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Arsenic removal from groundwater

(Patents related to arsenic removal)


1. US 6461535 : Composition for arsenic removal from

groundwater
Abstract : A composition for arsenic removal from groundwater
includes an oxidizer, a clay and a coagulant, where the clay and the
coagulant are capable of forming a coagulant/ colloidal mixture,
which adsorbs arsenic.Here clay comprises of activated bentonite,
coagulant comprises ferric chloride,coagulant comprises aluminium
sulphate and oxidizer comprises of chlorine.
Drawbacks : Since it involves addition of chemical adsorbents
which exhibit environmentally degrading qualities: toxicity, use of
strong alkali or corrosive acids to regenerate. Production of large
quantity of arsenic laden wastes. It suffers from pH problem.
2. US 20110215001 : Electrochemical removal of

arsenic
Abstract : It provides a process for removal of arsenic from arsenic
contaminated aquous solution. It comprises an anode comprising of
iron and the cathode comprises an electricity conducting metal that
is iron or electropositive relative to iron.Electric current is passed
through the water via the anode and cathode to cause formation of
iron hydroxide from iron of the anode which then forms an insoluble
arsenic-iron hydroxide complex which can be separated from
aquous solution.
Drawbacks : In this method high electrical energy is required for
the operation. So it is costly for rural area. It produces toxic
sludge.Large quantity of iron is required.
3. WO 2008025358 : Water purification including

disinfection,oxidation and arsenic removal


Abstract : It is a water purification unit having compartments for
the water to follow successively through these compartments.(1) A
compartment comprising of iodine releasing resin for killing
microbes in water (2) next a downstream compartment with an
iodine scavenger configured for releasing chlorine during iodine
scavenging for oxidation of trivalent arsenic to pentavalent arsenic
and (3) lastly a further downstream compartment with arsenic
removal resin for removal of arsenic from water.
Drawbacks : No backwash is provided for regeneration of the
removal resin. As a result maintainance is required after sometime
for effective arsenic removal to function properly.

4. WO 2007026370 : A filtering device for the removal

of arsenic from water


Abstract : This filtering device uses steel wool and sand as raw
material for the removal of arsenic from water It works on simple
principle of co-precipitation of arsenic with metal, followed by
adsorption and filtration through treated sand. The metal,steel wool
used in the device is the waste generated from steel plant thereby
making the device cheaper and versatile.In this device iron arsenate
and iron arsenite are co-precipitated by reaction of steel wool with
arsenic of water.
Drawbacks : No provision for backwashing is mentioned. It will be
costly for commercial purpose.
5. US 6132623 :
Abstract : It uses a mixture of iron scrap and quatz sand in the
reactor for in-situ treatment of arsenic contaminated groundwater.
Drawbacks : It suffers from disadvantage that it is not suitable for
removal of arsenic from water at household level.
6. US 7892436 : Composition and method for removing

arsenic in water
Abstract : The composition comprise ferric hydroxide and ferric
oxyhydride coated substrates for removing contaminants from water.
Method of oxidising the contaminants to facilitate their removal is
also provided for effecting their removal by ferric hydroxide and
ferric oxyhydride coated substrates. The contaminats include
arsenic, selenium,uranium and lead.
Drawbacks : Backwashing is not provided so problem of
accumulation with time and removal efficiency will decrease.Also it
will require maintainance.
7. US 7820052 : Method of arsenic removal from water
Abstract : This method uses chemically prepared bottom ash
treated with ferrous sulphate and sodium hydroxide.Deposits on the
surface of the particles of bottom ash form of activated iron
adsorbent with high affinity for arsenic. It provides a very low-cost
solution solution to arsenic poisoning for large population.
Drawbacks : Since chemicals are used it may affect the pH. Sludges
will be formed rich in arsenic which need to be disposed properly.

8. US 7491335 : Removal of arsenic from water with

oxidised metal coated pumice


Abstract : It is a method of removing arsenic from water by
contacting water with oxidised metal coated pumice. Prior to the
step of contacting the water with oxidised metal pumice , water must
be exposed to an oxidising agent. The oxidised metal coated pumice
is oxidised iron coated pumice. The pH of water is adjusted to be less
than 7.
Drawbacks : It is costly for use in rural areas. It will require
maintainance.
9. US 7476311 : Arsenic removal from aquous media

using chemically treated zeolite


Abstract : This method includes removal of arsenic from
groundwater source by contact with either a chemical treated
natural or synthetic zeolite example ferric-loaded zeolite.A system
for monitoring and maintaining arsenic removal/disposal by an offsite
provider is also mentioned.
Drawbacks : As chemically treated materials are used it may affect
pH . It will require maintance and is costly
10. US 7445718 : Removal of arsenic from drinking and

