You are on page 1of 30

Linking Evaluation, Assessment, and

Guidance for Living Shorelines Designs

Jon K. Miller - Stevens Institute of
Technology

HR Sustainable Shorelines Webinar Series –
September 16, 2016

Hudson River Sustainable Shorelines Project
Engineering Analyses
P1 Lit
Review

• Phase 1 – Literature

What are the options?

• Phase 2 – Physical Forces Climatology

Where might they work?

P5(?) Design
Guidance

P2 Physical
Forces
Climatology

• Phase 3 – Forensic Analyses

How resilient are they?

• Phase 4 – Monitoring Protocol

How do we assess?

• Design Guidelines

HR Sustainable Shorelines Webinar Series – September 16, 2016

P4
Monitoring
Protocol

P3 Forensic
Analysis

Forensic Analysis - Objectives
• Characterize the conditions of traditional and non-traditional
treatments at 4 – 6 sites to understand the determinants of success
or failure during extreme weather events.
• Determine patterns among structures that survived and those that did
not
• Determine which aspects of structural maintenance lead to the
failure/survival
• Determine impacts from large waves, increased water level, and
increased currents
• Determine the impact of vegetation on the failure/survival of the
structure

HR Sustainable Shorelines Webinar Series – September 16, 2016

Forensic Analysis - Approach

• Analyze shoreline stabilization
history
• Conduct preliminary site visit
• Collect engineering data and
drawings
• Compare hindcast storm conditions
to climatology
• Conduct site survey

HR Sustainable Shorelines Webinar Series – September 16, 2016

Forensic Analysis - Typical Evidence

HR Sustainable
HR Sustainable Shorelines Webinar Series – September
16, 2016
2016

Shorelines Webinar Series – September 16,

Forensic Analysis - Habirshaw Park Conclusions

Submergence during Irene/Sandy limited damage

Appropriate slopes utilized

Sill crest height under-designed

Adaptive management used to correct problem

Maintenance essential to project’s performance

Ice and wakes may dominate design

HR Sustainable Shorelines Webinar Series – September 16, 2016

Forensic Analysis - Oak Point Conclusions

• Slopes inappropriate for wetland establishment (up to 1:2)
• Debris impact during Sandy significant
• Also a problem in non-storm conditions

• Steep offshore slopes and strong currents
• Immaturity of vegetation may have played secondary role
• Competing regulations (FEMA/DEC)

HR Sustainable Shorelines Webinar Series – September 16, 2016

Forensic Analysis - Hunts Point Conclusions

Much of the “structure” appears to have held

Slopes more appropriate than at Oak Point (1 on 7 vs 1 on 2)

Part of site inundated during Sandy

Debris impact during Sandy significant

Moderate offshore depths

Immature vegetation likely played secondary role

HR Sustainable Shorelines Webinar Series – September 16, 2016

Forensic Analysis - Common Findings

Vegetation Establishment
Slope Compatibility
Debris Impact
Leeside Erosion
Adaptive Management
Stone Sizing

HR Sustainable Shorelines Webinar Series – September 16, 2016

Forensic Analysis - Common Findings

Vegetation Establishment
Slope Compatibility
Debris Impact
Leeside Erosion
Adaptive Management
Stone Sizing

HR Sustainable Shorelines Webinar Series – September 16, 2016

Forensic Analysis - Common Findings

Vegetation Establishment
Slope Compatibility
Debris Impact
Leeside Erosion
Adaptive Management
Stone Sizing

HR Sustainable Shorelines Webinar Series – September 16, 2016

Forensic Analysis - Common Findings

Vegetation Establishment
Slope Compatibility
Debris Impact
Leeside Erosion
Adaptive Management
Stone Sizing

HR Sustainable Shorelines Webinar Series – September 16, 2016

Forensic Analysis - Common Findings

Vegetation Establishment
Slope Compatibility
Debris Impact
Leeside Erosion
Adaptive Management/
Maintenance
Stone Sizing

HR Sustainable Shorelines Webinar Series – September 16, 2016

Forensic Analysis - Common Findings

Vegetation Establishment
Slope Compatibility
Debris Impact
Leeside Erosion
Adaptive Management
Stone Sizing

HR Sustainable Shorelines Webinar Series – September 16, 2016

Forensic Analysis – Final Recommendations

1.

More research needs to be done on the performance of various
stabilization approaches during heavy ice and debris conditions.

2.

Proper monitoring and maintenance is important to the longterm performance of all projects; however it is critically important
for ecologically enhanced shoreline projects.

3.

Temporary stabilization measures should be provided to allow
vegetation to mature.

4.

Terracing or other measures should be used to avoid unnatural
slopes.

5.

Backside forces should be addressed in design/construction of
coastal structures.

