment What you see, feel, taste, hear, or smell

Hypothesis

Scientific Prediction

Experiment

Inference

An educated guess/prediction about what


will happen based on what you already
know and what you have learned from
your research
A forecast about what may happen in
some future situations. It is based on
applying facts and recognizing trends
and patterns

A fair test guided by a hypothesis that is


conducted.
Only one variable is tested and data are
collected, recorded, analyzed and
communicated
A tentative explanation based on
background knowledge and available
data.

Conclusion

A summary statement based on the


results of an investigation (based on
observations that can be verified)

Independent
Variable

The one factor that is purposed


changed in an experiment
by the scientist

Dependent
Variable

The factor in an experiment that changes


because of how the independent variable
was changed; the way you measure the
noted changes

Constants

The factors that are purposefully kept the


same during the experiment

Qualitative

Quantitative

Deals with descriptions.


Data can be observed but not
measured.
Colors, textures, smells, tastes,
appearance, beauty, etc.

Deals with numbers.


Data which can be measured.
Length, height, area, volume,
weight, speed, time, temperature,
humidity, sound levels, cost,
members, ages, etc.

SOL 4.1 Scientific Investigation Study Guide


What is the difference between QUANTITATIVE data and QUALITATIVE data?
Hint: The letter n is a clue. (n for number)
1. Identify the data listed below into two categories:

Mass of 12 g
Light yellow color
Smells like lemon
Roots are 5 cm
2 blooms
Feels soft

Quantitative

Qualitative

2. Look at this picture of some Virginia cardinals. Can you provide two pieces of

quantitative data and qualitative data about this picture? See Study Cards)
Quantitative data:

Qualitative data:

Variables in a Scientific Experiment


Question
What is the ONE
thing the scientist
changed?
How will the
scientist test or
measure the
results?
What are the things
the scientist is
keeping exactly the

Variable
Independent
Variable
Dependent
Variable
Constants

Example
The kind of light I am giving the seeds.
(sunlight/limited light/no light)

Count how many seeds germinated/Measure how


long the root grows (mm or cm)

Size and type of plastic baggie


Size and type of paper towel
Amount and kind of water given
Size, type, and number of seeds used

same?

Measurements taken at the same time of


day using the same measuring instrument