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Technical Report Part 2

Fire Safe Design metro tunnels


Rapporteur Metro Tunnels, Daniel Gabay, RATP

Technical review:
Richard Bettis (HSE), Arnaud Marchais (RATP), Ulla Eilersen (Sund &
Bealt)

Workpackage Members
Bruno Brousse (CETU), Didier Lacroix (CETU), Paul Scott (ARUP),
Niels Peter Hoj (COWI), Enrique Fernandez (Dragados), Gabriel Khoury
(FSD), Yngve Anderberg (FSD)Walter Frey (GRS), Hermann Otremba
(Hochtief), Daniel Gabay (RATP), Arnaud Marchais (RATP), Giorgio Micolitti (RFI)Ilse Roelants (Traficon), Esko Mikkola (VTT)

Table of contents

Table of Contents
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.3.1
1.3.2
1.3.3
1.3.4

List of collected guidelines


Table of references for tunnels (national guidelines)
Table of references for stations ( national guidelines)
Analytical summaries (national guidelines)
France
Spain
Germany
USA

286
287
288
290
290
290
291
291

2
2.1
2.2
2.3

Comprehensive list of safety measures


Structural measures relevant to safety
Safety equipment
Structure & equipments, response to fire

292
292
292
293

3
3.1
3.1.1
3.1.2
3.1.3
3.1.4
3.2
3.2.1
3.2.2
3.2.3
3.2.4
3.2.5
3.2.6
3.2.7
3.2.8
3.2.9
3.3

Matrix of guidelines contents


Structural measures relevant to safety
S1 - Emergency passenger exit for users
S2 - Emergency access for rescue staff
S3 Emergency access for firemen rescue in tunnel
S3 Drainage
Safety equipment
E1 Smoke control ventilation
E2 Smoke control ventilation ( in station)
E3 Lighting
E4 Signage (permanent/variable)
E5 Communication and alarm system
E6 Traffic regulation - monitoring equipments
E7 Power supply
E8 Fire suppression (fire fighting equipment)
E9 Others Electrical power outlet
Structure & equipment response to fire

294
295
295
295
297
298
298
298
301
302
303
303
309
310
311
313
313

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4
4.1
4.1.1
4.1.2

4.1.3

4.1.4
4.2
4.2.1
4.2.2
4.3
4.3.1
4.3.2
4.3.3
4.4
4.4.1
4.5
4.5.1

Appendix 1: Tables of contents of national guidelines for tunnels and stations


translated into English
France
IT 98-300 du 8/07/1998- Instruction Technique Interministrielle relative la Scurit
dans les tunnels ferroviaires (in French only).
Arrt du 20 fvrier 1983 modifi portant approbation des rgles de scurit et des
modalits de contrle applicables aux locaux accessibles au public, situs sur le
domaine public du chemin de fer et rigoureusement indispensables l'exploitation de
celui-ci Partie :Gare
Arrt du 25 juin 1980 portant approbation des dispositions gnrales du rglement
de scurit contre les risques dincendie et de panique dans les tablissements
recevant du public.
Decree n2003-425 of May 9, 2003 Decree relating to the safety of guided public
transport
Spain
Normes techniques sobre seguretat contra incendis a la xarxa ferroviaria sotterrada a
Catalunya
Fire safety on Madrid metro-Fire protection system and resources
Germany
BOStrab-E-Bau-RL Guideline for electrical equipment concerning to the Guideline for
Construction and Operation of Tramways (BOStrab) 23th August 1990
BOStrab-Tunnelbau-RL Guideline for the Construction of Tunnels concerning to the
Guideline for Construction and Operation of Tramways (BOStrab) 30th April 1991
BOStrab Guideline for Construction and Operation of Tramways (TramwayConstruction and Operation Guideline BOStrab) 11th December 1987
Finland
Fire Safety of Buildings
USA
NFPA 130 Standard for Fixed Guide way Transit and Passenger Rail
Systems

318
318
318

319

320
322
323
323
323
324
324
324
325
327
327
328
328

List of collected guidelines

Metro Tunnels
In accordance with the description of work package 3.1 and the discussions at the network
meetings, work package shall include:
Structural safety facilities
Safety equipment
Reaction/resistance to fire
The work in WP3 will include both a listing of relevant guidelines and comparison of selected
guidelines.
The specificity of the metros concerns the two following special features: the existence of
stations and the rolling stock.
The stations
The strategy of fire protection in metros is based on the couple station-tunnel because the
most important issue is to evacuate people and that is done generally by the accesses of the
station.
In fact, most of the rolling stock used by the undertaking companies in the metro network are
equipped with overriding emergency brake system. This system protect the driver from an
un voluntary stop between two stations.
Moreover the time the train is running in tunnel is generally small, less than two or three minutes and the stopping time in station is more or less about one minute.
Then the probability to find a train stopped in tunnel in fire is very low.
The rolling stock
The rolling stock (R.S.) is dedicated to a metro line; it is only used for passenger transportation. Dangerous goods are not allowed.
For this reason, the risk is more easily analysable due to the fact that the R.S. is homogeneous.
The main objective is therefore to reduce the risk at the source, using very efficient standards
for the train design and materials used for this construction.
The FIT analysis is only an infrastructure analysis so various Rolling stock standards are not
taken into account even if rolling stock is a key component of the global safety..

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List of collected guidelines

LIST OF COLLECTED GUIDELINES

The list of standard and rules are established:


for the tunnel ( few standards)
for the stations ( more standards)
This list is very incomplete and that for 2 reasons:
1 each new project defines new concept in fire safety and can be considered as the best
practices of the moment
2 each new project includes the fire design concept taking in account the rolling stock
dedicated to this line.
In France and in others countries, stations are establishment receiving people and have to
be in accordance with specific rules.
The first level is a list of the documents including:
title, reference and date of the document
the administrative status of the document in the concerned country
The second level includes:
an analytical summary of the contents stating the essential items for the topics compiled
by WP3
the table of contents translated into English (as shown in appendix 1)

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List of collected guidelines

1.1 Table of references for tunnels (national guidelines)


This table shows the countries where national guidelines were collected in the FIT approch
Country

Title / Issued by

Finland

Fire safety of buildings

Austria

Guideline for construction and operation of new rail


tunnels

Reference
E1

Date

Administrative status

2002

Regulations and guidelines

12/1998
06/1999

Comments
No specific
Used as background
where applicable

Guideline

France
Instruction technique interministrielle N 98 300
relative la scurit dans les tunnels ferroviaires

8/07/1998

Ministrial instruction

Dcret n2003-425 du 9 mai 2003 Dcret relatif la


scurit des transports publics guids

09/05/2003

Decree

Arrt du 23 mai 2003 relatif aux dossiers de scurit des systmes de transport public guids urbains

23/05/03

Arrt

Safety in rail tunnels

8/07/1998

Ministerial instruction

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General rules for guided


transport system

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List of collected guidelines


Country
Germany

Title / Issued by
Guideline for construction and operation of tramways
Guideline for the construction of Tunnels
Guideline for electrical equipment

Italy

Spain
USA

Fire prevention in metro


Fire prevention in metro tunnels, tramways and cable railway
Fire safety in rail and metro tunnels of Catalunia
Fire safety and protection in the Madrid metro
Fixed guideway transit and passenger rail systems
Critical fan plant facilities design guideline 302

Reference
BO Strab

BO Strab
tunnelbau
BO Strab
E -RLbau

NFP 130
NYCT

Date

Administrative status

11/12/1987

Guideline

30/04/1991

Guideline

23/08/1990

Guideline

11/06/1988
5/04/1991

Decree
Decree

1997
03/2001
2000
1997

Comments

Standard
Guideline
Standard
Guideline

1.2 Table of references for stations ( national guidelines)


This table shows the countries where national guidelines were collected in the FIT approch
Country

Title / Issued by

Finland

Fire safety of buildings

Austria

Guideline for construction and operation of new rail


tunnels

Technical report Part 2 Fire Safe Design metro tunnels

Reference

E1

Date

Administrative status

2002

Regulations and guidelines

12/1998
06/1999

Guideline

Comments

No specific
Used as background
wuhere applicable

288/329

List of collected guidelines

Country
France

Title / Issued by

Reference

Arrt du 20 fvrier 1983 modifi portant approbation des rgles de scurit et des modalits de
contrle applicables aux locaux accessibles au public, situs sur le domaine public du chemin de fer
et rigoureusement indispensables lexploitation de
celui-ci.

Date

Administrative status

20/02/1983

Arrt

25/06/1980

arrt

Rglement de scurit contre les risques dincendie


et de panique dans les tablissements recevant du
public. Arrt modifi du 25 juin 1980

Decree

Comments

Usable in addition with


Arrt of 20 /02/1983
General rules for guided
transport system

09/05/2003
Dcret n2003-425 du 9 mai 2003 Dcret relatif la
scurit des transports publics guids
Germany

Guideline for construction and operation of tramways


Guideline for the construction of Tunnels
Guideline for electrical equipment

Italy

Spain
USA

Fire prevention in metro


Fire prevention in metro tunnels, tramways and cable railway
Fire safety in rail and metro tunnels of Catalunia
Fire safety and protection in the Madrid metro
Fixed guideway transit and passenger rail systems
Critical fan plant facilities design guideline 302

Technical report Part 2 Fire Safe Design metro tunnels

BO Strab

11/12/1987

Guideline

BO Strab
tunnelbau
BO Strab
E -RLbau

30/04/1991

Guideline

23/08/1990

Guideline

11/06/1988
5/04
1991
1997
03/2001
2000
1997

Decree
Decree

NFP 130
NYCT

Standard
Guideline
Standard
Guideline

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Comprehensive list of safety measures

1.3 Analytical summaries (national guidelines)

1.3.1 France
1.3.1.1 IT 98-300 du 8/07/1998- Instruction Technique Interministrielle relative la
Scurit dans les tunnels ferroviaires (in French only).
Summary
This document define the requirements for the tunnels according to the exploitation type (urban; urban and suburban ;passenger) and the length. It specifies all the requirements for
lighting, ventilation, fire resistance and means of egress and rescue.
1.3.1.2 Arrt du 20 fvrier 1983 modifi portant approbation des rgles de scurit et
des modalits de contrle applicables aux locaux accessibles au public, situs sur le
domaine public du chemin de fer et rigoureusement indispensables l'exploitation de
celui-ci,
Summary:
This is a comprehensive document concerning the classification of the station and the safety
needs for design, equipments and rescue means. It defines also the obligations for the operator.
1.3.1.3 Arrt du 25 juin 1980 modifi portant approbation des dispositions gnrales du rglement de scurit contre les risques dincendie et de panique dans les tablissements recevant du public
Summary:
This is a comprehensive document in addition of the text ref 1312 for the design, equipments, and rescue services.
1.3.1.4 Dcret n2003-425 du 9 mai 2003 Dcret relatif la scurit des transports publics guids
Summary:
This is a comprehensive document covering all the subsystem of a transport system, from
the beginning of the design to the end of use of the system.

