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HOTS Gravitation

Problem 1: There are two fixed heavy masses of magnitude M of high density on x-axis at a
distance 2d apart. A small mass m moves in a circle of radius R in the y-z plane between the
heavy masses. Find the speed of the small particle.
Solution :

Force of attraction between M and m is

By symmetry Fx components will cancel.

The net force, which provides the centripetal force, is given by

As net force provides the centripetal force . Therefore ,

Problem 2: Two satellites of same mass are launched in the same orbit around the earth so
that they rotate opposite to each other. If they collide in-elastically, obtain the total energy of
the system before and just after the collision. Describe the subsequent motion of the wreckage

Potential energy of the satellite in its orbit = G M m/r
K.E. = |U| /2
= GMm/2r
where m is mass of satellite, M the mass of the earth and r the orbital radius.
Total energy of one satellite = K. E. + P.E.

For two satellites, total energy E = G M m /r

Let v be the velocity after collision. By conservation of momentum

v = 0
The wreckage of mass (2m) has no kinetic energy, but it has only potential energy. So, energy
after collision

The wreckage falls down under gravity.

Problem 3 : A uniform sphere has a mass M and radius R. Find the gravitational pressure P
inside the sphere, as a function of the distance r from its centre.
Solution :

Consider a layer of thickness dr at a distance r from the centre of the sphere.

Now force due to the layer dF = 4r2dP

(Where is the mean density of sphere)

[ As, r = M/ (4/3)R3]
Problem 4: What is the gravitational potential energy of a particle of mass m kept
at a distance x from the centre of a disc of mass M on its axis ? The radius of the
disc is R.