Li-Fi (Light Fidelity

)
The future technology In Wireless communication

ABSTRACT
Whether you’re using wireless internet in a coffee shop, stealing it from the guy next door, or
competing for bandwidth at a conference, you have probably gotten frustrated at the slow
speeds you face when more than one device is tapped into the network. As more and more
people and their many devices access wireless internet, clogged airwaves are going to make
it. One germen phycist.Harald Haas has come up with a solution he calls “data through
illumination” –taking the fibber out of fiber optic by sending data through an LED light bulb
that varies in intensity faster than the human eye can follow. It’s the same idea band behind
infrared remote controls but far more powerful. Haas says his invention, which he calls
DLIGHT, can produce data rates faster than 10 megabits per second, which is speedier than
your average broadband connection. He envisions a future where data for laptops, smart
phones, and tablets is transmitted through the light in a room. And security would be snap – if
you can’t see the light, you can’t access the data.
Li-Fi is a VLC, visible light communication, technology
developed by a team of scientists including Dr Gordon Povey, Prof. Harald Haas and Dr
Mostafa Afgani at the University of Edinburgh. The term Li-Fi was coined by Prof. Haas
when he amazed people by streaming high-definition video from a standard LED lamp, at
TED Global in July 2011. Li-Fi is now part of the Visible Light Communications (VLC) PAN
IEEE 802.15.7 standard. “Li-Fi is typically implemented using white LED light bulbs. These
devices are normally used for illumination by applying a constant current through the LED.
However, by fast and subtle variations of the current, the optical output can be made to vary
at extremely high speeds. Unseen by the human eye, this variation is used to carry high-speed
data,” says Dr Povey, , Product Manager of the University of Edinburgh's Li-Fi Program ‘DLight Project’.

INTRODUCTION
LiFi is transmission of data through illumination by taking the fiber out of fiber optics
by sending data through a LED light bulb that varies in intensity faster than the human eye
can follow.Li-Fi is the term some have used to label the fast and cheap wireless
communication system, which is the optical version of Wi-Fi. The term was first used in this
context by Harald Haas in his TED Global talk on Visible Light Communication. “At the
heart of this technology is a new generation of high brightness light-emitting diodes”, says
Harald Haas from the University of Edinburgh, UK, ”Very simply, if the LED is on, you
transmit a digital 1, if it’s off you transmit a 0,”Haas says, “They can be switched on and off
very quickly, which gives nice opportunities for transmitted data.”It is possible to encode data
in the light by varying the rate at which the LEDs flicker on and off to give different strings
of 1s and 0s.The LED intensity is modulated so rapidly that human eye cannot notice, so the
output appears constant. More sophisticated techniques could dramatically increase VLC data
rate. Terms at the University of Oxford and the University of Edingburgh are focusing on
parallel data transmission using array of LEDs, where each LED transmits a different data
stream. Other group are using mixtures of red, green and blue LEDs to alter the light
frequency encoding a different data channel. Li-Fi, as it has been dubbed, has already
achieved blisteringly high speed in the lab. Researchers at the Heinrich Hertz Institute in
Berlin, Germany, have reached data rates of over 500 megabytes per second using a standard
white-light LED. The technology was demonstrated at the 2012 Consumer Electronics Show
in Las Vegas using a pair of Casio smart phones to exchange data using light of varying
intensity given off from their screens, detectable at a distance of up to ten metres.
Light is inherently safe and can be used in places where radio
frequency communication is often deemed problematic, such as in aircraft cabins or
hospitals. So visible light communication not only has the potential to solve the problem of
lack of spectrum space, but can also enable novel application. The visible light spectrum is
unused; it's not regulated, and can be used for communication at very high speeds.