1.3.2

Spain

1.3.2.1 Normes techniques sobre seguretat contra incendis a la xarxa ferroviaria sotterrada a Catalunya ( in catalan only)
Summary : This document gives all the information concerning the carrying out of the emergency plan.
1.3.2.2 Fire safety on Madrid metro-Fire protection system and resources
Summary : This document gives an overview of the activities and concept used in the Madrid
Metro for fire safety.

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Matrix of guidelines contents

1.3.3

Germany

1.3.3.1 BOStrab-E-Bau-RLGuideline for electrical equipment concerning to the Guideline for Construction and Operation of Tramways (BOStrab) 23th August 1990
Summary: This guideline contains no fire safety relevant information except:
Part 1 1.2.3 Emergency power supply
Part 2 2.3 Safety/ Emergency Lighting
1.3.3.2 BOStrab-Tunnelbau-RL Guideline for the Construction of Tunnels concerning
to the Guideline for Construction and Operation of Tramways (BOStrab) 30th April 1991
Summary: This document gives all the data concerning the construction of tunnels including
safety requirements
1.3.3.3 BOStrab Guideline for Construction and Operation of Tramways (TramwayConstruction and Operation Guideline BOStrab) 11th December 1987
Summary: This document gives all the information concerning the construction of the traffic
system and vehicles, including also the operational aspects in normal or safety situations.

1.3.4

USA

1.3.4.1 NFPA 130 Standard for Fixed Guideway Transit and Passenger Rail Systems
Summary
This standard now addresses fixed guide-way transit and passenger rail systems.
The purpose of this standard is to establish minimum criteria that provide a reasonable degree of protection from fire and egress calculations.

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Comprehensive list of safety measures

COMPREHENSIVE LIST OF SAFETY MEASURES

2.1 Structural measures relevant to safety


S1 Emergency passenger exit for users
S11 Parallel escape tube
S12 Emergency cross-passage
S13 Shelter
S14 Direct pedestrian emergency exit
S2 Emergency access for rescue staff
S21 Separate emergency vehicle gallery access
S22 Cross passage vehicle access
S23 Emergency lane
S24 Direct pedestrian access (lateral, upstairs, shaft)
S25 Turning area
S26 Emergency siding
S27 Firemen station at portals
S3 Drainage of flammable liquids
S31 Inclination of tunnel axis
S32 Separate drainage systems
S33 Liquid sump
S34 Non porous surface course
S4 Others
2.2 Safety equipment
E1 Smoke control ventilation
E 11 Natural ventilation by shafts
E 12 Longitudinal
E 13 Transversal
E 14 Ventilation control sensors
Opacity
CO
NOx
Anemometers
Counter pressure measurement at portals
E2 Emergency exit and rescue access ventilation
E3 Lighting measurement at portals
E31 Emergency tunnel lighting
E32 Marker light in tunnel
E33 Emergency exit and rescue access lighting

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Matrix of guidelines contents

E4 Signage (permanent/variable)
E41 Traffic signals outside the tunnel
E42 Traffic signals inside the tunnel
E43 Exit pedestrian signs
E44 Rescue pedestrian signs
E5 Communication and alarm system
E51 Emergency telephone
E52 Alarm push button (manual fire alarm)
E53 Automatic alarm on equipments (exit doors, extinguisher, fire boxes)
E54 Automatic incident detection
E55 Fire/smoke detection (ventilation sensors or specific fire detection)
E56 Radio rebroadcast
tunnel users
emergency team
operator
E57 Loudspeakers (in tunnel, in shelters)
E6 Traffic regulation - monitoring equipments
E61 Monitoring of traffic speed and intensity
E63 Close circuit television
E64 Remote control barriers
E66 Thermographic portal detectors (trucks)
E7 Power supply
E8 Fire suppression (fire fighting equipment)
E 81 First and fire fighting (extinguisher, hose-reels, etc ...)
E82 Fire fighting media
E84 Fixed fire suppression mitigation system (Sprinkler, Deluge)
E9 Others
2.3 Structure & equipments, response to fire
R1 Reaction to fire
R2 Structure resistance to fire
R3 Equipment resistance to fire
cables
fans

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Matrix of guidelines contents

MATRIX OF GUIDELINES CONTENTS

Detailed comparison between FRANCE, GERMANY and USA


Category
Element
Structural measures relevant to safety
S11 Parallel escape tube
S1 Emergency
passenger exit for S12 Emergency cross-passage
users
S13 Shelter
S14 Direct pedestrian emergency exit
S21 Separate emergency vehicle gallery
S2 Emergency
access for rescue S22 Cross passage vehicle access
S23 Emergency lane
staff
S24 Direct pedestrian access
S25 Turning areas
S27 Firemen station at portals
S3 Drainage of
flammable liquids
S31 Inclination of tunnel axis
S32 Separate drainage systems
S33 Liquid sump
S34 Non porous surface course

A,3

I
O
I

I
O
I

I
O
I

Safety equipment
E1 Smoke control
ventilation
E 11 Natural ventilation by shafts

E 12 Longitudinal
A1&2
E 13 Transversal
O
E 14 Ventilation control sensors

E2 Emergency exit and rescue access ventilation


E31 Emergency tunnel lighting
A
E3 Lighting
E32 Marker light in tunnel
O
E33 Emergency exit & rescue access ligh A
E41 Traffic signals outside the tunnel
I
E4 Signage
E42 Traffic signals inside the tunnel
I
(permanent/
E43 Exit pedestrian signs
A
variable)
E44 Rescue pedestrian signs
A
E51 Emergency telephone
A1&2
E5
Communication E52 Alarm push button (manual fire alarmI
O
and alarm system E53 Automatic alarm on equipments
E54 Automatic incident detection
O
E55 Fire/smoke detection
O
E56 Radio rebroadcast
I
E57 Loudspeakers (in tunnel, in shelters)
E61 Monitoring of traffic speed and intensI
E6 Traffic
E63 Close circuit television
O
regulation E64 Remote control barriers

monitoring
E66 Thermographic portal detectors (truck
equipments
E7 Power supply
A1&2
E 81 First aid fire fighting
I
E8 Fire
A1&2
suppression (fire E82 Fire fighting media
E84 Fixed fire suppression system

fighting
Structure & equipement, response to fire
R1 Reaction to fire
A
R2 Structure resistance to fire
A
R3 Equipment resistance to fire
A

O
O

O
O

A
O
A
I
I
A
A
A,3
I
O
O
O
A,3

I
O

A
I
A?3

A
O
A
I
I
A
A
A
i
O
O
O
A

I
O

A
I
A

A
A
A

A
A
A

Legend:
No available guidelines
No requirements,little information
Normative information
Detailed information or models
Reference to national guideline n

O
A
X
,n

Figure 1 Overview over types of requirements, amount of information and reference to the documents. Reference to

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Matrix of guidelines contents

3.1 Structural measures relevant to safety

3.1.1 S1 - Emergency passenger exit for users

3.1.1.1 Role of the measure


To allow passengers to escape the danger zone the more rapidly.

3.1.1.2 Synthesis - comments


The concept for metros is very different. In fact all the evacuation concept is based on 3
main principles:
the existence of stations very large with many corridors and accesses
the short distance existing between the stations ( 4 to 6 hundred meters mean)
the emergency brake override in tunnels
So the last item signifies that the major fire safety case is located in the station with wide
platforms and two or more exits .
So, accordingly with the rolling stock and the evacuation mode, the pedestrian accesses are
on the track side or on escape walkway.

3.1.1.3 Comparison
S11 Parallel escape tube
NO in all metros

S12 Emergency cross-passage


NO in all metros where twin bores are common only for American or Asian metros (very
rare in Europe). In USA: twin bores, 244 meters distant or 381m in other tunnel (NFPA
130)

S13 Shelters
NO in all metros

S 14 Direct pedestrian emergency exits


YES, but only by the station accesses

3.1.2 S2 - Emergency access for rescue staff


3.1.2.1 Role of the measure
To allow rescue staff to arrive in the danger zone the more rapidly.

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Matrix of guidelines contents

3.1.2.2 Synthesis - comments


NO in normal tunnel in all the metros, but its possible by the station accesses and in terminus at the end of the tunnel.

3.1.2.3 Comparison
S21 Separate emergency vehicle gallery access
NO, in all the metros

S22 Cross passage vehicle access


NO, in all the metros, but: in case of incident without any damage on the track, firemen,
under their responsibility, may use normal empty train to rescue passengers.

S23 Emergency lane


NO, in all the metros

S24 Direct pedestrian access (lateral, upstairs, shaft)


The direct pedestrian accesses are the same that for rescuing passengers. So, accordingly with the infrastructure, the rolling stock and the evacuation mode, the pedestrian
accesses are on the track side or in special walkway.

The following table indicates maximum distance between two stations.