process water
Abstract : In this method arsenic and heavy metals are removed
from water using metal salt hydroxidegels .The arsenic present in
water is adsorbed onto the hydroxide-gels which can be filtered
effectively through a diatomecious earth (DE) filtration bed. The
metal salt is selected from the group of lanthanum salt, ferric salt
and aluminium salt.
Drawbacks : No provision for backwashing is mentioned so it will
require maintance after sometime. It will be costly for use
11. US 7326346 : High capacity regenerable sorbent for

removal of arsenic and other toxic ions from


drinking water
Abstract : In this method of arsenic removal a sorbent comprising
of disordered polyvalent metal oxide on the surface of an inert
substrate. The substrate used can be layered silicate such as
vermiculite, an aluminosilicate such as montmorillonite or non
layered silicate such as zeolite. The sorbent removes ionic
contaminants such as arsenic from water.
Drawbacks :

12. US 7314569 : Treatment of arsenic contaminated

water using akaganeite adsorption


Abstract : In this method it uses akagenite, an iron oxide as arsenic
adsorption medium.It is affixed onto the carrier media so that it can
be used in filtration system.
Drawbacks : No backwashing is mentioned. It will require
maintance and will be costly for rural use.
13. US 7282153 : Method for removal of arsenic from

water
Abstract : It is a method of removing arsenic from water by
contacting water with strong base anion exchange basin comprising
of atleast one metal ion or metal containing ion whose arsenate salt
has (KSP > 10-5 ) provided metal is not zirconium.
Drawbacks : It is costly as it will require electricity and
maintainance.
14. US 6802980 : Arsenic removal in conjunction with

lime softening
Abstract : It is a method of removing arsenic from aquous solution
by adding lime to the aquous medium and by adding one or more
sources of divalent metal ions other than calcium and magnesium to
the aquous medium. The dissolved arsenic in the aquous medium is
reduced to lower level than possible if only the step of adding lime
was performed. It also includes a composition of matter for removing
dissolved arsenic from an aquous medium comprising lime and one
or more sources of divalent copper/zinc metal ions.
Drawbacks :
15. US 6790363 : Method of treating arsenic-

contaminated waters
Abstract : This method removes both As(III) and As(V) from arsenic
contaminated water.It involves contacting arsenic contaminated
water with zeolite adsorbent coated with nanophase Mn-Fe oxide. Mn
containing oxide in the adsorbent oxidises As(III) to As(V). Then the
oxidised and native As(V) is adsorbed by Fe oxide in the adsorbent
for subsequent removal. And finally removing the oxidised and
native As(V) from the water.
Drawbacks :
16. US 5368703 : Method for arsenic removal from

wastewater

Abstract : This method provides a system and apparatus for


removing arsenic from aquous media. It utilises ferrous ion provided
by a electrochemical cell which is added to the aquous medium at
start. It is followed by addition of hydrogen peroxide to generate mild
oxidising condition. The ferrous ion forms an hydroxide which is
oxidised to oxyferric oxide and arsenic in (+3) oxidising states is
oxidised to (+5) state whereupon oxyacids complexes with oxyferric
oxide. Finally a precipitate is formed which consists of ferric arsenate
and hydroxyl-ferric oxide-oxyacid complex.
Drawbacks :
17. US 8361920 : Method and composition for removal

of arsenic and heavy metals from water


Abstract : This patent relates to the methods and invention for
removal of arsenic and heavy metals from water. The medium used
for removal of contaminants in fluid comprisises of iron,clay,carbon
and an Iron-Silica complex coating where the media has porosity of
75-80 %.The medium of iron-silica coating comprises zero valent
iron oxide.The porosity control chemical is liquid wax and the carbon
source material is flour.
Drawbacks : It is costly for use in rural areas. It will require
maintainance.
18. Indian patent (No : 234016) : A process to produce

arsenic free drinking water and a arsenic removal


plant therefor
Abstract : A process to produce arsenic free drinking water
comprising passing arsenic contaminated drinking water through
first an iron filter selected from gravel, sand, and manganese dioxide
and subsequently through a container having granular ferric
hydroxide to obtain arsenic free water.
Drawbacks :
19. US 7393810 : Solid material for removing arsenic

and method thereof


Abstract : Solid material are developed to remove arsenic
compound from aquous solution. The arsenic is removed by passing
the aquous phase through the solid material which adsorb arsenic
leaving purified aquous solution. The materials are aerogels or
xerogels and support structure Granulated Activated Carbon (GAC)
mixtures.
Drawbacks : I t will be costly for use in commercial purpose. No
backwashing is mentioned.