2 views

Original Title: Engineering journal ; Widths of Channel Routing in VLSI Design

Uploaded by Engineering Journal

- Combining Temporal Abstraction and Integrity Constraint Checking in Clinical Databases
- Week 7 Notes
- Computational Complexity - Christos Papadimitriou
- Neutrosophic Graphs of Finite Groups
- Maths 4 Comp
- ps6sol[1]
- Alg1 9.6 Graph n Word
- Applied Combinatorics on Words
- solution of algorithm
- A rial Generalization of the Rogers-Ramanujan Identities
- Big-O Algorithm Complexity Cheat Sheet
- Borgatti - The Class of All Regular Equivalences - Algebraic Structure and Computation
- Productivity Enhancement for Spray Painting Process of Wheel Hub
- Discrete Structure Chapter 5.1 Relations
- Slide LubyDiffEq
- DNA Sequencing
- Part Matchings
- On Cyclic Edge-connectivity of Fullerenes
- Further Mathematics SL - Nov 2001 - P2 $
- 5-dpatterns

You are on page 1of 3

ISSN: [2395-6992]

Zhixiang Yin1 Jianzhong Cui2, Xianya Geng3

1,2,3

Department of Mathematics and Physics, Anhui University of Science and Technology, P.R.C

2

Department of Computer Science, HuaiNan Union University,P.R.C

AbstractIn VLSI design, one of the most important detailed routings is the channel routing. Given a channel with length n

in 2-layer Manhattan model, Szeszler proved that the width (number of tracks required for routing) of the channel is at most

7

7

3

n, and this upper bound can be achieved by a linear time algorithm. In this note, we improve the upper bound n to n,

4

4

2

which also can be achieved by a linear time algorithm.

KeywordsChannel routing, Graph Theory, VLSI design.

I.

INTRODUCTION

In VLSI design, One of the most important detailed routings is the channel routing [2,5,6]. A channel is defined by a

rectangular grid of size ( w 2) n , insisting of horizontal tracks (numbered from 0 to w+1) and vertical columns

(numbered from 1 to n), where w is the width and n is the length of the channel. The horizontal tracks numbered 0

and w + 1 are called the top and bottom of the channel, respectively. Points on the top or bottom are called terminals.

A net is a set of terminals. The channel routing problem (CRP) is to interconnect all the terminals in the same nets,

using minimum possible routing area, that is, minimizing the width w with the length n fixed. If all the terminals of each

net are situated on one side, top or bottom, of the channel, we speak of single row routing problem.

An instance of the CRP is a set {N1 , , N t } of pair wise disjoint nets, each containing at least two terminals. The

instance is called bipartite if each net

N1 contains exactly two terminals, one on the top and the other on the bottom of

the channel. The instance is dense if each terminal belongs to some net. A net is trivial if it consists of two terminals

which are situated in the same column of the channel.

II.

MAIN RESULTS

A solution of a channel routing problem is said to belong to the Manhattan model if consecutive layers contain wire

segments of different directions only. The following results were obtained by Szeszler [4], which

completely

characterizes solvable CRP instances in 2-layer Manhattan model and gives upper bounds on the widths, in terms of

the lengths, of the channels.

Theorem 2.1 (Szeszler [4]) A channel routing problem is not solvable in 2-layer Manhattan model (with a arbitrary

width) if and only if it is bipartite, dense and has at least one non-trivial net. Moreover, if an instance is solvable, then it can

3

2

7

4

be solved with width at most n in the bipartite, and n in the general case, where n is the length of the channel.

From the above theorem, It seems that the general case requires more routing area than the bipartite case. Surprisingly, we

find that this is not necessary to be true. In the next theorem, we show that the bound

7

n in the above theorem can be

4

3

2

improved to n, that is, the bound in the general case is the same as that in the bipartite case.

Theorem 2.2

For a solvable channel routing problem with length n (not necessary to be bipartite) in 2-layer Manhattan

3

2

Proof. As in [4], we first consider the nets on only one side, top or bottom, of the channel, which is a single row routing

problem. Consider the horizontal constraint graph H with vertex set

V (H) ={ fall the nets from one side containing at least two terminals},

Page | 71

ISSN: [2395-6992]

and an interval is associated with each net, stretching from its leftmost terminal to its rightmost terminal, there is an edge

joining two vertices (nets) in H if and only if the corresponding intervals intersect. By Gallai Theorem [1], the number

of tracks in an optimal solution of the single row routing problem is equal to the clique number of its horizontal

constraint graph, which can be done in linear time since it is an interval graph. Let S t and S b be the number of tracks in

an optimal solution for the single row routing problem on the top and bottom of the channel, respectively. Denote by