Network, Country
Brussels, Belgium
Copenhagen, Denmark
Paris, France
Rennes, France
Helsinki, Finland
Prague, Czeck Rep.
Milan, Italy
Stockholm, Sweden
Hamburg, Germany
Berlin, Germany
Munich, Germany
Rotterdam, Netherlamds
Lisbon, Portugal
Barcelona, Spain
Madrid, Spain
Vienna, Austria
Moscow, Russia
London, UK
USA

Requirement; Maximum distance between stations/accesses


750m
Max. 600 m-------

Comment

Between two stations or a station


and a shaft

800m
600 m
----2140m
---------1000m
1700m
1717m
----1300m
800m
1000m; 615 m mean
600m
600m
-----381m

S25 Turning areas


YES, if it is possible to consider the normal track area to change the traffic way every
five or six stations as turning areas

S26 Emergency siding (external for rail tunnels)

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Matrix of guidelines contents

In most of metro lines, to manage better the big number of trains, there are in several
points of the line some special tracks:
to park the trains except during peak hours in the normal tunnel
to park and move or change the tracks in terminal point
But, there are not special tracks to save train in fire or to stock special emergency train

S27 Firemen station at portals


NO, in all the metros; but, for tunnel ended by stations, we can consider that each station
is firemen station protected generally by ventilation against smoke coming from tunnels.
Moreover, in the terminus , terminal tunnel are ended by special access with ladders
going to the surface which are used like:
emergency exit for drivers or operators
emergency access or exit for firemen

3.1.3 S3 Emergency access for firemen rescue in tunnel


3.1.3.1 Role of the measure
To allow firemen to arrive close to the fire zone the more rapidly.

3.1.3.2 Synthesis - comments


For firemen rescue in tunnel, there are two possibilities:
the use of walkway or track side or both
the use of special firemen accesses for long tunnels
In the following table, we consider only special firemen access.

3.1.3.3 Comparison tables


Network, Country
Brussels, Belgium
Copenhagen, Denmark
Paris, France
Rennes, France
Helsinki, Finland
Prague, Czeck Rep.
Milan, Italy
Stockholm, Sweden
Hamburg, Germany
Berlin, Germany
Munich, Germany
Rotterdam, Netherlamds
Lisbon, Portugal
Barcelona, Spain
Madrid, Spain
Vienna, Austria
Moscow, Russia
London, UK
USA

Requirement; Emergency access for firemen rescue


Comment
No Fire brigade accesses
Fire brigade access
Fire brigade access, 800 meters distant
Fire brigade access with places reserved, 600 meters distant
Fire brigade access with places reserved, 500 meters distant
No Fire brigade accesses
Fire brigade accesses, 200 meters distant
No Fire brigade accesses
No Fire brigade accesses
No Fire brigade accesses
No Fire brigade accesses
Fire brigade accesses
No Fire brigade accesses, 500 meters distant
Fire brigade accesses, 500 meters distant
Fire brigade accesses
No Fire brigade accesses
--Fire brigade accesses, 762m

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Matrix of guidelines contents

3.1.4 S3 Drainage
3.1.4.1 Role of the measure
To collect water and other products from the track under standard conditions and during fire
intervention.

3.1.4.2 Synthesis - comments


For all the metros, there is not flammable liquids carried by wagons. In case of flammable
liquids coming from the infrastructure, there are no special facilities but intervention of specialised firemen to evaluate risk and determine the operational procedure.
By line , special sumps are needed to collect the water running in tunnel by infiltration or
coming by natural or mechanical shafts. The number depends generally of the number of
lower point of the tunnel profile.
In some cases it may be use explosions detectors when you have got infiltration of flammable liquids from tanks outside (for example oil station industries).

3.1.4.3 Comparison
S31 Inclination of tunnel axis
No requirement, but sometimes the discharge duct is located near the walls or in the
middle of the tunnel

S32 Separate drainage systems


NO in all the metros

S33 Liquid sump


In the workshops and in the maintenance areas for trains

S34 Non porous surface course


no in all the metros

3.2 Safety equipment

3.2.1 E1 Smoke control ventilation


3.2.1.1 Role of the measure
This measure allows passengers to escape from the dangerous zone to a safe area.

3.2.1.2 Synthesis - comments


As we consider underground stations and tunnels like a continuous underground environment, the role of ventilation is fundamental.

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Matrix of guidelines contents

So we find many systems like:


tunnel ventilation + station ventilation (emergency + comfort or the same)
only tunnel ventilation (close to the station or in the middle of each interstation ), allowing to treat also or not the station
only station ventilation ( at each level or not: platform; mezzanine; corridors) allowing to treat also or not the tunnel
ventilation in tunnel + air conditioning system in station
air conditioning in station and tunnel
More over, the ventilation can be carried out by mechanical fan or natural shafts.

The use of ventilation is very important but difficult. There is two main phases during an incident:
from the beginning of the fire or incident to the decision taking
after the decision taking
During the first phase, the smoke spreading is due to:
the stop of the train where incident takes place; this fact induces piston effect due to
this train which is generally weak and in the direction of this running train
the passing train in the other way at the normal speed; this fact induces important
piston effect in opposite way of the stopping train
the effect of the comfort ventilation in tunnel existing or not, working or not
It appears rapidly that its not possible to forecast the smoke spread in this phase, except if a
real time data system allow to know all the parameters of the incident situation. If this phase
duration is not too long, the production of smoke is weak. During this second phase, the
situation is steady and the smoke spreading direction prediction is possible.
In metro tunnel, we find many systems:
E 11 Natural - shafts
E 12 Longitudinal (+ local blowing ? extraction ?)
E 13 Transversal
E 14 Ventilation control by sensors ( opacity, Co, NoX, anemometers, counter
pressure measurement at portals)

3.2.1.3 Comparison tables


E 11 - E 14 Smoke control ventilation
Network, Country
Brussels, Belgium
Copenhagen, Denmark

Requirement
----; noE14
E12

No specific;E11; E12 ; noE14

Paris, France
Rennes, France

No specific;E12; noE14

Comment, details
+ Overpressure in all shafts and emergency staircases. Direct smoke extraction from trains on station.
Smoke from longitudinal ventilation are
extracted through smoke-shafts in stations.
1or more fan per interstation; 60 to
120m3/s; reversible; one speed
1 fan per interstation; rversible;70m3/s; > one speed
.

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Matrix of guidelines contents


Network, Country
Helsinki, Finland

Requirement
Specific; noE14

Prague, Czeck Rep.


Milan, Italy

No specific; noE14
No specific; noE14

Stockholm, Sweden

specific ;noE14

Hamburg, Germany
Berlin, Germany
Munich, Germany
Rotterdam, Netherlamds

No specific; E 11; noE14


specific ; noE14
Specific; E 11 ;noE14
Specific; noE14

Lisbon, Portugal

No specific ;E12; noE14

Barcelona, Spain

No specific; noE14

Madrid, Spain

No specific; noE14

Vienna, Austria

No specific; noE14

Moscow, Russia
London, UK

No specific ;noE14
No specific; noE14
To provide safe conditions for passengers

USA

Comment, details
------------;1650m3/s *; reversible> one
speed
--------;-60 m3/S; reversible one speed
--------;4001m3/s*;;reversible;> one
speed
--------;----------;no reversible;> one
speed

-------;----------; no reversible;> one


speed
2 fan per interstation;65 to 80 m3/s
;reversible;> one speed
2 to 6 fan per interstation; 120m3/s;
reversible;> one speed
2 fan per interstation; 20 to 230
m3/s(average : 128 m3/s);no reversible;
1 or 2 speed; air speed 0,9m/s to
1,6m/s
------------; 50 to 100 m3/s;no reversible;
one speed
-------;4,2m3/s ;reversible; one speed
1 fan per interstation;.100m3/s; reversible;> one speed
Defined by NFPA 130 : 3-2.2.2

* : for all the line

E 15 Command mode
E15-1 Synthesis comments
For this item, we consider two aspects of the command:
HOW ? (151,152,153)
WHO ? (154,155,156)
The different command mode are :
E151 automatic
E152 manual
E153 semi - automatic
And the responsible manager:
E154 Responsible technical staff
E155 Responsible operating staff
E156 Responsible fire brigade
The table below shows all the data available.
Network, Country
Brussels, Belgium
Copenhagen, Denmark
Paris, France
Rennes, France
Helsinki, Finland
Prague, Czeck Rep.
Milan, Italy
Stockholm, Sweden

E151 automatic command mode


E152 manual command mode
E153 semi - automatic comm.
mode
E152E152
E151, E153
E151
E151, E152, E153
No E151, E152, E153

Thematic Network Fire in Tunnels

E154 Responsible technical staff


E155 Responsible operating
staff
E156 Responsible fire brigade
E154 coordinated with E156E155
E155, E156
E156
E154
E154
No E154, E155, E156-

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Network, Country
Hamburg, Germany
Berlin, Germany
Munich, Germany
Rotterdam, Netherlamds
Lisbon, Portugal
Barcelona, Spain
Madrid, Spain
Vienna, Austria
Moscow, Russia
London, UK
USA

E151 automatic command mode


E152 manual command mode
E153 semi - automatic comm.
mode
-----;
-----;
-------;
No 151and 152
E153
E152
E152and 153
E153
E152 and 153
E151 and 153
E 151, E152

E154 Responsible technical staff


E155 Responsible operating
staff
E156 Responsible fire brigade
-----;
E156
---------;
No156,154 and 155
E155
E155
E154 and156
E155 and 156
E154
E155
---

3.2.2 E2 Smoke control ventilation ( in station)


3.2.2.1 Role of the measure
3.2.2.2 Synthesis - comments
The requirements for emergency exit ventilation are only briefly described if at all.
The command mode for the fans in station is generally the same than for the fans in tunnels.
The network are sometimes heterogeneous because of the type of line (new, old), the crowd
during the day or others. So, we consider the mean situation.
To simplify we note in the following table:
No E2 when there are not smoke control ventilation
E2 in the other case
Maximum airflow (in m3/s) when ventilation exists
Network, Country
Ventilation in stations
Brussels, Belgium
No E2
E2
Copenhagen, Denmark
Paris, France
No E2
Rennes, France
E2
Helsinki, Finland
E2
Prague, Czeck Rep.
-------;
Milan, Italy
-----;
Stockholm, Sweden
No E2
Hamburg, Germany
------;
Berlin, Germany
-------;
Munich, Germany
-------;
Rotterdam, Nether-----;
amds
Lisbon, Portugal
E2( 2 to 4 by station)
Barcelona, Spain
E2(2 to 6 per station)
Madrid, Spain
E2(2 per station)
Vienna, Austria
E2(7 per station)
Moscow, Russia
E2( 2 per station)
London, UK
E2(1 per station)
USA
Only objectives

Maximum airflow (in m3/s)


Overpressure
16
850 to 1650*
60

3333*

80
120
30; airspeed max 1,6m/s
50 to 100
100
100
rmined for each project

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3.2.3 E3 Lighting
3.2.3.1 Role of the measure
To provide suitable lighting level to the passengers to escape from the dangerous area.

