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Methods that measure vs methods that manipulate (causality- I

changed that brain part and this is what happened)
Single Unit reporting: reporting of single neurons within a brain.
Has a lot of temporal resolution
o measures response properties of single cells
o thin electrode inserted into animals brain
o if electrode near neuronal membrane measure electrical
o record intracellularly (difficult, can damage cell) or
extracellularly (more typical; activity reflects responses of a
set of neurons)
o determine experimental manupilations that change the cells
response (ie increase above baseline firing rate.)
o what is it that makes the neuron increase firing
o receptive fields and checks firing rate
o benefits: good spatial temporal
o drawbacks:
one neuron at a time 1/x,000,000s
o electrochemical measurements of dopamine release
fMRI: not as good temporal resolution or spatial map of neurons
o mri (high resolution): structure one set of images,
o fmri (low resolution sacrifice temporal for spatial
resolution): function many image sets over time Blood
Oxygenation Level Dependent Bold signal indirect measure of
neural activity
o slices and voxels

voxel 3d location
pixel 2D location
o How does MRI work? The scanner is basically a large magnet.
Atoms (esp H+) in the subjects brain align with the magnetic
field. The extent to which atoms align with the field depends
on the kind of tissue (grey matter, white matter, csf)
o How does fMRI work?
Deoxygenated hemoglobin has magnetic properties,,
oxygenated hemoglobin is not.
So the amount the magnetic field is perturbed depends
on the proportion of deoxygenated hemoglobin in the
Low oxygenated: deoxygenated ratio -> lower MR
High : -> higher MR signal
Increase neural activity > inc glucose and oxygen metabolism >
increase cerebral blood low > inc blood oxygenation > inc fMRI
o Data analysis overview: two different conditions and you want
to compare them. Look at a particular point in space, voxel,
and plot time course over time. Does it show more activity in
C1 or C2?
Statistical maps: superimposed on anatomical MRI
o Can be used on people, verified correlation of neural activity,
compare activity across brain at once, best combination of
spatial and temporal resolution
o Negatives: blood flow and not action potentials, has
limitations in spatial resolution and some temporal resolution.
PET positron emission tomography: slightly worse spatial (cms)
and temporal (minutes) resolution than fMri
o Inject with radioactivity substance, will then travel to brain
and decay which will send out protons that can be sensed by
o Specific Tracers
o + Can measure more than just blood flow. Allows you to be
o radioactive, worse temporal and spatial res
Worse spatial but better temporal resolution

Electrodes on different places of the skull and can

ERP: taking EEG trace and averaging them together to
get a global wave form
EEG: raw time course
ERP: Average time course of response to an event
What generates the EEG signal? Whena sizable number
of pyramidal neurons are oriented parallel to eact
+ Allows measurement of the timing of neural firing
with millisecond precision.
not great for determining where in the brain that
neural firing takes place. Want to know where in brain
not skull.
o MEG: measures magnetic activity of the skull
Good spatial, bad temporal, measuring things at skull
but you want to know things at the brain, more
Optical Imaging: s
o Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)
o When to use over fmri?
1. Babies dont want to go into fMRI scanner.. trust me
2. In cases where the behavior of interest cant be seen
in fmri scan. (ie conversations between 2 peeps)
o genome-wide association studies:

Methods so far only demonstrate involvement. What about methods

that test necessity or sufficiency.
Naturally occurring lesions: ex broca (bad producing language) and
wernike (bad understanding language)

o Check for associations and overlaps between people with

functional deficit and those without.
o associations and dissociable of deficits
o + can see associations and can test for what brain structures
are necessary for those behaviors
o dont control location of lesions, a lot of variability,
compensation from injury
Induced lesions: moving to animal models
o Can be made v precisely.
o Patient HM hippocampus and memory, experimental surgery
that affect hippocampus: could infer the specific role of the
TMS (transcranial magnetic stimulation)
o Based on faraday principle
o Rapidly fluxing magnetic field
o Induces current in underlying cortex
o Noninvasive
o Permits focal manipulation of cortical activity
o Reversible focal region in time and space in specific area of
the brain.
o A lot of areas you cant reach
tDCS: ttranscranical direct current stimulation
o not as good spatial as TMS
o effects are less understood than tms because partly hard to
study what electrical current is doing without changing where
it goes.
o Similar pros and cons as TMS
o + less expensive as TMS

o Can block or activate Actions of different neuro transmitters

and neurochemicals
o Agonist vs antagonist
o Depletion vs loading
Quiz on the 27th brain anatomy resources online mate
Basic terms
Anterior/ Rostral
Posterior/ caudal
Superior/dorsal (backbone)
Inferior/ventral (belly)
Medial (things near midline)
Lateral (things away from midline)
Contralateral: two points on opposite sides of midline
Ipsilateral: two points on same side
<always anterior ^always superior > always posterior (down)
always inferior
top of brain = dorsal
bottom of brain = ventral
front of spinal cord = ventral

coronal plane

sagittal plane
horizontal or Axial plane

Cortical Localization: Anatomy

4 lobes
o frontal
o parietal
o temporal
o occipital
sulci (inside) and gyri (outside)
Interhemispheric fissure big landmark that divides brain
Sylvian Fissure: separates temporal lobe from parietal and frontal
lobes. Insula is buried within it. Mostly horizontal
Parieto-occipital fissure and calcarine sulcus
o Medial view
o Divides medial parietal from occipital lobe [NOTES]
o Once you see calcarine sulcus it is a marker of occipital lobe
and the first place visual input goes is located on the two
sides of the calcarine sulcus
Central, postcentral and precentral sulci
o Localization maps onto area function
Localization within lobes:
Collateral Sulcus: divides lingual and parahippocampal gyri from
fusiform gyrus major divider within temporal lobe
Cingulate- medial frontal lobe: divides cingulate gyrus from
precuneus and paracentral lobule