A and B the sets of nets on the top and bottom of the channel, respectively. Since there is a clique of size S t ( S b ) in the

horizontal constraint graph for the single row routing problem on the top (bottom) of the channel, and each net in the

clique contains at least two terminals (two columns of the channel), we have that

A S t (n 2S t ) n S t

B S b (n 2S b ) n S b

Without loss of generality, we may assume that St Sb . Let

from each side of the top and bottom. We construct a bipartite routing problem based on

D as follows: if a net N in

D contains more than one terminal from the top, we arbitrarily choose one and only one terminal as the terminal of the net;

similarly, choose one and only one terminal if it contains more than one terminal from the bottom. In this way, we

obtain a bipartite routing problem with

D' D min{ A , B } min{n St , n Sb } n St

(2.1)

D which contain exactly one terminal on the top and let D2 the set of nets in D which

D1 d1 and D2 d 2 . Clearly d1 d 2 D n St .

As seen before,

each net in the clique of the horizontal constraint graph for the single row routing problem contains at least two

terminals, we see that

d1 n 2St

Suppose that D' {N1 , N 2 , , N t } , where d

based

on

(2.2)

D' , with vertex set V ( F ) D' and there is a directed edge Ni N j , from N i to N j , if and only if there

terminal on the top belongs to N i and the terminal on the bottom belongs to

N j . Since

each N i contains only one terminal from top or bottom, each vertex of F has both in-degree and out-degree at most one.

Hence, each nonempty component of F is either a directed path or a directed cycle. As shown in [4], if

component is a directed path of t vertices (nets), then we only need t tracks for these t nets.

Suppose that a nonempty component of F is a directed

from D2 , then as shown in [4], we need

cycle C

the nonempty

t 1tracks for these t nets. Otherwise, without loss of generality, let Nit D2 . So

N it contains at least two terminals ai and a j on the top of the channel. We may assume that ai is the terminal used in

D' and a j is another terminal, where ai and a j are in the columns i and j , respectively. Let bi (b j ) be the terminal on

the bottom in the column i ( j ) . So bi is a terminal of N i1 . Now, instead of using ai as a terminal of

as a terminal of

If

N it in D' , we use a j

b j is not a terminal of any net in D' ' , then C becomes a directed path in D' ' , and thus we only need t tracks for

these

t nets. If b j is a terminal of some net N k in D' ' , since each vertex of V has both in-degree and out-degree at

most one, we have that k {i1 , i2 , , it } , and N k is the initial vertex of a directed path P of another component of

Page | 72

ISSN: [2395-6992]

F . Suppose that P contains p nets. Then, C and P , together with the directed edge from N it to N k , form a

directed path in

D' ' , and so we only need t p tracks for these t p nets on the path.

from D2 , then we need t 1 tracks for the t net of C ; Otherwise, we need t tracks (here we have taken into account

From the solutions above, for a component

of the S t tracks used in the optimal solution for the single row routing problem on the top of the channel). That is to

d1 nets belong to directed cycles and at least d 2 nets belong to directed paths. So by

3

Theorem 2.1, routing this new bipartite routing problem need at most d 2 d1 tracks. It follows that the total number of

2

say, using this solution at most

3

1

w d 2 d1 St Sb d d1 St Sb

2

2

Using (2.1) and (2.2), we have that

1

(n 2S t ) S t S b

2

3

3

n St Sb n

2

2

w n St

Based on the arguments in the proof of Theorem 2.2, it is easy to construct a linear time algorithm to give a solution for a

channel routing problem, using at most

3

n tracks, where n is the length of the channel.

2

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This Project supported by National Science Foundation of China (Grant No.61170172).

REFERENCES

[1] Gallai T., His unpublished results were announced in A. Hajnal and J. Suranyi Uber die Auflosung von Graphen in vollstandige

Teilgraphen, Annales Univ. Sci. Budapest.Eotvos Sect. Math. (1958) 1, pp.115123.

[2] Gao, S. and M. Kaufmann, Channel routing of multiterminal nets, J. Assoc. Comput. Mach. (1994) Vol. 414, pp.791818.

[3] Recski A., Some polynomially solvable subcases of the detailed routing problem in VLSI design, Discrete Appl. Math. 115

(2001), no. 1-3, pp.199208.

[4] Szeszler D., A New Algorithm for 2-layer Manhattan Channel

Routing,

Proc.3rd

Hungarian-Japanese Symposium on

Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications(2003), pp.179185.