3.2.3.2 Synthesis - comments


For most of metros, emergency exits are in the stations and are lighted by normal lighting
and emergency lighting in case of fire or power supply failure. The list takes into account:
E31 Emergency tunnel lighting
E32 Marker light in tunnel
E33 Emergency exit and rescue access lighting
To simplify we note in the following table for all the data available:
No E + number when there are not the proposed equipment
E + number in the other case
Or yes/no.
When the data are known, we precise also the height (in cm) and the mean illumination (in
lux ).
In case of an emergency it is important to have sufficient lighting in the tunnel. The light will
provide visibility for the possible evacuation and for the rescue operation. In case of a fire
additional marker lights may indicate the route to the exits. Also in the escape routes (cross
passages, escape tunnel etc.) it will be necessary to have sufficient light in order to have an
effective evacuation.

3.2.3.3 Comparison tables


E31 - E33 Tunnel lighting
Network, Country
Brussels, Belgium
Copenhagen, Denmark
Paris, France
Rennes, France
Helsinki, Finland
Prague, Czeck Rep.
Milan, Italy
Stockholm, Sweden
Hamburg, Germany
Berlin, Germany
Munich, Germany
Rotterdam, Netheramds
Lisbon, Portugal
Barcelona, Spain
Madrid, Spain
Vienna, Austria
Moscow, Russia
London, UK
USA

Emergency
tunnel lighting

Normal lighting 24h/24

E31;
E31;
E31;
E31;
E31;
E31;
E31;
E31;
E31;
E31;
E31;
E31;
E31;
No E31;
No E31;
E31;
E31;
E31;

no
yes
yes
no
yes
no
no
----;
----;
yes
yes
yes
no
no
no
-------

Thematic Network Fire in Tunnels

Normal lighting during


operating
hours
yes
no

Height (cm)

Mean illumination (lux)

120
50

2
1

Yes
Yes
yes
----;
yes
No
No
---;
no
no

225
---;
100 to300
----;
4 to 6
----;
----;
100
---;
----;

2
60
5
2
100
3
>3
1
----;
10

Yes
Yes
No
no
no
No
-------

320
----;
25
----;
-----;
150
NFPA70

10
>1
2 to3
20

2,69

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3.2.4 E4 Signage (permanent/variable)


3.2.4.1 Role of the measure
To provide information to escape from the dangerous zone.

3.2.4.2 Synthesis - comments


This analysis takes in account that for running trains it exists normal signalling.

E41 Trafic signals outside the tunnel


YES, but it is normal signalling for train movement

E42 Trafic signals inside the tunnel


YES, but it is normal signalling for train movement
But also, in case of evacuation in tunnel, specific signage for people:

E43 Escape direction signs

E44 Escape routes


To simplify we note in the following table for all the data available:
No E + number when there are not the proposed equipment
E + number in the other case

3.2.4.3 Comparison tables

E41- E44 Signage

Network, Country
Brussels, Belgium
Copenhagen, Denmark
Paris, France
Rennes, France
Helsinki, Finland
Prague, Czeck Rep.
Milan, Italy
Stockholm, Sweden
Hamburg, Germany
Berlin, Germany
Munich, Germany
Rotterdam, Netherlands
Lisbon, Portugal
Barcelona, Spain
Madrid, Spain
Vienna, Austria
Moscow, Russia
London, UK
USA

Requirement
No E 43; E44
E43; E44
E43; E44
E43; E44
E43; E44
E43; E44
E43; E44
E43; no E44
E43; E44
E43; E44
E43; E44
E43; no E44
E43; E44
E43; no E44
E43; E44
E43; E44
E43; E44
-------; E44
E43; E44

Comment

3.2.5 E5 Communication and alarm system


3.2.5.1 Role of the measure
To inform operators, operator staff, firemen or other rescue services to make easier their
intervention and to facilitate communications between them

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3.2.5.2 Synthesis - comments


For the metros there are many intervention people:
during the alert phase:
1. the driver in the train
2. the station operators
3. the passenger
during the intervention phase:
1- the chief operator
2- the firemen responsible
3- the station operator
4- the staff
5- the police
So we have to consider these communication means during these 2 phases. More we have
to separate communication means and alarm system.
E51- Communication
For communication during the incident and the intervention of rescue services, many facilities
can be used :
E510 Normal telephone system
E511 Emergency telephone
E512 Leased line
E513 Mobile line
E514 Direct line
E515 Satellite network
E516 Underground radio system
E517 Communication means brought
In the three following tables during the two main phases :
rescue bodies
firemen
police
Emergency telephones are available for nearly all tunnel, but the distance and detailed arrangements vary. Generally there is an alarm to the control room, when safety equipment is
being used and radio coverage in the tunnel. Otherwise there is no general synthesis in the
national guidelines.

3.2.5.3 Comparison tables

E51 Rescue bodies

Network, Country
Brussels, Belgium
Copenhagen, Denmark
Paris, France
Rennes, France
Helsinki, Finland
Prague, Czeck Rep.
Milan, Italy
Stockholm, Sweden
Hamburg, Germany
Berlin, Germany
Munich, Germany
Rotterdam, Netherlands

Alarm phase
510;514

Intervention phase
510;517

510;511
510;514
510
510;511;514
510
510;514
510;511;514
510;511;514
510; 514
510;

510; 511;512;513;515;516;517
510;511;516
510
510;511;
510;517
513;516
510;511;512;513.516
510;511;512;516
511;512;513.516
510;511;513;

Thematic Network Fire in Tunnels

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Network, Country
Lisbon, Portugal
Barcelona, Spain
Madrid, Spain
Vienna, Austria
Moscow, Russia
London, UK
USA

Paris, France
Rennes, France
Helsinki, Finland
Prague, Czeck Rep.
Milan, Italy
Stockholm, Sweden
Hamburg, Germany
Berlin, Germany
Munich, Germany
Rotterdam, Netherlands
Lisbon, Portugal
Barcelona, Spain
Madrid, Spain
Vienna, Austria
Moscow, Russia
London, UK
USA

Alarm phase

Intervention phase

510;514 + computer based alarmsystem

511;516

510;511;514
510;514
510;514
510;511;514
514
510;514
510;511;514
510;511;514
510; 511;514
510;
510;514
510
510;511;514
510;514
510;514
------;

510; 511;512;513;515;516;517
510;511;512;516;517
510;511;513;516
510;511;
511
513;516
510;511;512;513.516
510;511;513;516
511;512;513.516
510;511;513
510;511;516;517
510;516;517
516;517
510;516
510;511;513;516
-----;

Alarm phase
510;514

Intervention phase
510;517
516
510; 511;512;513;515;516;517
510;
510
510;511;
511
513
510;511;512;513.516
510;511;516;517
511;512;513.516
510;511;513;517
510;511;516;517
510;511;516
516
510;516
510;511;513
-----;

E51 Police

Network, Country
Brussels, Belgium
Copenhagen, Denmark
Paris, France
Rennes, France
Helsinki, Finland
Prague, Czeck Rep.
Milan, Italy
Stockholm, Sweden
Hamburg, Germany
Berlin, Germany
Munich, Germany
Rotterdam, Netherlamds
Lisbon, Portugal
Barcelona, Spain
Madrid, Spain
Vienna, Austria
Moscow, Russia
London, UK
USA

Intervention phase
510;511;516;517
510;511;516
516
510
510;511;513
-----;

E51 Firemen

Network, Country
Brussels, Belgium
Copenhagen, Denmark

Alarm phase
510
510
510.516
510
510;511;514
------;
Defined for each metro, but all the
system can be employed

510;514
510;514
510
510;511;514
511
510;514
510;511;514
510;511;514
510; 514
510; 514
510;514
510
510
510;514
510;514
------;

E52 and E53- Alarm means in public area of the station and in tunnel
.

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3.2.5.4 Role of the measure


To alarm operator staff to allow passengers to escape the danger zone the more rapidly and
to stop the traffic if it is required.