Fig. to promote high-speed optical wireless systems and to overcome the limited amount of radiobased wireless spectrum available by exploiting a completely different part of the electromagnetic spectrum. We have to just vary the rate at which the LED’s flicker depending upon the data we want to encode. UK. if the LED is on. you transmit a digital 1.1 Li-Fi environment In October 2011 a number of companies and industry groups formed the Li-Fi Consortium. in his TED Global talk on VLC. The LEDs can be switched on and off very quickly. Further enhancements . theoretically allowing a high-definition film to be downloaded in 30 seconds. He explained. which gives nice opportunities for transmitting data.” Very simple. WORKING TECHNOLOGY This brilliant idea was first showcased by Harald Haas from University of Edinburgh.” So what you require at all are some LEDs and a controller that code data into those LEDs. The consortium believes it is possible to achieve more than 10 Gbps. if it’s off you transmit a 0.

Since Li-Fi uses just the light. There's a new technology on the block which could. but has turned out to have its upside. This method of using rapid pulses of light to transmit information wirelessly is technically referred to as Visible Light Communication (VLC). thereby throwing open endless opportunities for military operations.can be made in this method. even though it is in fact 'flickering'. . causing the light source to appear to be on continuously. remote control units and countless other applications) can be switched on and off faster than the human eye can detect. Such advancements promise a theoretical speed of 10 Gbps – meaning you can download a full high-definition film in just 30 seconds. like using an array of LEDs for parallel data transmission. Information can therefore be encoded in the light by varying the rate at which the LEDs flicker on and off to give different strings of 1s and 0s. Simply awesome! But blazingly fast data rates and depleting bandwidths worldwide are not the only reasons that give this technology an upper hand. This invisible on-off activity enables a kind of data transmission using binary codes: switching on an LED is a logical '1'. causing the light source to appear to be on continuously. This can even work underwater where Wi-Fi fails completely. quite literally as well as metaphorically. being precisely what makes it possible to use light for wireless data transmission. Radio waves are replaced by light waves in a new method of data transmission which is being called Li-Fi. green and blue LEDs to alter the light’s frequency with each frequency encoding a different data channel. or downloading a movie from the lamp on your desk. it can be used safely in aircrafts and hospitals that are prone to interference from radio waves. or using mixtures of red. switching it off is a logical '0'. 'throw light on' how to meet the everincreasing demand for high-speed wireless connectivity. A flickering light can be incredibly annoying. Light-emitting diodes (commonly referred to as LEDs and found in traffic and street lights. though it’s potential to compete with conventional Wi-Fi has inspired the popular characterization Li-Fi. Imagine only needing to hover under a street lamp to get public internet access. car brake lights.Light-emitting diodes can be switched on and off faster than the human eye can detect.

It uses fast pulses of light to transmit information wirelessly. the technology of which is based on Visible Light Communication (VLC). There are reasons to prefer LED as the light source in VLC while a lot of other illumination devices like fluorescent lamp.VLC is a data communication medium. To be clearer. which uses visible light between 400 THz (780 nm) and 800 THz (375 nm) as optical carrier for data transmission and illumination. Data can be encoded in the light to generate a new data stream by varying the flickering rate of the LED. . are available. by modulating the LED light with the data signal. data rate can be increased by parallel data transmission using LED arrays where each LED transmits a different data stream. The main components of this communication system are 1) a high brightness white LED. VLC.Visible light communication (VLC)-“A potential solution to the global wireless spectrum shortage” LiFi (Light Fidelity) is a fast and cheap optical version of Wi-Fi. Which acts as a communication source and 2) a silicon photodiode which shows good response to visible wavelength region serving as the receiving element? LED can be switched on and off to generate digital strings of 1s and 0s. the LED output appears constant to the human eye. A data rate of greater than 100 Mbps is possible by using high speed LEDs with appropriate multiplexing techniques. As the flickering rate is so fast. incandescent bulb etc. the LED illumination can be used as a communication source.

Fig 2.Data transmission using LED .

Comparison between current and future wireless technology The table also contains the current wireless technologies that can be used for transferring data between devices today.11. It acquired this name due to the similarity to WI-FI. i.WI-FI is great for general wireless coverage within buildings. Note that one out of three of these is an optical technology. so the two technologies can be considered complimentary. and li-fi is ideal for high density wireless data coverage in confined area and for relieving radio interference issues. .n in most implementations provides up to 150Mbit/s (in theory the standard can go to 600Mbit/s) although in practice you receive considerably less than this. Table 1.e. Wi-Fi. Only Wi-Fi currently offers very high data rates. The IEEE 802.COMPARISION BETWEEN Li-Fi & Wi-Fi LI-FI is a term of one used to describe visible light communication technology applied to high speed wireless communication. Bluetooth and IrDA. only using light instead of radio.