[5] Szymanski, T. G., Dogleg channel routing is NP-complete, IEEE Trans. Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circ. Syst. (1985)

CAD-4, pp.3141

[6] Yoshimura T. and E. S. Kuh, Efficient Algorithms for Channel Routing, IEEE Trans. on CAD of Integrated Circuits and

Systems, Vol. 1, pp. 2535, 1982.

Page | 73

- Combining Temporal Abstraction and Integrity Constraint Checking in Clinical DatabasesUploaded byJournal of Computer Science and Engineering
- Week 7 NotesUploaded bytest
- Computational Complexity - Christos PapadimitriouUploaded byaempinto028980
- Neutrosophic Graphs of Finite GroupsUploaded byMia Amalia
- Maths 4 CompUploaded byMd Rubaiyat Bhuiyan
- ps6sol[1]Uploaded byGobara Dhan
- Alg1 9.6 Graph n WordUploaded byJoe Branum
- Applied Combinatorics on WordsUploaded byblablablablubb
- solution of algorithmUploaded byOfcourse Youknowme
- A rial Generalization of the Rogers-Ramanujan IdentitiesUploaded byapi-26401608
- Big-O Algorithm Complexity Cheat SheetUploaded byMìrägé Σ∞ Ãçê
- Borgatti - The Class of All Regular Equivalences - Algebraic Structure and ComputationUploaded byMohamad Ali Ansari
- Productivity Enhancement for Spray Painting Process of Wheel HubUploaded byTejas Morankar
- Discrete Structure Chapter 5.1 RelationsUploaded byrockers91
- Slide LubyDiffEqUploaded byPedro Oliveira
- DNA SequencingUploaded bymarkaz
- Part MatchingsUploaded byhisuin
- On Cyclic Edge-connectivity of FullerenesUploaded byKahar Wisanto
- Further Mathematics SL - Nov 2001 - P2 $Uploaded bykhey
- 5-dpatternsUploaded byapi-299092653
- graph 5Uploaded by伟伦
- 8-3-ansUploaded byanon-579447
- pa ch 5 textbook reviewUploaded byapi-309243219
- unit 2 plan overviewUploaded byapi-377875752
- Graph Theory (Gate2016.Info)Uploaded byandrewgeorgecherian
- hw-horizontal-and-vertical-linesUploaded byapi-288922072
- DM ShapleyUploaded byJose Peña Zuluaga
- An Ant-Based Algorithm for FindingUploaded bySolih Hati
- microsoft powerpoint - inequalities on a numberline bUploaded byapi-237945010
- Chapter 10Uploaded byRajGupta