3.2.5.5 Synthesis - comments


The alarm means are described and defined for each category of people located in station or
tunnel (on the train). The two following tables precise the facilities used; the number used are
defied in the list below :
E52 passengers
E521 Telephone
E522 Emergency call
E53 personal
E531 Telephone
E532 Emergency call
E533 Radio( station)
E534 Radio(tunnel)
E535 TV-system
E536 Push button alarm

3.2.5.6 Comparison tables

E52- E53 Alarm means in public areas of the station and in tunnel
Network, Country

Passengers

Personal

Brussels, Belgium
Copenhagen, Denmark
Paris, France
Rennes, France
Helsinki, Finland
Prague, Czeck Rep.
Milan, Italy
Stockholm, Sweden
Hamburg, Germany
Berlin, Germany
Munich, Germany
Rotterdam, Netherlands
Lisbon, Portugal
Barcelona, Spain
Madrid, Spain
Vienna, Austria
Moscow, Russia
London, UK
USA

521
522
522
522
521;522
522
-----522
531;532
521;522
522
521;522
----522
522
521;522
-----------Public adress system in stations only

531
531, 532, 533, 534, 535
531;532;533;534;536
531;532;536
531;532;533;534;535;536
531;532;533;534;535;536
531;532;535
531;532;534
531;532;533;534;535
531;532;533;535;536
531;532;533;534;535;536
531;532;533;534;535;536
531;533;
531;532;533;534;;536
531;532;533;534; 536
531;532;533;534;535;536
531;535
531;532;533;534;535;536

Thematic Network Fire in Tunnels

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E52- E53 Where is the alarm addressed to

Network, Country
Brussels, Belgium
Copenhagen, Denmark
Paris, France
Rennes, France
Helsinki, Finland
Prague, Czeck Rep.
Milan, Italy
Stockholm, Sweden
Hamburg, Germany
Berlin, Germany
Munich, Germany
Rotterdam, Netherlands
Lisbon, Portugal
Barcelona, Spain
Madrid, Spain
Vienna, Austria
Moscow, Russia
London, UK
USA

Control Centre
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes

Fire Brigade
yes
yes
no
no
yes
yes
no
no
no
yes
no
yes
no
no
---;
no
yes
yes
no

E54 Automatic incident detection

3.2.5.7 Role of the measure


Fire detection to alarm operator staff to allow passengers to escape the dangerous zone
quickly

3.2.5.8 Synthesis comments


In the metro, the fire risk is more important in station and for that ,detection is used in many
technical rooms.
E541 Automatic alarm on equipment (exit doors, extinguisher, fire boxes ...)
No, in all metros
42 Automatic incident detection
No, in all the metros
E543 Fire/smoke detection (ventilation sensors or specific fire detection)
Included in the next table:
5431 : storage rooms
5432 : sprinkler
5433 : garbage rooms
5434 : sprinkler
5435 : shops
5436 : sprinkler
5437 : escalator machine (U: upper end ; L: lower end )
5438 : smoke detector
5439 : sprinkler

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3.2.5.9 Comparison table


Network, Country
Brussels, Belgium
Copenhagen, Denmark
Paris, France
Rennes, France
Helsinki, Finland
Prague, Czeck Rep.
Milan, Italy
Stockholm, Sweden
Hamburg, Germany
Berlin, Germany
Munich, Germany
Rotterdam, Netherlands
Lisbon, Portugal
Barcelona, Spain
Madrid, Spain
Vienna, Austria
Moscow, Russia
London, UK
USA
* : NFPA 130 2-7

5431
yes

5432
no

5433
yes

5434
no

5435
yes

5436
yes

5437
U

5438
Yes

5439
no

yes
yes
yes
yes
---No
yes
yes
yes
No
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes

yes
--no
no
--no
no
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
no
--yes

yes
yes
yes
yes
---yes
yes
yes
yes
No
No
No
yes
yes
----yes

no
---No
no
--yes
no
no
No
No
no
no
??
No
----yes

yes
-----yes
Yes
----yes
yes
yes
yes
No
yes
no
yes
------No
yes

yes
---yes
no
-----yes
Yes
----Yes
No
No
No
Yes
----No
Yes

U;L
U;L
U;L
U;L
U;L
---L
-------------------U;L
---U;L
U;L

no
no
no
Yes
no
no
Yes
no
no
no

no
no
Yes
no
no
---no
no
no
no

yes

Yes

Yes

-----

E55Information to passengers

3.2.5.10 Role of the measure:


The means of information of the travellers make it possible to inform them of incident, to
guide them in the stations and to direct them towards other direction in order to avoid an aggravation of the incident.

3.2.5.11

Synthesis comments

This point is very important because this transportation mode is often crowded and delay can
present important other risk to create new accident. For that, we consider only 3 items:
E551 passenger information
E552 alternative means
E553 alternative routes

3.2.5.12 Comparison table


Network, Country
Brussels, Belgium
Copenhagen, Denmark
Paris, France
Rennes, France
Helsinki, Finland
Prague, Czeck Rep.
Milan, Italy
Stockholm, Sweden
Hamburg, Germany
Berlin, Germany
Munich, Germany

Requirement: Information to passengers


551 ;no 552;553
551;552;553
551 ;552;553
551;552;553
551 ;no552;553
551;552;553
551 ;no 552;553
551;552;553
551;552;553
551;552;553
551;552;553

Thematic Network Fire in Tunnels

Comments

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Network, Country
Rotterdam, Netherlands
Lisbon, Portugal
Barcelona, Spain
Madrid, Spain
Vienna, Austria
Moscow, Russia
London, UK
USA

Requirement: Information to passengers


551;552;553
551 ;no 552;553
551;552;553
551;552 ; 553
551;552 ;553
551;552;553
-----;----;------551;552;553

Comments

3.2.6 E6 Traffic regulation - monitoring equipments


3.2.6.1 Role of the measure
To allow to stop the trains if required near the incident location, to continue train traffic where
it is possible and control and command all the equipment useful

3.2.6.2 Synthesis comments


In each metro network, a control and command centre allows to:
know at each time the location of the trains
stop each train in station if required
know the energy distribution and cut if necessary
E61 Monitoring of traffic speed and intensity
YES in all the metros
E63 Close circuit television
See above E5 + exceptionally for trains when there is no driver.
E64 Remote control barriers
No (seeE61)
E66 Thermographic portal detectors (trucks)
No but in many cases, hot boxes detection
The traffic regulation and monitoring is mainly a preventive measure. However, by monitoring the traffic, its speed and intensity as well as monitoring unwanted events, accidents and
fires directly, the necessary actions to mitigate the consequences can be taken by the tunnel
operator.

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3.2.6.3 Comparison table


Network, Country
Brussels, Belgium
Copenhagen, Denmark
Paris, France
Rennes, France
Helsinki, Finland
Prague, Czeck Rep.
Milan, Italy
Stockholm, Sweden
Hamburg, Germany
Berlin, Germany
Munich, Germany
Rotterdam, Netherlands
Lisbon, Portugal
Barcelona, Spain
Madrid, Spain
Vienna, Austria
Moscow, Russia
London, UK
USA

Requirement: Emergency lighting


Automatic activation
no

Requirement: Emergency lighting


Remote control centre
yes

no
no
no
no
yes
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
yes

no
no
no
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
no
yes
yes
----;
----;
yes
yes

3.2.7 E7 Power supply


3.2.7.1 Role of the measure
Allow to keep all the emergency control and command in case of electrical power failure.

3.2.7.2 Synthesis - comments


E700 traction current
E701 lighting
3.2.7.3 Comparison table
Network, Country
Brussels, Belgium
Copenhagen, Denmark
Paris, France
Rennes, France
Helsinki, Finland
Prague, Czeck Rep.
Milan, Italy
Stockholm, Sweden
Hamburg, Germany
Berlin, Germany
Munich, Germany
Rotterdam, Netherlands
Lisbon, Portugal
Barcelona, Spain
Madrid, Spain
Vienna, Austria
Moscow, Russia

Requirement: Power supply


700;no701

Thematic Network Fire in Tunnels

Comment

700;701
700;701
No700;701
No700;701
700;701
No700;701
700;701
700;701
No700;701
700;701
700;701
700;no701
700;701
No700;701
700;701

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Network, Country
London, UK
USA

Requirement: Power supply


----:-----700;701

Comment

3.2.8 E8 Fire suppression (fire fighting equipment)


3.2.8.1 Role of the measure
To reduce consequences of a fire
3.2.8.2 Synthesis - comments
In the metros, we are obliged to consider two adjacent spaces:
the tunnel
the station
In tunnel, technical rooms with potential risk (electrical) can be installed. In stations,commercial rooms, mechanical equipment and technical rooms can be build. There are
fire suppression devices in the public areas and in some places like technical or commercial
rooms. These systems are used.
E 81 First aid and fire fighting
E810 : Extinguisher
E811: hose-reels
E812 : Hydrant

3.2.8.3 Comparaison tables


E 81 First aid fire fighting (extinguisher, hose-reels, etc ...)
Network, Country
Brussels, Belgium
Copenhagen, Denmark
Paris, France
Rennes, France
Helsinki, Finland
Prague, Czeck Rep.
Milan, Italy
Stockholm, Sweden
Hamburg, Germany
Berlin, Germany
Munich, Germany
Rotterdam, Netherlamds
Lisbon, Portugal
Barcelona, Spain
Madrid, Spain
Vienna, Austria
Moscow, Russia
London, UK
USA

Requirement: First Fire fighting equipment Comment


No E810; No E811;E812
E810, E812
No E810 ;No E811; E812(100m)
No E810 ;No E811 ;E812(60m)
No E810;No E811;E812(100m)
E810(10m distant) ;No E811;E812(50m)
No E810; E811(50m) ;E812(36m)
No E810;No E811;noE812
E810; E811(60m) ;E812(60m)
E810; ;No E811;noE812
E810(45m distant);E811(120m) ;E812(120m)
No E810;No E811;E812(60m)
No E810;No E811;noE812
No E810;No E811;noE812
E810;No E811; E812(50m station distant)
No E810;No E811 ;noE812
E810; ;No E811;E812(90m)
No E810;No E811
----------

E82 Fire fighting media

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3.2.8.4 Role of the measure


To reduce time to extinguish fire.
3.2.8.5 Synthesis comments
The table give mainly the use of pipes in modern or old lines, the diameter of pipes( cm ).
E 820: dry pipes
E 821: wet pipes
E 822: old network
E 823 : platform
E 824 : Communicating areas
E 825: tunnels
E826: dedicated fire brigade access
E827: diameter

3.2.8.6 Comparison tables


Network, Country

Requirement: Fire fighting media

Brussels, Belgium
Copenhagen, Denmark
Paris, France
Rennes, France
Helsinki, Finland

820;821;822;823;----;825;----;
820, 823, 825, 826
820;821;no822;823;824;825;826;
820;---;822;823;824;825;826;
820;821;822;no823;no824;825;826
;
820;no821;no822;823;no824;no82
5;no826;
820;821;822;823;----;825;----;
820;821;822;823;824;no825;no826
;
820;821;no822;823;no824;no825;n
o826;
820;821;no822;823;---;825;826;
820;no821;822;823;no824;825;826
;
820;821;822;823;824;825;---820;821;822;823;824;825;no826;
820;821;no822;823;no824;no825;n
o826;
820;no821;822;823;824;no825;826
;
820;821;822;823;824;825;826;
820;no821;822;823;---;825;826;
820;821;no822;823;824;825;826;
See NFPA 130

Prague, Czeck Rep.