Intraparietal Sulcus: superior and inferior

Superior temporal sulcus and inferior temporal sulcus
Superior and inferior frontal sulcus
Cortical localization: function
Motor and somatosensory cortex
o Homunculi
Motor (in front of central sulcus) vs somatosensory
(behind central sulcus) cortex
Auditory Cortex
o Area in the superior temporal gyrus
o Sides split based on neurons that respond to different pitches
of tones
Visual Cortex
o Retinotopic map
o Two visual pathways
Ventral (what) pathway: occipital temporal
Dorsal (where) pathway: occipital parietal

Brodmanns Map
o Ff
Basal ganglia: caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus.

Receive projections from cortex and then send them back to

cortex. Mapping such that different areas of cerebral cortex
project to different areas of basal ganlia or thalamus

De gustibus non est disputandum I matters of taste there can be

no dispute
What determines prices?
Early questions: How can we come up with an explanation for the
price of things?
o Intrinsic Value (utility): no because diamonds cost more than
o Production cost (labor theory of value): diamonds cost more
to mine that cost to get water. Though mining rocks wouldnt
be the same cost as diamonds
o Marginal utility: what consumers and choosers are trying to
do is maximize some internal subjective quantity called utility
Marginal utility graph: small marginal increase in price
+ large marginal increase in price at the bottom
Next questions: Pareto - ordinal objects
o Utility concept is too flexible diminishing at the margins is
o Only need better than, worse than, and indifferent to
o Utility is ordinal rather than cardinal
o Cardinal Utility: absolute measure matters and you can talk
about things that have meaning. Ie this is 1/3 more valuable
than that
o Ordinal is simply a ranking. This is 1. This is 2 nd, this is 3rd.
Revealed preference: an economic theory is defined only in relation
to observable data (choices)
o Given that we do not observe utility, how can we test whether
people are utility maximizers?
o Answers:
weak axiom of revealed preference (WARP), : if a is
directly revealed preferred to b, then b is not directly
revealed preferred to A
strong (SARP), : if a is indirectly revealed preferred
to B, then B is not directly revealed preferred to A

Generalized (GARP): if A is indirectly revealed

preferred to B then B is not strictly revealed preferred
to A, that is, A is not strictly within the budget set when
B was chosen. should not have cycles of choices. As
long as choices are such where they dont have cycles
then I can explain those choices as resulting from
maximizing some ordinal utility function.
Directly revealed preferred: A is directly revealed preferred to
B if B was in the choice set when A was chosen
Indirectly revealed preferred
Consumer demand: micro econ basics
If you have intransitive preferences then you are a money
pump you will make trades that are all inline with your


Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex (bottom, towards the midline
o Contains multiple architectonic regions brodmans area 10,
32, 11, 14
o Phineas gage: more impulsive
o Elliots example: tumor damaged area of the brain leaving
him impaired in ability to make simple decisions
o Iowa Gambling test:
(missing slide during lecture)
card task, given 4 decks of cards, asked to choose from
those decks to maximize payoffs. AS you turn over
more and more cards you are eventually hit with a huge
lost. Different with other decks. Way to maximize gains
is to not choose a lot of cards from the deck with big
gainz and losses to the more solid gain decks
patients have trouble with this.
First experimental task that seemed to capture
the decision making deficit to this area of the
o Neural correlates of preference:
study: subjects went through fmri and made choices
between different junk foods. Valued the junk foods to
the subjects based on how much they would pay.
Looked for areas were fmri signals scaled with the value
of foods.

Quiz in a week

This signal that scales with value is in this area

Study: domain on gambles
Study: consumer goods similar structure to food
study but
Study: willingness to wait and delayed outcomes. More
valuable outcomes in VMC
Meta-analysis of preference signals : all in VMC

Computational algorithm implementation

Expected Value
Maximize expected value expected return from option you chose
o Sum of all possible outcomes [NOTES]
Pascals wager
St Petersburg paradox: people dont choose based on EV
What you win depends on when the first heads is thrown
o $2 on first throw
o 4 on second
o 8 on third
o etc
EV of lottery= all outcomes * probability of outcome = infinite
o If you are a chooser maximizing expected value then you can
charge any price to get people to play
expected utility - Bernoulli

analogy to psychophysical functions
Axiomatization of expected utility the four necessary and
sufficient conditions to say a decision-maker maximizes expected
o Completeness
o Transitivity
o Continuity
o Independence
Subjective expected utility foundational disagreement with EU
Alternative axiomatization of expected utility
Probabilities are personal, so it applies to uncertainty as well as risk
Key axiom is the sure thing principle
Risk-return models WTP, EV, and Risk term
Prominent in finance
Under some conditions is identical to expected utility

If L1>L2 then for all a =[0,1] for all L3 a*L1 + (1-a) * L3> a*L2 + (1-a)*
Prospect theory: added probablility weighing function
Reference point
Degrees of uncertainty