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AP Questions, Physics

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You are on page 1of 9

Question 1

15 points total

(a)

Distribution

of points

1 point

1 point

(b)

(i)

3 points

The components of the field at point P are opposites due to the two negative charges so the

field components sum to zero.

The components of the field at point P are equal and in the same direction due to the other

two charges so they add.

For identifying the distance between each charge and point P

a

r =

or r 2 = 12 a 2

2

For correctly summing the fields of the two contributing point charges

1 Q 2 kQ

= 2

E = 2

4 pe0 r 2

r

For substituting the distance relationship into an electric field relationship

2 kQ

E =

a 2

2

Note: use of the equation above with all substitutions overtly included earns full credit

4kQ

Q

E = 2 =

a

0 a 2

Note: because of the use of the word DERIVE in the question stem, NO CREDIT was

awarded for a final answer equation with no supporting work

1 point

1 point

1 point

( )

(ii)

3 points

For a correct expression for the potential of a point charge or charges which is subsequently

used in additional analysis

qi

q

1

V =

= k i

4 pe0 i ri

r

i i

1 point

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2006 SCORING GUIDELINES

Question 1 (continued)

Distribution

of points

For indicating the scalar sum of the four charges or potentials to indicate the total potential

1 point

2

kQ

2

Q

k

=V = ( -Q - Q - Q + Q ) = 4 0 r

r

r

For substituting the correct distance relationship into an electric potential relationship

1 point

-2Q

-2kQ

V =

= a

4 0 ( a 2 )

( 2)

2 2 kQ

Q

=a

2 0 a

Note: because of use of the word DERIVE in the question stem, two points were awarded for

the final expression with no supporting work

V =-

(c)

3 points

For checking Negative

For relating the charge motion to either a field direction or the potential difference

Examples:

The field is directed generally from R to P and the charge moves in the opposite direction.

Thus, the field does negative work on the charge.

The potential difference between P and R is positive and the charge moves through the

positive potential difference. Thus, the field does negative work on the charge.

Note: Only indicating the direction of the field or sign of the potential difference without

relating that to the charge motion earned one point

Note: Any obviously incorrect statement within an otherwise correct answer resulted in a

one point deduction

Examples:

The charges cancelled, or The field is a scalar, or The voltage is a vector.

1 point

2 points

(d)

(i)

2 points

For replacing the top-right negative charge with a positive charge OR replacing the bottomleft positive charge with a negative charge

For an appropriate justification

Example:

The vector fields/forces all cancel from oppositely located same charge pairs.

Note: Any obviously incorrect statement resulted in a one point deduction

Examples:

The charges cancelled, or The field is a scalar, or The voltage is a vector.

(ii)

1 point

1 point

3 points

For replacing the top-left negative charge with a positive charge OR replacing the bottomright negative charge with a positive charge

1 point

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2006 SCORING GUIDELINES

Question 1 (continued)

Example:

The scalar potentials all cancel from equidistant located opposite charge pairs.

For indicating the direction of the resultant non-zero field using words or diagram

Note: Any obviously incorrect statement resulted in a one point deduction

Example:

The charges cancelled, or The field is a scalar, or The voltage is a vector.

Distribution

of points

1 point

1 point

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2006 SCORING GUIDELINES

Question 2

15 points total

(a)

Distribution

of points

4 points

From Kirchhoffs loop rule, the sum of the potential differences around the circuit is zero.

For any statement of the loop rule

- VR - VC = 0

For correct substitution of potential difference across both resistor and capacitor

- iR1 - Cq = 0

For substituting the differential definition of current

dq

i=

dt

For a correct answer including correct signs (a correct answer with no supporting work was

awarded full credit)

q

- R1 dq

=0

dt C

Alternate solution

For an exponential function of current with time

1 point

1 point

1 point

1 point

Alternate points

1 point

I = I 0 e t / R1C

For Ohms Law with the initial current

I0

1 point

R1

dq

I =

dt

For a correct answer (a correct answer with no supporting work was awarded full credit)

dq t / R1C

= e

dt R1

(b)

1 point

1 point

3 points

Using the differential equation from part (a)

q

- dq

=0

R1 dt

C

For separating the variables of the differential equation

dq

dt

=

C - q R1C

q

dq

q - C =

0

1 point

dt

- R1C

0

1 point

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2006 SCORING GUIDELINES

Question 2 (continued)

Distribution

of points

t

ln(q C ) 0 =

R1C

ln ( q - C ) - ln ( - C ) = ln

q - C

= e -t

- C

q - C

1

=(t - 0 )