That is. Also. the light can belong to the invisible. the technology removes limitations that have been put on the user by the Wi-Fi. You no more need to be in a region that is Wi-Fi enabled to have access to the internet. music etc in just a few minutes with the help of this technology. the speed of the internet is incredibly high and you can download movies. Fig 3. There cannot be anything better than this technology.Working and advantages . You can simply stand under any form of light and surf the internet as the connection is made in case of any light presence. The transfer of the data can be with the help of all kinds of light. ultraviolet or the visible part of the spectrum.How it is different? Li-Fi technology is based on LEDs for the transfer of data. games. no matter the part of the spectrum that they belong. Also.

” which hints at what could be to come for the future of air transport. directly to their iPads or laptops. “The airlines are more interested because they save weight. Ugh. Haas tells us that PureLiFi has been testing with a “major aircraft manufacturer. Li-Fi has 10.” explains Haas. I have twice that capacity in my living room. And. medical technology has lagged behind the rest of the wireless world. as Haas mentions in his TED Talk. so maybe we can. Operating rooms do not allow Wi-Fi over radiation concerns. While Wi-Fi is in place in many hospitals. ma’am. You know that reading light above your head on a plane? That could easily be used to stream data to individuals at their seats. The best I’ve heard so far is that passengers will "soon" be offered a "high-speed like" connection on some airlines. Li-Fi could easily introduce that sort of speed to each seat's reading light. United is planning on speeds as high as 9. It’s better than listening to you tell me about your wildly successful son.000 times the spectrum of Wi-Fi. I expect it. Code Red! Airlines: Airline Wi-Fi. Nothing says captive audience like having to pay for the "service" of dial-up speed Wi-Fi on the plane. I’ll be the guy wowing next to you. Curiously. And don’t get me started on the pricing. Uh. And at the same price as checking a bag.APPLICATION OF LI-FI:You Might Just Live Longer For a long time. The airlines want to be able to change the seat-spacing depending on what link they serve” . and there is also that whole lack of dedicated spectrum. And that also limits their flexibility. Li-Fi solves both problems: lights are not only allowed in operating rooms. “These seats are usually hard-wired with cables.8 Mbps per plane. But delivering entertainment to your seat is only one reason why this could prove useful for airlines and aircraft manufacturers. but tend to be the most glaring (pun intended) fixtures in the room. interference from cell phones and computers can block signals from monitoring equipment. I don’t know. delegate red light to priority medical data.

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The savings from proper monitoring at a single power plant can add up to hundreds of thousands of dollars. Plus. grid integrity and (in nuclear plants) core temperature. except when the tether isn’t long enough to explore an area. that is. high-powered lamp — then they would be much freer to explore. Remember. Subway stations and tunnels. with Li-Fi. processing data autonomously and referring findings periodically back to the surface. Undersea Awesomeness: Underwater ROVs. Take your pick — it’s a wacky city. in times less stressing cities could opt to provide cheap high-speed Web access to every street corner. all the while obtaining their next batch of orders. operate from large cables that supply their power and allow them to receive signals from their pilots above. inter-connected data systems to monitor things like demand. Li-Fi could offer safe. Until they pass under a street light. Or a hurricane. but the draw on a power plant’s own reserves could be lessened if they haven’t yet converted to LED lighting. pose no obstruction. abundant connectivity for all areas of these sensitive locations. If their wires were cut and replaced with light — say from a submerged. you’re online. But power plants need fast. ROVs work great. . It Could Keep You Informed and Save Lives Say there’s an earthquake in New York. Not only would this save money related to currently implemented solutions. common dead zones for most emergency communications. The average New Yorker may not know what the protocols are for those kinds of disasters. those favorite toys of treasure seekers and James Cameron. They could also use their headlamps to communicate with each other. Like those surrounding power plants. if there’s light. or when it gets stuck on something.Smarter Power Plants: Wi-Fi and many other radiation types are bad for sensitive areas.