Milan, Italy
Stockholm, Sweden
Hamburg, Germany
Berlin, Germany
Munich, Germany
Rotterdam, Netherlands
Lisbon, Portugal
Barcelona, Spain
Madrid, Spain
Vienna, Austria
Moscow, Russia
London, UK
USA

Requirement:
Diameter
100
100?
100
100
100

Comment

75
50-180
25
80-100
80
80
55-110
50
50
100;70;45
80
80-100
-----

E84 Fixed fire suppression mitigation system (Sprinkler, Deluge)

Reference is made to the other chapter

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Matrix of guidelines contents

3.2.9 E9 Others Electrical power outlet


3.2.9.1 Role of the measure :
To allow to supply all the electrical facilities used by the firemen during their intervention.

3.2.9.2 Synthesis comments


This table give also the distance between 2 outlets.
3.2.9.3 Comparison tables
Network, Country
Brussels, Belgium
Copenhagen, Denmark
Paris, France
Rennes, France
Helsinki, Finland
Prague, Czeck Rep.
Milan, Italy
Stockholm, Sweden
Hamburg, Germany
Berlin, Germany
Munich, Germany
Rotterdam, Netherlands
Lisbon, Portugal
Barcelona, Spain
Madrid, Spain
Vienna, Austria
Moscow, Russia
London, UK
USA

Requirement: electrical
power outlet
E-9
E9
E-9
E-9
E-9
E-9
E-9
No E9
E-9
E-9
E-9
E-9
E-9
No E9
E-9
E-9
E-9
E-9
------

Requirement: distance (m)

Comment

---;
50
50
150
100
50
----;
50
50
60
---;
40
---;
----;
50
50-100
60
-------

3.3 Structure & equipment response to fire

3.3.1.1 Role of the measure


To avoid fire spreading in large spaces and prevent a catastrophe. For cables to avoid fire
spreading in tunnel or stations where cables are very numerous and suppress risk of panic
due to the toxicity. To avoid ventilation stop during the fire until the temperature is too high
and during the evacuation phase.

3.3.1.2 Synthesis - comments


The item reaction to fire is very important.
But, in many countries, national standard define all the requirements used to design a building according to his category : shops, theatre, stations, edifices receiving people, -------etc.
So the comparison is not easy because standard test are not the same.
The tunnel structure and the equipment should be able to resist the fire and perform safely
for a period sufficient for the evacuation of the tunnel users. In addition the structure and the
equipment should enable the fire fighting. Furthermore the structure and the equipment
.

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Matrix of guidelines contents

should be designed with the aim of minimising the economical damage from a fire.

3.3.1.3 Comparison tables


R1 Reaction to fire
This table below gives the principle used for many rooms located in stations or in tunnels.
R211 Public Areas
R212 Non Public Areas
R213 Waste storage room
R214 Operating room
R215 Ventilation rooms
R216 Low-voltage room
R217 Traction current switch
R218 Substations
R219 Signal boxes
R220 Staff rooms
Network, Country
Brussels, Belgium
Copenhagen, Denmark
Paris, France
Rennes, France
Helsinki, Finland
Prague, Czeck Rep.
Milan, Italy
Stockholm, Sweden
Hamburg, Germany
Berlin, Germany
Munich, Germany
Rotterdam, Netherlamds
Lisbon, Portugal
Barcelona, Spain
Madrid, Spain
Vienna, Austria
Moscow, Russia
London, UK
USA

211
yes

212
yes

213
yes

no
----;
----;
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes

yes
----;
----;
yes
---;
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes

yes
----;
----;
yes
---;
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
no
yes
yes
yes
----;
yes
yes

Requirement in specified location:


214
215
216
217
218
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
no
----;
----;
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes

yes
----;
----;
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
------;
no
no
yes
yes
---;
yes
yes

yes
----;
----;
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes

yes
----;
----;
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
----;
yes
yes

yes
----;
----;
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes

219
no

220
----;

no
----;
----;
----;
---;
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
no
---;
yes
no
----;
yes
yes

no
----;
----;
-----;
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
no
no
yes
no
yes
yes
yes

R3 Equipment resistance to fire


For the construction of a station or a tunnel it is necessary to be in accordance with specific
fire resistance requirements.Theses requirements are defined for spaces and partition.or fire
barrier.
The table below gives the main requirements (resistance time in hour)used in underground
spaces for separating walls:
R30 Shop / public zone
R31 Shop / shop
R32 Shop / escape route
R33 Doors between shop and public zone
R34 Doors between shop and escape route
R35 False ceilings
R36 fire stops technical areas
R37 separation technical room / shop

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Matrix of guidelines contents

And for technical rooms:


R380 Walls
R381 Doors
R382 Floors
R383 Ceilings

Network, Country
Brussels, Belgium
Copenhagen, Denmark
Paris, France
Rennes, France
Helsinki, Finland
Prague, Czeck Rep.
Milan, Italy
Stockholm, Sweden
Hamburg, Germany
Berlin, Germany
Munich, Germany
Rotterdam, Netherlands
Lisbon, Portugal
Barcelona, Spain
Madrid, Spain
Vienna, Austria
Moscow, Russia
London, UK
USA
* : See NFPA 130 2-2.3

30
1

Requirement Fire resistance (hours) in specified location:


31
32
33
34
35
36
37
380
381
382
0.5
1
1
0.5
1
No
yes
1
0.5
1

1
-----1.5
2
0.5
--

1
------1.5
2
0.5
1.5

1
------1.5
2
0.5----

1
-----1.5
1
0.5
-----

1
------1.5
1
0.5
------

1
------1.5
1
-------

yes
--no
--no
yes
yes
---

yes
---yes
---yes
yes
yes
---

2
2
---3
2
1
1.5
---

1
2
---1.5
1
1
0.5
0.5 to
1.5

1.5
-0.5
-------0;7
5
----

1.5
1
-----1
---0.75

1.5
-----------------

0.5
-------------0.6

0.5
1
-------------0.6

0.5
--------2
--1

yes
yes
yes
--yes
---yes

yes
yes
yes
---yes
------yes

1.5
-----1
2
---1.5

0.5
------1
1.5
---1.5

2
2
2
2
---- ---3
3
2
2
1
1
1.5 1.5
0.5 0.5
to
to
1.5 1.5
1.5 1.5
1
------- -----1
1
2
2
---- ---0
1

---

---

----

--

----

---

---

----

----

----

383
0.5

----

R31- Cables resistance to fire


Numerous cable are existing according to the different functions: power, communication,
control and command. So the structure is very important to analyse risk assessment. The
next tables show the cables type used in each country / network and the laying mode
A - Structure
R310 PVC
R311 Self - extinguishing
R312 Halogen free
R313 no smoke development
R314 Toxicity
R315 mineralization
And Maintenance function(duration)
Network, Country
Brussels, Belgium
Copenhagen, Denmark
Paris, France
Rennes, France
Helsinki, Finland
Prague, Czeck Rep.

Structure
no311;312;313;314;no315

Function Duration(hour)
Yes (0,5 to1,5)

311;312;313;314;315
312; 313
310;311;312;313;314;no 315
311;312;313;314;

Yes (1)
Yes (1)
no
Yes (1)
.

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Matrix of guidelines contents


Network, Country
Milan, Italy
Stockholm, Sweden
Hamburg, Germany
Berlin, Germany
Munich, Germany
Rotterdam, Netherlands
Lisbon, Portugal
Barcelona, Spain
Madrid, Spain
Vienna, Austria
Moscow, Russia
London, UK
USA

Structure
No 310;311;312;313;314;
310;311;312;313
310;311;312;313;314;no315
No 310;311;312;313;314;315
310;311;312;NO 313;314;315
311;no 312;313;314;
311;312;313;314;no315
311;312;313;314;315
311;312;313;314;
310;311;312;313;314;315
-----;
311;312;313;314;no 315
NFPA 70

Function Duration(hour)
no
Yes (0,5)
Yes (0,5)
Yes (0,5?)
Yes (0,25)
Yes (1)
Yes
-----;
Yes (1)

B Laying mode
R3171 ground ducts
R3172 concrete troughs
R3173 metal supports
R3174 plastic support
R3175 conduits
R3176 clamps
R3177 individual
R3178 bunched
R3179 concealed
All these items are classified by importance of use.
Network, Country
Brussels, Belgium
Copenhagen, Denmark
Paris, France
Rennes, France
Helsinki, Finland
Prague, Czeck Rep.
Milan, Italy
Stockholm, Sweden
Hamburg, Germany
Berlin, Germany
Munich, Germany
Rotterdam, Netherlands
Lisbon, Portugal
Barcelona, Spain
Madrid, Spain
Vienna, Austria
Moscow, Russia
London, UK
USA

3171
3

3172
2

3173
1

3174

3175

3176

3177

3178

3179

2
1
3
2
2
5

3
9

1
1
1
1
3
1

6
2

8
3

3
4

3
3

1
3

10

10
4

3
2

9
1

10

1
5

R32-Fire resistance of fans


The fire resistance of emergency fans is important and depends on the fire load , on the distance between fire and ventilation shaft, on the evacuation procedures.
For the different network, the table give time and temperature resistance.