- C

R1C

R1C

q - C = - Ce -t R1C

For a correct answer (a correct answer without supporting work in parts (a) or (b) was

awarded 1 point)

q = C 1 - e -t R1C

1 point

Alternate solution

Using the differential equation from part (a) (alternate)

Alternate points

1 point

dq t / R1C

= e

dt R1

dq =

q

R1

t

dq =

0

e t / R1C dt

R1

e t R1C dt

q0 =

q

- R1Ce

R1

-t

1 point

R1C

q = R1C e t R1C

R1

R1

For a correct answer (a correct answer without supporting work in parts (a) or (b) was

awarded 1 point)

q = C 1 - e -t R1C

(c)

1 point

3 points

The charge on the capacitor in terms of potential difference and capacitance is given by

q = CV

For setting charge expression from part (b) equal to this expression for charge on capacitor

C 1 - e-t R1C = CV

1 point

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2006 SCORING GUIDELINES

Question 2 (continued)

t = R1C ln

Distribution

of points

( - V )

12 V

t = (4700 W)(0.060 F ) ln

12 V - 4 V

For the correct answer with units (a correct answer with units with no supporting work was

awarded full credit)

3

t = 114 s ( or equivalent such as t = 282 ln

s)

2

Note: An incorrect value of time greater than 0 s and less than 282 s (the time constant,

R1C) with correct units earned one point of credit

2 points

()

(d)

5 points

For sketching I 2 as exponentially decreasing to a horizontal asymptote

For having I 1 starting at zero

For sketching I 1 as exponentially increasing to a horizontal asymptote

For showing the I 1 and I 2 converging at the same horizontal asymptote

1 point

1 point

1 point

1 point

1 point

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2006 SCORING GUIDELINES

Question 3

15 points total

(a)

Distribution

of points

2 points

For showing at least one magnetic force perpendicular to any of the three lower arms in the

plane of the loop and no forces on the upper arm

For correctly showing the three forces on the bottom arm and two side arms

(b)

1 point

1 point

3 points

For recognizing the equilibrium condition with the spring force upward balancing the

magnetic force downward and NO inclusion of the gravitational force on the loop

FS = FM or kx = IlB

1 point

For explicitly solving for the initial magnetic field strength, B0 , using the correct

1 point

kx

Il

For substituting the width of the loop bottom, w , for the length, l , in the magnetic force

B0 =

1 point

l=w

B0 =

kx

Iw

(c)

(i)

2 points

2 points

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2006 SCORING GUIDELINES

Question 3 (continued)

Distribution

of points

(ii)

3 points

For noting that the potential difference around the loop results from the changing magnetic

flux through the loop area

df

e = - m = - B0 dA = - B0l dy = - B0lu0

dt

dt

dt

For explicitly and correctly solving for the current using Ohms law and the induced emf

I ind =

l=w

(d)

1 point

d m

dt

or I ind =

or equivalent

R

R

For identifying the length in the motional emf relationship is the width of the loop bottom

I ind =

1 point

1 point

B0 wu0

R

2 points

The power dissipated by a current carrying wire

V2

P = I ind V = I ind 2 R =

R

For recognizing the current from part (c) (ii) is the current in the expression for power

For using the current from part (c) (ii) in an algebraically correct expression for power

2

B 2 w2u0 2

B wu

P = 0 0 R = 0

R

R

1 point

1 point

Alternate solution:

Alternate points

The external force must balance the force on the current carrying wire in a magnetic field

Fext = FB = B0 wI ind

For substituting the current expression from (c) (ii) into the force expression

1 point

2 2

B w 0

B w

Fext = FB = B0 w 0 0 = 0

R

R

Power can be related to a constant force and constant speed

P = Fu

For relating the power to the force and speed with the current substitution

1 point

2 2

2 2 2

B w u0

B w u0

u0 = 0

P= 0

R

R

(e)

3 points

For choosing Increases

For a clear and complete justification identifying that the magnetic field affects the force

directly through the FM = B0 I ind l relationship and also through the induced current

1 point

2 points

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2006 SCORING GUIDELINES

Question 3 (continued)

I ind =

Distribution

of points

B0 w0

R

Example:

An increased magnetic field causes the magnetic force on the loop bottom to be larger for a

given current and wire length. The larger field also increases the size of the induced

current. Thus, the motion must be balanced by a larger applied force to keep the loop

moving at the same constant speed, 0 , through a larger field with a larger induced

current.

Note: A partially complete or unclear justification was awarded one point.

Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents).

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