At TED Global. Thousand and millions of street lamps can be transferred to LiFi lamps to transfer data. He used a table lamp with an LED bulb to transmit a video of blooming flowers that was then projected onto a screen behind him. Genesis of LI-FI: Harald Haas. In aircraft LiFi can be used for data transmission. In traffic signals LiFi can be used which will communicate with the LED lights of the cars and accident numbers can be decreased. Two months later he achieved 123Mbps. gave a debut demonstration of what he called a Li-Fi prototype at the TED Global conference in Edinburgh on 12th July 2011.comparable to a fairly good UK broadband connection. Haas demonstrated a data rate of transmission of around 10Mbps -. . During the event he periodically blocked the light from lamp to prove that the lamp was indeed the source of incoming data. It can be used in petroleum or chemical plants where other transmission or frequencies could be hazardous. In operation theatre LiFi can be used for modern medical instruments. a professor at the University of Edinburgh who began his research in the field in 2004.USES IN VARIOUS AREAS Can be used in the places where it is difficult to lay the optical fiber like hospitals.

There cannot be anything better than this technology. To further get a grasp of Li-Fi consider an IR remote. games. The transfer of the data can be with the help of all kinds of light. the speed of the internet is incredibly high and you can download movies. . It sends a single data stream of bits at the rate of 10. the light can belong to the invisible.000 bps. Also. Now replace the IR LED with a Light Box containing a large LED array. That is. the technology removes limitations that have been put on the user by the Wi-Fi.000-20.How it is different? Li-Fi technology is based on LEDs for the transfer of data. ultraviolet or the visible part of the spectrum. no matter the part of the spectrum that they belong. You no more need to be in a region that is Wi-Fi enabled to have access to the internet. music etc in just a few minutes with the help of this technology. You can simply stand under any form of light and surf the internet as the connection is made in case of any light presence. Also.

In October 2011. companies and industry groups formed the Li-Fi Consortium. PureLiFi. is an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) firm set up to commercialize Li-Fi products for integration with existing LED-lighting systems. is widely recognised as the original founder of Li-Fi. . A number of companies offer uni-directional VLC products which is not the same as Li-Fi. includes any use of the visible light portion of the electromagnetic spectrum to transmit information. The D-Light project at Edinburgh's Institute for Digital Communications was funded from January 2010 to January 2012. He coined the term Li-Fi and is Chair of Mobile Communications at the University of Edinburgh and co-founder of pureLiFi. to promote high-speed optical wireless systems and to overcome the limited amount of radio-based wireless spectrum available by exploiting a completely different part of the electromagnetic spectrum.History: Professor Harald Haas. The general term visible light communication (VLC). formerly pureVLC. from the University of Edinburgh in the UK. Haas promoted this technology in his 2011TED Global talk and helped start a company to market it.

25 Mbit/s to 96 Mbit/s. Nonetheless. In October 2013. the IEEE 802. all with a DC component. The Manchester coding used for the PHY I and PHY II layers include the clock inside the transmitted data by representing a logic 0 with an OOK symbol "01" and a logic 1 with an OOK symbol "10". It takes into account the optical transmission mobility. it was reported Chinese manufacturers were working on Li-Fi development kits. multiple-access and energy efficiency have.7 standard is out-of-date. The introduction of O-OFDM means that a new drive for standardization of optical wireless communications is required.6 Gbps were demonstrated over a single color LED.15. the devience which may be caused by interference generated by the ambient lighting.15. specifically with the introduction of optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (O-OFDM) modulation methods which have been optimized for data rates.7 standard defines the physical layer (PHY) and media access control (MAC) layer. However. or VLC systems in general. The modulation formats recognized for PHY I and PHY II are the coding on-off keying (OOK) and variable pulse position modulation (VPPM). the IEEE 802.67 kbit/s to 267. Specifically. The standard defines three PHY layers with different rates:  The PHY I was established for outdoor application and works from 11. By August 2013.  The PHY II layer allows to reach data rates from 1. One part of VLC is modeled after communication protocols established by the IEEE workgroup. do not require line-of-sight conditions. The standard is able to deliver enough data rates to transmit audio. The MAC layer allows to use the link with the other layers like the TCP/IP protocol. its compatibility with artificial lighting present in infrastructures. PHY III can deliver rates from 12 Mbit/s to 96 Mbit/s.  The PHY III is used for many emissions sources with a particular modulation method called color shift keying (CSK). the standard fails to consider the latest technological developments in the field of optical wireless communications. . In September 2013. a press release said that Li-Fi.6 kbit/s. video and multimedia services.VLC technology was exhibited in 2012 using Li-Fi. data rates of over 1. The DC component avoids the light extinction in case of an extended line of logic 0.