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Matrix of guidelines contents

Network, Country
Brussels, Belgium
Copenhagen, Denmark
Paris, France
Rennes, France
Helsinki, Finland
Prague, Czeck Rep.
Milan, Italy
Stockholm, Sweden
Hamburg, Germany
Munich, Germany
Rotterdam, Netherlands
Lisbon, Portugal
Barcelona, Spain
Madrid, Spain
Vienna, Austria
Moscow, Russia
London, UK
USA

Requirement: Resistant to
fire temperature (C)
(in station)

Requirement: Duration
(hour)

200 (400)
200
350
----;
----;
300(100)
----;
----;
----;

2 (1)
2
----,
-----;
-----;
1,5
-----;
-----;
-----;(1,5)

300(300)
400(400)
----;(100)
250(60)
---;(0)
350(360)
250

1(1,5)
1(1)
-----;
1,5
---;(0,5)
1(1)
1

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Appendix 1

APPENDIX 1: TABLES OF CONTENTS OF NATIONAL GUIDELINES FOR TUNNELS


AND STATIONS TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH

-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F- F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F-F--F-F-F-F-F-

4.1 France

4.1.1 IT 98-300 du 8/07/1998- Instruction Technique Interministrielle relative la


Scurit dans les tunnels ferroviaires (in French only).
Contents
1Scope
1-1
field of applications
1-2
specification of the tunnels
1-3
classification of the tunnels
1-4
other specifications
1-4.1 urban lines
1-4.2 mixed traffic lines
1-4.3 passenger lines
1-4.4 rolling stock
1-4.5 dangerous goods
2Fire resistance and reaction
2-1
reaction to fire
2-2
fire resistance
2-2-1 fire resistance of principal structures
2-2-1-1 dug or submerged tunnels and covered trenches
2-2-1-2 tunnels integrated with an inhabited or occupied concrete structure
2-2-1-3 tunnels licensed for the passage of dangerous goods
2-2-1-4 light covers
2-2-2 fire resistance of secondary structures
2-2-2-1false ceilings and partition separating ventilation passages
2-2-2-2 technical premises and ventilation locations
3Communal requirements
3-1
civil engineering
3-1-1 emergency vehicle access and parking at tunnel portals
3-1-2 progress
3-1-3 safety of maintenance workers
3-2
general security equipment
3-2-1 electricity supply
3-2-2 lighting
3-2-3 identifying issues and distance/removal
3-2-4 fire fighting water supply
3-2-5 emergency service communication
3-2-6 resurfacing
3-2-7 call circuit
3-3
rail road security facilities
3-3-1 ground-train relationship
3-3-2 speed control system
3-3-3 lorries
4Particular requirements
4-1
civil engineering

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Appendix 1

4-1-1
4-1-2
4-1-3
4-1-4
4-1-5
4-2
4-3
4-4
4-4-1
4-4-2

system of approval
emergency access in urban tunnels
evacuation of passengers
helicopter landing areas
anti-recycling system of fumes in tunnel portals
ventilation, smoke extraction
limitation/separation of passengers and freight
rolling stock
equipment or arrangements of railroad security
hot axle box detection

Total number of pages:18

4.1.2 Arrt du 20 fvrier 1983 modifi portant approbation des rgles de scurit
et des modalits de contrle applicables aux locaux accessibles au public, situs sur
le domaine public du chemin de fer et rigoureusement indispensables l'exploitation
de celui-ci Partie :Gare
( in French only)
Contents
1- Conditions and field of applications for safety rules
1-1 Conditions of application
1-2 Field of applications
1-3 Determination of people, category and activity of the stations
2-Technical rules concerning construction and internal facilities
2-1aerial stations
2-1-1 facilities concerning stations receiving more than 200 people
2-2 underground stations
2-2-1 stations with passage of goods transportation trains
2-2-3 stations with only passengers trains
3-3 mixed stations
3-Rescue means
3-1 aerial stations
3-2 underground stations
3-3 mixed stations
4- Complementary obligations for operators
Number of pages:17
Summary:
This is a comprehensive document concerning the classification of the station and the safety
needs for design, equipments and rescue means. It defines also the obligations for the operator.

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Appendix 1

4.1.3 Arrt du 25 juin 1980 portant approbation des dispositions gnrales du


rglement de scurit contre les risques dincendie et de panique dans les
tablissements recevant du public.
Decree of June 25, 1980 carrying approval of the general provisions of the safety regulations against the panic and fire
hazards in the establishments receiving of the public
ANALYTICAL TABLE
DELIVER FIRST
PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO ALL THE ESTABLISHMENTS RECEIVING OF THE PUBLIC
Single chapter
Section I. - Classification of establishments
Section II. - Adaptation of the safety requirements and particular cases of application of payment
Section III. - Controls of establishments
Section IV. - Work
Section V. - Standardization
DELIVER II
PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO THE ESTABLISHMENTS OF THE FIRST FOUR CATEGORIES
TITLE FIRST - General provisions
Chapter first
General information
Section I. - Control of the establishments
Section II. - Technical Checks
Chapter II. - Construction.
Section I. - Design and service road of the buildings
Section II. - Insulation compared to the thirds
Section III. - Fire resistance of the structures
Section IV. - Covers
Section V. - Frontages
Section VI. - Interior Distribution and partitioning
Section VII. - Buildings non accessible to the public, buildings at the particular risks
Section VIII. - Conduits and sheaths
Section IX. - Releases:
Sub-section 1. General provisions
Sub-section 2. Exits
Sub-section 3. Staircases
Section X. - nondismountable Platforms and steps
Chapter III. - Interior Installations, decoration and furniture.
General information
Section I. - Coatings
Section II. - Elements of decoration
Section III. - Hangings, doors, curtains, nets curtain
Section IV. - Large furniture, principal fitting, installation of light floors in superstructure
Chapter IV. - Smoke clearing
Chapter V. - Heating, ventilation, refrigeration air-conditioning, air conditioning and installation of domestic hot
water.
Section I. - General information

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Appendix 1
Section II. - Apparatus Installation of of production of heat
Section III. - Fuel storage
Section IV. - (Repealed).
Section V. - Heating with hot water, vapor and hot air
Section VI. - Domestic hot water
Section VII. - Treatment of air and ventilation
Sub-section 1. Ventilation of comfort CH 29 to 40
Sub-section 2. Controlled mechanical ventilation CH 41 to 43
Section VIII. - Equipment self-contained of production, emission of heat CH 44 to 56
Section IX. - Maintenance and checks CH 57 and 58
Chapter VI. - Installations with fuel gases and liquefied hydrocarbons.
Section I. - General information GZ 1 to 3
Section II. - Storage of liquefied hydrocarbons (commercial butane and propane) GZ 4 to 9
Section III. - Devices of relaxation and counting GZ 10 and 11
Section IV. - Conduits, switchgear and relaxation GZ 12 to 19
Section V. - Ventilation and ventilation of the buildings, evacuation of the products combustion GZ 20 to 25
Section VI. - Appliances GZ 26
Section VII. - Conformity, maintenance and checks of the installations of gas GZ 27 to 30
Chapter VII. - Electric Installations.
Section I. - General information EL 1 to 4
Section II. - Rules of installation EL 5 to 11
Section III. - Installations of safety EL 12 to 17
Section IV. - Maintenance, exploitation and checks EL 18 and 19
Section V. - Installations temporary EL 20 to 23
Chapter VIII. Lighting.
Section I. - General information: EC. 1 to 5
Section II. - Normal Lighting EC. 6
Section III. - Emergency Lighting EC. 7 to 15
Chapter IX. - Elevators escalators and travelators.
Section I. - Elevators ACE 1 to 3
Section II. - Particular Provisions concerning the elevators intended for the evacuation of the physical handicapped people ACE 4 and 5
Section III. - Escalators and travelators ACE 6 and 7
Section IV. - Maintenance and checks ACE 8 to 11
Chapter X. - Installations of boiling apparatuses intended for the restoration.
Applicability GC 1
Section I. - General information GC 2 to 11
Section II. - Great kitchen isolated from the buildings accessible to public GC 12 to 14
Section III. - Great kitchen open on a room accessible to public GC 15
Section IV. - Boiling apparatuses not forming part of a unit great kitchen but installed in the rooms accessible to public
GC 16 and 17
Section V. - Maintenance and checks GC 18 and 19
Chapter XI. - Backup facilities against the fire.
Section I. - General information ms 1 to 3
Section II. - Various means of extinction ms 4 to 40
Sub-section 1. Mouths, private posts of fire and water points ms 5 to 7
Sub-section 2. Connections and drains ms 8 to 13
Sub-section 3. Equipped fire valves ms 14 to 17
Sub-section 4. Columns dry ms 18 to 21
.

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Appendix 1
Sub-section 5. Pipes fire it (known as wet standpipes) ms 22 to 24
Sub-section 6. Installations of automatic extinction or with hand drive operation ms 25 to 30
Sub-section 7. Specific outfalls ms 31 to 34
Sub-section 8. Irrigated structural components ms 35 to 37
Sub-section 9. Mobile apparatuses and various means ms 38 to 40
Section III. - Provisions aiming at facilitating the action of firemen ms 41 to 44
Section IV. - Service of fire protection ms 45 to 52
Section V. - System of fire protection (IF) ms 53 to 55
Sub-section 1. System of detection fire ms 56 to 58
Sub-section 2. System of setting in fire protection (SMSI) ms 59 and 60
Sub-section 3. Warning system ms 61 to 67
Sub-section 4. Maintenance and operating instructions ms 68 and 69
Section VI. - Alarm system ms 70 and 71
Section VII. - Maintenance, checks and controls ms 72 to 74

Number of pages : 185

4.1.4 Decree n2003-425 of May 9, 2003 Decree relating to the safety of guided
public transport
4.1.4.1 TITLE Ist: GENERAL PRINCIPLES
4.1.4.2 CONTAIN II: SAFETY OF THE PUBLIC TRANSPORT GUIDED IN ILE-DE-FRANCE AND
IN A PERIMETER OF URBAN TRANSPORT.