- Engineering journal ; Online Tuning of the Fuzzy PID Controller using the Back-Propagation AlgorithmUploaded byEngineering Journal
- Engineering journal ; Role of Indian spices in cancer prevention: A ReviewUploaded byEngineering Journal
- Engineering journal ; A Professional PID Implemented using a Non-singleton Type-1 Fuzzy Logic System to Control a Stepper MotorUploaded byEngineering Journal
- Engineering journal ; Preparation and characterization of cross-linked polymer supports for catalysts immobilizationUploaded byEngineering Journal
- Engineering journal ; Comparative Study of Various Pre-Treatments Coupled to Vacuum Drying in Terms of Structural, Functional and Physical Properties of Carrot DaucusCarotaUploaded byEngineering Journal
- Engineering journal ; Power Improvement in 32-Bit Full Adder Using Embedded TechnologiesUploaded byEngineering Journal
- Engineering journal ; Estimation of Rolling-Contact Bearings Operational Properties by Electrical Probe MethodUploaded byEngineering Journal
- Engineering journal ; Micromechanics of Thermoelastic Behavior of AA6070 Alloy/Zirconium Oxide Nanoparticle Metal Matrix CompositesUploaded byEngineering Journal
- Engineering journal ; Thermo-mechanical fatigue behavior of a copper-alumina metal matrix composite with interpenetrating network structureUploaded byEngineering Journal
- Engineering journal ; The Microorganism Contamination Affect the Physical and Chemical Composition of MilkUploaded byEngineering Journal
- Engineering journal ; Effects of soil physical and chemical properties on the distribution of trees in some ecological zones of Zalingei-Darfur; SudanUploaded byEngineering Journal
- Engineering journal ; Numerical Study of Microbial Depolymerization Process with the Newton-Raphson Method and the Newton’s MethodUploaded byEngineering Journal
- Engineering journal ; Strategic and Operational Scope of Foreign Subsidiary UnitsUploaded byEngineering Journal
- Engineering journal ; Isomorphic transformation of the Lorenz equations into a single-control-parameter structureUploaded byEngineering Journal
- Engineering journal ; Alteration of pelvic floor biometry in different modes of deliveryUploaded byEngineering Journal
- Engineering journal ; Analysis of Vibro-Isolated Building Excited by the Technical Seismicity of Traffic EffectsUploaded byEngineering Journal
- Engineering journal ; Controller Design for Nonlinear Networked Control Systems with Random Data Packet DropoutUploaded byEngineering Journal
- Engineering journal ; Study of Different Surface Pre-treatment Methods on Bonding Strength of Multilayer Aluminum Alloys/Steel Clad MaterialUploaded byEngineering Journal
- Engineering journal ; Securing of elderly houses in term of Elderly’s vision disordersUploaded byEngineering Journal
- Engineering journal ; A Silicon-Containing Polytriazole Resin with Long Storage TimeUploaded byEngineering Journal
- Engineering journal ; A Systematic Approach to Stable Components Synthesis from Legacy ApplicationsUploaded byEngineering Journal
- Engineering journal ; Salicylic Acid Enhanced Phytoremediation of Lead by Maize (Zea mays) PlantUploaded byEngineering Journal
- Engineering journal ; Extracorporal shock wave induced mechanical transduction for the treatment of low back pain – a randomized controlled trialUploaded byEngineering Journal
- Engineering journal ; Impact of texturing/cooling by Instant controlled pressure drop DIC on pressing and/or solvent extraction of vegetal oilUploaded byEngineering Journal
- Engineering journal ; Bio-Oil Production by Thermal Cracking in the Presence of HydrogenUploaded byEngineering Journal
- Engineering journal ; A Novel Oxygenator-Right Ventricular Assist Device Circuit Using the SYNERGY Micropump as Right Heart Support in a Swine Model of Pulmonary HypertensionUploaded byEngineering Journal
- Engineering journal ; Studies on Stigma Receptivity of Grewia asiatica L. with Reference to Esterase and Peroxidase ActivityUploaded byEngineering Journal
- Engineering journal ; The Sinkhole Hazard Study at Casalabate (Lecce, Italy) using Geophysical and Geological SurveysUploaded byEngineering Journal
- Engineering journal ; Factors Influencing Grid Interactive Biomass Power IndustryUploaded byEngineering Journal
- Engineering journal ; Estimation of Global Solar Radiation using Artificial Neural Network in Kathmandu, NepalUploaded byEngineering Journal

- Drilling FluidsUploaded byGogot Pantja Parijogo
- grupo 1Uploaded bySuspirito Morocho
- Van Mier, Vonk - Fracture of Concrete Under Multiaxial Stress - Recent Developsments - 1991Uploaded byMaurício Prado Martins
- jurnal formulasi mikrokapsul 1Uploaded byAstri Hardianti Rahim
- Harmonics InterviewUploaded byRICHARDRUBINSTEIN
- 5_Stress Cracking of Nylon Polymers in Aqueous Salt SolutionsUploaded byhgmcroc
- Evaluation of Failures in Mechanical Crankshafts of Automobile Based Onexpertopinion BUploaded byalan
- NFL summer internship reportUploaded byIsha Chhabra
- TM 11-6625-2578-12_Radio_Test_Set_Group_OQ-60_USQ-46_1972Uploaded byWurzel1946
- Numerical MethodsUploaded bysvnc1712
- Gelombang Cahaya Tampak (Visible Light)Uploaded byDwipayana Sang Pembunuh
- VE Piston Dynamics r3Uploaded byRedoMKurnia
- PETROPHYSICS_AND_STRATIGRAPHIC_INTERPRET.pdfUploaded byGabriel Giraldo
- Infiltartion Report LabUploaded byMaslisa Affenddy
- L2 Electric Field, dipoles.pdfUploaded bySadegh Simorgh
- 25059103Uploaded byPaul DeRienzo
- buchhloz content.pdfUploaded byhamada13
- Advanced Reaction -Lecture 1Uploaded byfekremariam Ambaw
- Projeect ReportUploaded byadi342
- 1-s2.0-0304386X9090018W-mainUploaded bywanyiwan
- jansen ap chem.pdfUploaded byMarko Mihoković
- MotionUploaded byHadi Hassan
- 6 StoenescuGUploaded bymaracs
- An Extensive IB Lab Report GuideUploaded byBrian Kim
- Coordinates Form 2Uploaded bygraciezayn
- Bill Nye GravityUploaded byShinLiCynLi
- 000. CHI6005E specs.pdfUploaded byAyman Shams
- GEAS Ref 2 - Solution - EMTUploaded byMichael Angelo Jugador Bas
- finit element method Chapter 1Uploaded bykhaledallouch
- ch14Uploaded byesojsuil_tg