. Li-Fi could lead to the Internet of Things. relative to WiFi. with the LED lights on the electronics being used as internet access points. which is too quickly to be noticed by the human eye. The Li-Fi market is projected to have a compound of 82% from 2013 to 2018 and to be worth over $6 billion per year by 2018. The phone uses Sun Partner’s Wysips CONNECT. Direct line of sight isn't necessary for Li-Fi to transmit signal and light reflected off of the walls can achieve 70 Mbps. the bulbs could be dimmed to the point that they were not visible to humans and yet still functional. The light waves cannot penetrate walls which makes a much shorter range. Li-Fi. which is everything electronic being connected to the internet. making the phone capable of receiving and decoding signals without drawing on its battery. Although Li-Fi bulbs would have to be kept on to transmit data. or light fidelity. high-speed communication in a similar manner as Wi-Fi.The first Li-Fi smartphone prototype was presented at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas from January 7–10 in 2014. Visible light communications (VLC) signals work by switching bulbs on and off within nanoseconds. refers to 5G visible light communication systems using light from light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as a medium to deliver networked. a technique that converts light waves into usable energy. though more secure from hacking. mobile.

Li-Fi has almost no limitations on capacity. hospitals and nuclear power plants [citation causing electromagnetic interference.Li-Fi has the advantage of being able to be used in electromagnetic sensitive areas such as in aircraft cabins. low reliability and high installation costs are the potential downsides. which is more than 250 times faster than superfast broadband. Li-Fi uses visible light. Li-Fi is expected to be ten times cheaper and more environmentally friendly than Wi-Fi. Short range. . Researchers have reached data rates of over 10 Gbps. The visible light spectrum is 10. While the US Federal Communications Commission has warned of a potential spectrum crisis because Wi-Fi is close to full capacity.000 times larger than the entire radio frequency spectrum. but whereas Wi-Fi utilises radio waves. Both Wi-Fi and Li-Fi transmit needed] without data over the electromagnetic spectrum.

5Gbit/s via each of the three primary colours . This means over 10Gbit/s is possible. Micro-LEDs can transmit large amounts of digital data in parallel High speed . Li-fi is an emerging technology that could see specialised LED lights bulbs providing low-cost wireless internet connectivity almost everywhere.'Li-fi' via LED light bulb data speed break through UK researchers say they have achieved data transmission speeds of 10Gbit/s via "li-fi" wireless internet connectivity using light. blue .red.that make up white light. The researchers used a micro-LED light bulb to transmit 3. green.

known as the ultra-parallel visible light communications project. St Andrews. PureVLC. Oxford. researchers enabled micro-LED light bulbs to handle millions of changes in light intensity per second. He coined the term "light fidelity" or li-fi .The research. with one bulb providing internet connectivity for four computers. allow streams of light to be beamed in parallel. This allows large chunks of binary data . is a joint venture between the universities of Edinburgh.a series of ones and zeros . Chinese scientists reportedly developed a microchipped LED bulb that can produce data speeds of up to 150 megabits per second (Mbps). each multiplying the amount of data that can be transmitted at any one time. Strathclyde. Earlier this year. that's how we can make light behave. .to be transmitted at high speed. and funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council. Prof Haas demonstrated how an LED bulb equipped with signal processing technology could stream a high-definition video to a computer. The tiny micro-LED bulbs. Glasgow." said Prof Harald Haas. and Cambridge. Using a digital modulation technique called Orthogonal Frequency Divisional Multiplexing (OFDM). Germany's Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute claimed that data rates of up to 1Gbit/s per LED light frequency were possible in laboratory conditions. an expert in optical wireless communications at the University of Edinburgh and one of the project leaders.and set up a private company. effectively behaving like an extremely fast on/off switch. to exploit the technology. 'Light fidelity' Prof Harald Haas has been in the forefront of "li-fi" research for the last 10 years In 2011. developed by the University of Strathclyde. And this month.also known as visual light communications (VLC) . "If you think of a shower head separating water out into parallel streams.

