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JOB SATISFACTION IN BANKING: A STUDY OFPRIVATE AND PUBLIC

SECTOR BANKS
N.MALLIKA* Dr.M.RAMESH**
ABSTRACT
It is an appraisal of the perceived job characteristics and emotional
experience atwork. Satisfied employees have a favourable evaluation of their
job, based on theirobservations and emotional experiences. Saleh (1981)
states that job satisfaction is afeeling which is a function of the perceived
relationship between all that one wantsfrom his job/life and all that one
perceives as offering or entailing. The emphasis hereis on all that one wants,
whether it is important for self-definition or not. Luthans(1989) states that
job satisfaction is a pleasurable, or positive emotional state resultingfrom the
appraisal of one's job, or job experience, and is the result of the
employee'sperception of how well the job provides those things which are
viewed as important
.
In this study an attempt has been made to regression and correlation
analysis on jobsatisfaction and variables among the public and private bank
employees in CuddaloreDistrict, Tamil Nadu, India. In order to study the
objective primary data werecollected with a sample size of 400 which was
collected at randomly. A regressionand correlation methods is used for
analyzing the employees level of job satisfaction.The researcher has
provided suitable measures to the organization for satisfying theworkers.Key
words: job satisfaction, contributing variables, banking sectors.*Lecturer in
Business Administration, Annamalai University,**Reader in Business
Administration, Annamalai University.
IJM
IAEME

112
INTRODUCTION
Job satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his or her job.The
happier people are within their job, the more satisfied they are said to be.Job
satisfaction is not the same as motivation, although it is clearly linked. Job

designaims to enhance job satisfaction and performance; methods include


job rotation, jobenlargement and job enrichment. Other influences on
satisfaction include themanagement style and culture, employee
involvement, empowerment andautonomous work groups. Job satisfaction is
a very important attribute which isfrequently measured by organizations. The
most common way of measurement is theuse of rating scales where
employees report their reactions to their jobs.Job satisfaction in regards to
ones feeling or state of mind regarding nature of their work. Job can be
influenced by variety of factors like quality of onesrelationship with their
supervisor, quality of physical environment in which theywork, degree of
fulfillment in their work, etc. Positive attitude towards job areequivalent to
job satisfaction where as negative attitude towards job has been
definedvariously from time to time. In short job satisfaction is a persons
attitude towards job.Job satisfaction is an attitude which results from
balancing & summation of manyspecific likes and dislikes experienced in
connection with the job- their evaluationmay rest largely upon ones success
or failure in the achievement of personalobjective and upon perceived
combination of the job and combination towards theseends.According to
pestonejee, Job satisfaction can be taken as a summation of employees
feelings in four important areas. These are:1. Job-nature of work (dull,
dangerous, interesting), hours of work, fellow workers,opportunities on the
job for promotion and advancement (prospects), overtimeregulations,
interest in work, physical environment, and machines and tools.2.
Management- supervisory treatment, participation, rewards and
punishments,praises and blames, leaves policy and favoritism.3. Social
relations- friends and associates, neighbors, attitudes towards people in
113community, participation in social activity scalability and caste barrier.4.
Personal adjustment-health and emotionality.Job satisfaction is an important
indicator of how employees feel about their job and a predictor of work
behavior such as organizational citizenship, Absenteeism,Turnover.Job
satisfaction benefits the organization includes reduction in complaints
andgrievances, absenteeism, turnover, and termination; as well as improved
punctualityand worker morale.Job satisfaction is also linked with a healthier
work force and has been foundto be a good indicator of longevity.Job
satisfaction is not synonyms with organizational morale, which
thepossessions of feeling have being accepted by and belonging to a group
of employeesthrough adherence to common goals and confidence in
desirability of these goals.Morale is the by-product of the group, while job
satisfaction is more anindividual state of mind.The concept of job
satisfaction, though of considerably recent origin, isclosely linked to
motivation in the workplace and is a causal factor in improvedperformance in
the workplace. These issues are again linked to job characteristics,which
primarily describe the inherent features of a job, which can again motivate
orde-motivate workers.The worth of employees in the running of