Ier chapter: Design and realization. Design and building


Section 1: General provisions. General rules
Chapter II: Exploitation.
Section 1: General provisions. General rules
Chapter III: Control of the State. State control
Chapter IV: Various provisions
4.1.4.3 CONTAIN III: ANALOG AND DIGITAL SYSTEMS. Mixt systems
4.1.4.4 CONTAIN IV: SKI LIFTS MENTIONED IN ARTICLE 45 of the LAW of JANUARY 9, 1985.
4.1.4.5 TITLE V: GUIDED SYSTEMS OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT WITH TOURIST OR HISTORICAL
VOCATION.

Ist chapter: Application field and definitions


Chapter II: Safety requirements and authorization
4.1.4.6 CONTAIN VI: SPECIFIC MEASURES FOR OTHER PUBLIC GUIDED SYSTEMS OF
TRANSPORT.
4.1.4.7 CONTAIN VII: Miscellaneous

Number of pages: 9

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Appendix 1

E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-EE-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-E-

4.2 Spain

4.2.1 Normes techniques sobre seguretat contra incendis a la xarxa ferroviaria


sotterrada a Catalunya
(in catalan only)
Contents
1- Objectives and field of applications
1-1 objective
1-2 field of application
1-3 terminology
2- Stations
2-1 stations
2-2 construction materials
2-3 ventilation and smoke exhaust
2-4 electrical fittings
2-5 escape routes
2-6 fire protection
2-7 Command and control centre
2-8 Maintenance
2-9 Disabled people
3- Total or partial underground line tunnel
3-1 preliminary
3-2 underground tunnel
4-Communications
4-1 preliminary
4-2 radio
4-3 telephone
4--4 megaphone
4-5 portable phone
4-6 recordings
5-Emergency plan
5-1 internal emergency plan
5-2 description
5-3 emergency communications
Number of pages: 65

4.2.2 Fire safety on Madrid metro-Fire protection system and resources


Contents
1- introduction
2- fire protection system and resources
2-1developments and actions for intervening in emergency cases
2-2 fire protection systems and installations
2-3 systems assisting and supporting installation management and fire protection system
operations
2-4 communication systems
2-5 installation and passenger safety
2-6 supervision, control and train operating safety

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Appendix 1

2-7 personnel training and educational activities


Number of pages: 21

-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-

D-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-D-

4.3 Germany

4.3.1 BOStrab-E-Bau-RL Guideline for electrical equipment concerning to the


Guideline for Construction and Operation of Tramways (BOStrab) 23th August 1990
Contents
This guideline contains no fire safety relevant information except:
Part 1
1.2.3 Emergency power supply
Part 2
2.3 Safety/Emergency Lighting

4.3.2 BOStrab-Tunnelbau-RL Guideline for the Construction of Tunnels concerning


to the Guideline for Construction and Operation of Tramways (BOStrab) 30th April
1991
Contents
1. General
1.1 Scope
1.2 General demands
2. Design of tunnels
2.1 Driving tunnel
2.1.1 Tunnel cross section
2.1.2 Safety space
2.1.3 Emergency exits
2.2 Stations
2.2.1 Platforms
2.2.2 Connections
2.2.3 Information equipment
2.3 Tunnel drainage
2.4 Fire safety
2.4.1 Structural parts
2.4.2 Wall- and ceiling coverings, floors, built-in parts
2.4.3 Rooms with increased fire danger
2.4.4 Emergency/rescue ways in stations and operation areas
3. Construction work of tunnels
3.1 Basic demands
3.1.1 Structural calculations
3.1.2 Load assumptions
3.1.3 Environmental protection
3.1.4 Materials
3.1.5 Durability of tunnels
3.1.6 Minimum reinforcement
3.1.7 Sealing
3.1.8 Electrical measures
3.2 Cut and cover methods

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3.2.1 Excavation
3.2.1.1 Load assumptions for excavation/auxiliary bridges
3.2.1.2 Excavation support
3.2.1.3 Earth pressure reduction
3.2.1.4 Measurements
3.2.2 Tunnel
3.2.2.1 Earth pressure on tunnel
3.2.2.2 Dynamic loads
3.2.2.3 Influence of dewing salt
3.3 Tunnelling methods
3.3.1 Tunnel cross section
3.3.2 Structural analysis
3.3.3 Measurements
3.3.4 Safety measures during excavation

4.3.3 BOStrab Guideline for Construction and Operation of Tramways (TramwayConstruction and Operation Guideline BOStrab) 11th December 1987
Contents
First Chapter
General
1 Scope and general definitions
2 Basic rules
3 General demands concerning the construction of the traffic system (track, buildings, signals)
and the vehicles
4 Generals demands concerning the operation
5 Technical controlling
6 Exceptions
Second Chapter
Operational management
7 Contractor
8 Operation manager
9 Acknowledgement as operation manager
Third Chapter
Operational staff
10 General demands on operational staff
11 Special demands on driving staff
12 Education and examination of driving staff
13 Behaviour during service
14 Behaviour on disease
Fourth Chapter
Traffic System
15 Route planning
16 Track
17 Superstructure and road-bed
18 Definition of clear space
19 Safety space
20 Crossings
21 Signals
22 Train steering and controlling equipment
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23 Communication equipment
24 Power supply equipment
25 Power supply for vehicles equipment
26 Earth connection
27 Lighting equipment
28 Pipes
29 Bridges
30 Tunnels
31 Stations
32 Escalators
Fifth Chapter
Vehicles
33 Vehicle design
34 Vehicles measures
35 Wheels, wheel systems
36 Brakes
37 Driving power
38 Steering
39 Current collector
40 Signals
41 Track- and rail clearer
42 Couplings
43 Doors for users
44 Driver seat
45 Lighting, heating ventilation of vehicles
46 Information equipment
47 Writings and symbols
48 Emergency equipment
Sixth Chapter
Operation
49 Driving regulations
50 Speed limits
51 Signals
52 Usage of operational staff
53 Usage of driving staff on trains
54 Driving
55 Interaction with road traffic
56 Reaction on minor defects in trains
57 Maintenance of system and vehicles
58 Using and entering the track system an the vehicles
59 Endangering actions
Seventh Chapter
Guidelines of proceedings
60 Examination of design papers for constructions
61 Controlling of the construction process
62 Inspection and approval
Eighth Chapter
Infringement of regulations, final and interims guidelines
63 Infringement of regulations
64 Berlin clause

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65 Coming into force and interims guidelines

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4.4 Finland

4.4.1 Fire Safety of Buildings


This document is not specific to metros but used as background reference where applicable.
Contents
Definitions
1- General
1-1 Scope
1-2 The essential requirement
1-3 Verification of satisfaction of the requirement
1-4 Recognition of mutual acceptance
2- Fire load
2-1 Determination of the fire load
2-2 Fire load categories
3- Fire classes of buildings
3-1 Fire classes
3-2 Restriction on the size of buildings and of the number of occupants
4- Prevention of ignition
4-1 General requirements
5- Limiting the fire into the fire compartment
5-1 General requirements
5-2 Compartment area
6- Maintaining the load-bearing capacity of constructions
6-1 General requirements
6-2 Design based on classification
6-3 Design based on fire development
7- Prevention of spread of fire from a compartment
7-1 General requirements
7-2 Class requirements for fire-separating building elements
7-3 Fire doors, windows and shutters
7-4 Penetrations
7-5 Ventilation devices
7-6 Attics, voids, external walls and balconies
8- Limitation of fire development
8-1 General requirements
8-2 Internal surfaces
8-3 External walls
8-4 Roof coverings
9- Prevention of spread of fire to neighbouring buildings
9-1 General requirements
9-2 Fire walls
10- Evacuation in case of fire
10-1 General requirements
10-2 Distance to exits
10-3 Number of exits
10-4 Dimension of exits
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10-5 Fire separation and construction of exits


10-6 Opening of doors and lighting and marking of exit routes
10-7 Calculation of evacuation time
11- Organisation of extinguishing and rescue operations
11-1 General requirements
11-2 Access to objects of extinguishing operations
11-3 Smoke detector and automatic fire alarm installation
11-4 Smoke extraction
11-5 Fire extinguishing devices
11-6 Limitation signs
11-7 Safety assessment
Annex : Information for guidance

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4.5 USA

4.5.1 NFPA 130 Standard for Fixed Guide way Transit and Passenger Rail Systems
Contents
1- General
1-1Scope
1-2 purpose
1-3characteristics of fire safety
1-4 applications
1-5 1-5 definitions
2. Stations
2-1general
2-2 construction
2-3ventilation
2-4 wiring requirements
2-5means of egress
2-6 emergency lighting
2-7 fire protection
3. Trainways
3-1general
3-2 underground
3-3 surface
3-4 elevated
4. Emergency Ventilation System
4-1 general
4-2 design
4-3 emergency ventilation fires
4-4 devices
4-5 shafts
4-6 emergency ventilation system control / operations
4-7 power and wiring
5- Vehicles
5-1applicability
5-2 construction
5-3 electrical safety requirements
5-4 ventilation
5-5 emergency egress facilities

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5-6 protection
6- Vehicle Storage and Maintenance Areas
6-1 general
6-2 open areas
6-3 structures
6-4fire protection suppression system
6-5 operations and maintenance
7- Emergency Procedures
7-1general
7-2 emergencies
7-3emergency procedure plan
7-4 participating agencies
7-5 central supervising station
7-6liaison
7-7 command post
7-8 auxiliary command
Communications post
8-1general
8-2 central supervising station command post relationship
8-3radiocommunication
8-4telephone
8-5 portable telephone and lines
8-6messenger service
8-7public address system
8-8portable powered speakers
Appendix A Explanatory material
Appendix B Ventilation
Appendix C Emergency egress
Appendix D Suggested test procedures for fire hazard assessment
Appendix E Creepage distance
Appendix F Referenced Publications
Total number of pages:38 pages

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