Wi-fi connectivity from a light bulb . Prof Haas argues. all LED lights could potentially provide internet connectivity.or "li-fi" . according to Chinese scientists. The disadvantage of traditional wi-fi routers is that the signal weakens the further you are away from it. LED light bulb 'li-fi' closer. leading to inconsistent connectivity within offices and homes. . Prof Haas also believes light's inability to penetrate walls makes VLC technology potentially more secure than traditional wi-fi connectivity. is that evenly spaced LED transmitters could provide much more localised and consistent internet connectivity throughout buildings. Visible light is part of the electromagnetic spectrum and its bandwidth is 10. Another advantage.Li-fi promises to be cheaper and more energy-efficient than existing wireless radio systems given the ubiquity of LED bulbs and the fact that lighting infrastructure is already in place. affording vastly greater capacity.000 times bigger than the radio frequency spectrum used by existing communication systems.has come a step closer. say Chinese scientists If "li-fi" technology takes off.

A one-watt LED light bulb would be enough to provide net connectivity to four computers. "But how valid this is we don't know without seeing more evidence. We remain sceptical. Li-fi. He coined the term "light fidelity" or li-fi and set up a private company. Prof Harald Haas. the Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute claimed that data rates of up to 1Gbit/s per LED light frequency were possible in laboratory conditions. .than the average Chinese broadband connection. There are no supporting video or photos showing the technology in action. at these speeds would be faster and cheaper . "We're just as surprised as everyone else by this announcement. researchers say. Chi Nan.A microchipped bulb can produce data speeds of up to 150 megabits per second (Mbps)." PureVLC spokesman Nikola Serafimovski told the BBC. to exploit the technology. But experts told the BBC more evidence was needed to back up the claims. making one bulb with three colours potentially capable of transmitting data at up to 3Gbit/s." This year. also known as visible light communications (VLC). IT professor at Shanghai's Fudan University told Xinhua News. demonstrated how an LED bulb equipped with signal processing technology could stream a high-definition video to a computer. PureVLC. In 2011. an expert in optical wireless communications at the University of Edinburgh.

Edinburgh University's Prof Harald Haas coined the term "li-fi" Unlimited capacity Li-fi promises to be cheaper and more energy-efficient than existing wireless radio systems given the ubiquity of LED bulbs and the fact that lighting infrastructure is already in place. However.000 times bigger than the radio spectrum. if not impossible. so drive-by hacking of wireless internet signals would be far more difficult. affording potentially unlimited capacity. Visible light is part of the electromagnetic spectrum and 10. . She admitted that the technology was still in its infancy and needed further developments in microchip design and optical communication controls before it could go mass market. this is also a potential advantage from a security point of view. the report said. Light cannot penetrate walls as radio signals can. But there are drawbacks: block the light and you block the signal. Prof Chi's research team includes scientists from the Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics at the Chinese Academy of Sciences. the report says. Her team is hoping to show off sample li-fi kits at the China International Industry Fair in Shanghai on 5 November.