organizations has been analyzed anddebated by management experts,


sociologists and psychologists in depth and detail. Anumber of theories, most
of them the result of painstaking and detailed research, arein use to
explain human psychology in the workplace, the stressors and de stressors
of a working environment, and the reasons behind employee performance, or
for thatmatter, the lack of it.For all practical purposes, employee satisfaction
is essential for corporatesuccess and all famous leaders of corporate
enterprise apparently were alsoexceptional leaders of men. Low attribute
rates in companies is an indication of stable
114and employee friendly HR policy and a barometer of corporate well
being. The onsetof higher employee turnover brings with it indications of
difficult times ahead and isconsidered as a serious competitive disadvantage
by business and financial analysts.The issue of job characteristics and
employee satisfaction has been looked atfrom a number of perspectives. One
view, which is followed by many, is theimportance of money. A number of
employers feel that in todays multipleopportunity, flexi choice, work from
home environment, money is the basic reason fora person to take up a job,
furthermore that people work only for money. Companiesthat pay more
usually get the most applications be it at college graduation time fornew
entrants to the work force, or later on for mid career shifts for middle and
seniorpeople.There are again many management experts and HRD
specialists who feel thatthe theory of money being the only real choice in an
employment choice in a freemarket situation has many serious limitations
and indeed is deeply flawed. Theseexperts feel that while money is an
important factor in the contemplation of anemployment decision there are a
number of other factors, which also influence suchchoices.The truth is far
more complex and while the cynical continue to believe in theoverwhelming
supremacy of money, in its power to buy happiness and satisfaction, beit in
personal life or the workplace, a number of management thinkers,
socialscientists and corporate managers feel otherwise, advocating and
using distinctlydifferent HR philosophies and policies.These include the
understanding of need hierarchies like Abraham Maslowstheory of needs
and ClaytonAlderfers ERG theory of motivation, the thinking of Herzeberger
and McClelland and the various theories of goal setting and
motivationalprocesses. A number of organizations base their HR practices
upon an understandingof these various theories and their adaptation to the
business environment. Anothervariable which has come to occupy a
permanent factor in HR policy making isemployee reaction to the
comparatively new practice of having to spend a significant
115part of working time in front of laptops and computer screens, be it any
job profile,such is the pervasiveness of information technology in all areas
of corporate life.It is an undeniable fact that the future of business enterprise

depends upon thesatisfaction level of its workforce. Dissatisfied workforces


cause immediate problemsonly to their particular businesses.However, if
these problems are left inadequately attended they have atendency to spiral
out including other businesses, industries and regions harmingrelationships,
productivity, profits and finally also the creation of national wealth.Employee
satisfaction is thought to be one of the primary requirements of a well
runorganization and considered an imperative by all corporate
managements. The lastfive years of globalization, the rise of the Chinese
economy as the worlds cheapestmanufacturing destination, the gradual
pervasiveness of the internet and theemergence of outsourcing on a global
scale have shaken up years of corporatepractices in both manufacturing and
service sectors of the economy.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Due to globalization, todays world has become a single village. And never
had itbeen before and after people interacting to one another without
considering theirculture, value, norms, attitudes and race, as it today. These
interactions are not only intrade, diplomatic, social political and
communication network, but also in bankingsector rather the needs and
motivation as for as and all these make a todays worldmore competitive and
challenging than never before. Never before has it been so,working
performance has been drive by needs and motivation so as to
satisfyemployees. In order to satisfy employees there is a number of thingss
or factors toconsider. Therefore, this study will investigate as to what extent
job satisfaction haslead to good working performance in formal
organization .The study will examine thefactors which influence employees
job satisfaction in organization.
116
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1.
To measure the level of job satisfaction among public and private
bank employees.2.
To find out the factors contributing towards the job satisfaction of public and
private bank employees.3.
To find out relationship between job satisfaction and contributing variables.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Dekker et al., (1996) examined the relationship between work force size
and job satisfaction using data from two National surveys in US and Canada.
The USsample consisting of 8,428 employees (aged 23-30) and assessed for
job satisfactionwith pay, promotion opportunities, job security, physical

surrounding and supervisorcompetence. The number of benefits offered by


the organization was tested as amediator of these relationships. This was
positively related to job satisfaction with jobsecurity pay and promotion
opportunities. When the effect of benefit was controlledfor these
relationships, they were not satisfactorily significant. Work force size
wasnegatively related to satisfaction with supervisor competence and having
theopportunity to do ones best results.Christopher and Nathan (1996)
examined the role of employee perceptions
of justice in the relationship between job satisfactions of organizational com
mitment.Four competing models, liking employee satisfaction commitment
were identifiedfrom the literature: (I) job satisfaction is antecedent to
organizational commitment (II)organizational commitment is an antecedent
job satisfaction (III) organizationalcommitment and job satisfaction are
reciprocally related and (IV) organizationalcommitment of job satisfaction are
independent. The 4 models were then testedemploying confirmatory analytic
techniques of a sample of 133 financial servicescompany employees. The
result suggests that when considering the role of justice judgments,
satisfaction and commitment are causally independent.
119knowledge of stress and its relationship with satisfaction and
achievement of goal of industries.Job Satisfaction is in regard to one's feeling
or state-of-mind regarding thenature of their work. Job Satisfaction can be
influenced by a variety of factors, eg, thequality of ones relationship with
their supervisions, the quality of the physicalenvironment in which they
work, degree of their fulfillment in their work etc.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter describes methodological produces that will be adopted by
theresearcher in collecting relevant information on the research topic and
analysis of thedata.
RESEARCH DESIGN
A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collections
andanalysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the
research purposewith the economy in procedure. Descriptive research design
was adopted in order toachieve the objectives of the study. This type of
research design is more flexible tocarry out the research. The design
provides the opportunity for considering differentaspects of the problem. The
researcher adopted the method of experience survey tocollect the data.
SAMPLING SIZE