HR Sustainable Shorelines Webinar Series – September 16, 2016

Monitoring Protocol - Impetus

NRC – “Decision-makers should appreciate the costs and benefits of the spectrum of
potential solutions to shoreline erosion problems, including potential cumulative
impacts on shoreline features, habitats, and other amenities.”
USACE - “Consider the full array of measures and account for the full array of benefits”
HRSSP – “Regional demonstration projects/case studies are needed”
NYCGIRP – “Conceptual models and monitoring protocol development”, “Pilot
project identification, implementation, and monitoring (living laboratory)”,
“Development of rapid assessment and ecosystem models”
HRSSP – “Developing a region-wide consistent set of “important” parameters would
assist comparisons between ecosystems as well as states. Specifically, but not limited
to the monitoring discussions, funding was identified as a barrier for implementation
of sustainable shorelines.”

HR Sustainable Shorelines Webinar Series – September 16, 2016

Problem: Time/Money
Solution: Rapid Assessment
Objective: Develop simple, cheap, but reliable assessment protocols which can be
carried out by a trained non-technical user.

• Vegetated Slopes

Terrace

• Rocky Slopes

Sill

HR Sustainable Shorelines Webinar Series – September 16, 2016

• Offshore Mounds

Basis: Cary Institute Ecological Rapid
Assessment Protocol
So simple even an engineer can do it…or not

HR Sustainable Shorelines Webinar Series – September 16, 2016

Step 1: Develop an Engineering
Corollary (Done)
Integrity Parameters
Crest Elevation
Slope Measurements
Stone Density
Vegetation Density
Asset Displacement

Functional Parameters
Erosion Measurement
Visual Wave Assessment
Bulk Energy Assessment
Current Measurement

HR Sustainable Shorelines Webinar Series – September 16, 2016

Step 1: Develop an Engineering
Corollary
Pilot tested several measurement techniques
Investigating the potential of smart phone
derived measurements
Balancing cost, accuracy, consistency, skill

HR Sustainable Shorelines Webinar Series – September 16, 2016

Step 2: Integrate Ecological &
Engineering Protocols
Rapid Assessment Data Sheets
Rapid Assessment Field Guide
Satellite imagery/GIS information
Tidal Data
Clipboard
Tape Measure (100’)
Tape Measure (25’)
Camera
Waders
Stopwatch
Handheld GPS
Scale
Compass
Hula Hoop
Binoculars
Hand Level
Line Level
Marked Rope
Graduated Staffs
Plaster Spheres
Mounts
Anemometer
Inclinometer
Italicized items may be replaced with a smartphone with appropriate apps loaded

HR Sustainable Shorelines Webinar Series – September 16, 2016

Step 2: Integrate Ecological &
Engineering Protocols

HR Sustainable Shorelines Webinar Series – September 16, 2016

Status Update/Schedule

Step 1: Develop preliminary engineering corollary to the
ecological rapid assessment - completed
Step 2: Integrate the protocols - nearly complete
Step 3: Apply protocols at several sites – Summer 2016
Step 4: Train an initial group of “Super Users” (guinea pigs) –
Summer 2016
Step 4: Revise/refine protocol – Winter 2016/Spring 2017
Step 5: Independent application of protocol – Summer 2017
Step 6: Finalize training materials - 2018
Throughout, opportunities to link to/with other work will be
evaluated.

HR Sustainable Shorelines Webinar Series – September 16, 2016

Development of Design Guidance
Living Shorelines Engineering
Guidelines (2015)
• Provides guidance to engineers
and regulators on the engineering
components of living shorelines
design
• Intended to ensure consistency with
New Jersey’s “Living Shorelines GP”
and reduce the number of potential
failures due to poor design and
construction
• Not intended to be prescriptive

http://www.nj.gov/dep/cmp/docs/living-shorelines-engineering-guidelines-final.pdf
HR Sustainable Shorelines Webinar Series – September 16, 2016

New Jersey Living Shorelines Design Guidelines

Approach
1. Identify factors relevant to living shoreline design
– Provide guidance for selecting between alternatives*
2. Describe approaches for determining required parameters
– Consider different levels of rigor for different parameters
and projects
3. Provide example of how these parameters influence design
– Sills, breakwaters, joint planted revetment, reef balls, living
reef
*Monitoring considered essential for refining this knowledge and
improving guidance for future projects
HR Sustainable Shorelines Webinar Series – September 16, 2016

New Jersey Living Shorelines Design Guidelines

HR Sustainable Shorelines Webinar Series – September 16, 2016

New Jersey Living Shorelines Design Guidelines

Bold denotes critical parameters requiring level 2/3 analysis

HR Sustainable Shorelines Webinar Series – September 16, 2016

New Jersey Living Shorelines Design Guidelines
TNC Restoration Explorer
“Level 0”

http://www.maps.coastalresilience.org/newjersey/
HR Sustainable Shorelines Webinar Series – September 16, 2016

New Jersey Living Shorelines Design Guidelines

Approach Specific
Details
• Sill
• Revetment
• Breakwater
• Living Reef
• Reef Balls

HR Sustainable Shorelines Webinar Series – September 16, 2016

(Hardaway, 1984)

Jon K. Miller
jmiller@stevens.edu
@NJBeachProf