first as a wave guide for the RF energy transmitted by the PA and second as an electric field . An RF (radio-frequency) signal is generated by the solid-state PA and is guided into an electric field about the bulb. The high concentration of energy in the electric field vaporizes the contents of the bulb to a plasma state at the bulb’s center. The dielectric material serves two purposes. All of these subassemblies are contained in an aluminum enclosure. This technology brief describes the general construction of LIFI lighting systems and the basic technology building blocks behind their function. With energy efficiency. FUNCTION OF THE BULB SUB-ASSEMBLY At the heart of LIFI is the bulb sub-assembly where a sealed bulb is embedded in a dielectric material. long useful lifetime. this controlled plasma generates an intense source of light.How LIFI™ Light Sources Work INTRODUCTION LIFI is a new class of high intensity light source of solid state design bringing clean lighting solutions to general and specialty lighting. LIFI CONSTRUCTION The LIFI product consists of 4 primary sub-assemblies: • Bulb • RF power amplifier circuit (PA) • Printed circuit board (PCB) • Enclosure The PCB controls the electrical inputs and outputs of the lamp and houses the microcontroller used to manage different lamp functions. This design is more reliable than conventional light sources that insert degradable electrodes into the bulb. LIFI lighting applications work better compared to conventional approaches. full spectrum and dimming.

full spectrum intensity that is digitally controlled and easy to use. The design and construction of the LIFI light source enable efficiency. PRESENT SCENARIO: We have 1. The energy from the electric field rapidly heats the material in the bulb to a plasma state that emits light of high intensity and full spectrum. Underwater ROV etc. business life. Wireless communication has become a utility like electricity & water.4 million cellular radio waves base stations deployed.  Currently wifi uses Radio waves for communication. The LIFI product consists of 4 primary sub-assemblies: • Bulb • RF power amplifier circuit (PA) • Printed circuit board (PCB) • Enclosure The PCB controls the electrical inputs and outputs of the lamp and houses the microcontroller used to manage different lamp functions. We use it in everyday life. Application of LiFi (Light Fidelity) Technology Li-Fi found its application in Airways.concentrator that focuses energy in the bulb. long stable life. and has many advantages which are discussed in this project report. Green information technology. multi user communication. Mobile phone transmits more than 600TBb of data. in our private life. Use this report on LiFi only for your study and reference purpose. Four Issues with Radio Waves: .  It is important to look into this technology which has become fundamental to our      life. We also have over 5 billions of mobile phones.

efficiency.4 million cellular radio base stations. 3G. But on the other hand we have 40 billions of light box already installed and light is part of electromagnetic  spectrum. Availability of radio waves causes another concern.. . 4. 2. capacity. So let’s look up at this in context of EM spectrum.5G. Availability:   We have to switch off our mobiles in aeroplanes. Security:    Radio waves penetrate through walls. Radio waves are limited. Efficiency of such a base station is only 5% and that raise a very big problem. Alternative to Radio waves in Electromagnetic Spectrum:  So there are four major concerns i. It is not advisable to use mobiles at places like  petrochemical plants and petrol pumps. Capacity:    We transmit wireless data through radio waves. 4G and so on we are running out of spectrum. We only have a certain range of it. scar and expensive. If someone has knowledge and bad intentions then he may misuse it.1. They can be intercepted.  availability.  With the advent of the new generation technologies as of likes of 2. 5. security related with Radio waves.e. 3. They consume massive amount of energy. Efficiency:    There are 1. Most of this energy is not used for transmission but for  cooling down the base stations.

 Infra-red rays are bad for our eyes and are therefore used at low power levels. Gamma rays are simply very dangerous and thus can’t be used for our purpose of   communication.  So we are left with only Visible light spectrum. LI-FI HAS AN UPPERHAND DUE TO PARALLEL DATA TRANSMISSION . X-rays are good in hospital and can’t be used either.  We have already seen shortcomings of radio waves. Ultra-violet rays are sometimes good for our skin but for long duration it is dangerous.

Conclusion: The possibilities are numerous and can be explored further. If his technology can be put into practical use. every bulb can be used something like a Wi-Fi .

As a growing number of people and their many devices access wireless internet. not least because it may offer a genuine and very efficient alternative to radio-based wireless. The concept of Li-Fi is currently attracting a great deal of interest. safer and brighter future. One of the shortcomings however is that it only work in direct line of sight. the airwaves are becoming increasingly clogged. greener. . This may solve issues such as the shortage of radio-frequency bandwidth and also allow internet where traditional radio based wireless isn’t allowed such as aircraft or hospitals. making it more and more difficult to get a reliable.hotspot to transmit wireless data and we will proceed toward the cleaner. highspeed signal.