Subjects of the present study were selected from managerial and nonmanagerial staff of public and private sector banks from Cuddalore
District,Tamilnadu. India. Three public sector banks and three private sector
banks wereselected for the study. A total of 400 subjects were selected
equally from the sixorganisations selected for the study.

METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION


The data collection pertaining to this study involves both primary
andsecondary methods. The primary data was collected using questionnaire
fromrandomly selected samples. The secondary data were collected from
sources likemanuals, company records, magazines and internet.
ANALYSIS
Table: 1. Level of job satisfaction among employees in public
banksPublic sector
banksLevel job satisfaction Frequency PercentLow 03 1.5Medium 77
38.5High 120 60.0Total 200 100.0Table: 2 Level of job satisfaction
among employees in private banksPrivate sector
banksLevel job satisfaction Frequency PercentLow 65 32.5Medium 1
33 66.5High 02 1.0Total 200 100.0Public sector banks:
Job satisfaction is a combination of psychological, physiological
andenvironmental conditions providing satisfaction to person with his job.
The jobsatisfaction perceived by the employees based on the opinion.
Among the employeesin the opinion, 1.5 percent of the employees have
state that the job satisfaction is Low,38.5 percent of the employees have
stated that the job satisfaction is Medium and 60percent of them state that
the job satisfaction is high. At outset it is implied thatmajority of the
employees perceive high level of job satisfaction, very few
employeesperceive medium and low level of job satisfaction. It is interesting
to note that only

121minimum percent of the employees low level of job satisfaction. It is a


good sign andit indicates that the organization has better environment for
the public bank employeesto job.
Private sector banks:
The job satisfaction perceived by the employees based on the opinion.
Amongthe employees in the opinion, 32.5 percent of the employees have
state that the jobsatisfaction is Low, 66.5 percent of the employees have
stated that the job satisfactionis Medium and 1 percent of them state that
the job satisfaction is high. At outset it isimplied that majority of the
employees perceive medium and low level of jobsatisfaction, very few

employees perceive high level of job satisfaction. Soorganizations try to


concentration on employees need in priva

It has been found that employees of private sector banks were less satisfied
withtheir jobs compared to employees of public sector banks. To increase
theirsatisfaction, private sector banks need to improve job security.2.
Relationship with co-workers and supervisors makes the employees to feel
betterand it help to increase productivity and responsibility of workers and it
helps toincrease profit of the organization.3.
It was found that level of job satisfaction, job involvement,
organizationalcommitment, quality of work life, organizational climate and
job content forprivate bank employees are not satisfied with job. So the
private banking sectorstry to consider the respondents needs and fulfill the
same.4.
At outset it is implied that majority of the private bank employees
perceivemedium and low level of job satisfaction, very few employees
perceive high levelof job satisfaction. So organizations try to concentration
on employees need inprivate banks.
CONCLUSION
Job satisfaction, its causal factors and its effect upon organisational health
areall part of the various factors under study for this assignment. Job
satisfaction for anindividual can be influenced by a number of factors that
include first the job itself,the salary, the promotion policy of the company,
the attitudes of the coworkers, thephysical and mental stress levels involved,
the working conditions, the interest andchallenge levels. Higher job
satisfaction has been linked with employees who areable to exercise
autonomy and with those who have a higher level of job involvementWomen
have been found to report significantly higher job Satisfaction than
menalthough this gender gap appears to be narrowing. The correlation
coefficient shows apositive relationship existing among. Organizational
commitment, job involvement,quality of work life, organizational climate, job
content, income and job satisfactionperceived by public and private bank
employees. Researcher found that private bank employees perceived low
level of job satisfaction. So management try toconcentration on employee
satisfaction level, it is help to increase pay, promotion, job security,
rewards and reduce work load ect., and also observed
that public bank employees are very satisfied with job.
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