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Final Review

Zeph Grunschlag

Review

Agenda

List of sections covered

Review major concepts with formulae

Review

Sections Covered

1.1 Logic

1.2 Tautologies/Equivalence

1.3 Predicates/Quantifiers

1.4 Sets

1.5 Set Theory Operations

1.6 Functions

1.7 Sequences/Sums

1.8 Big-O, Big-, Big-

2.1 Algorithms

2.2 Complexity

2.3 Basic Number Theory

2.4 Number Theory Algorithms

2.5 RSA

(2.6 Matrices)

Review

3.1 Proofs

3.2 Induction

3.3 Recursive Definitions

3.4 Recursion

(3.5 Program Correctness)

4.1 Counting Basics

4.2 Pigeonhole Principle

4.3 Permutations and Combinations

4.4 Discrete Probability

4.5 Probability Theory

4.6 Generalizations

5.1 Recurrence Relations

5.2 Solving Linear Recurrences

5.5 Inclusion-Exclusion

5.6 More Inclusion-Exclusion

3

Sections Covered

6.1

6.2

6.3

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.7

7.8

Relation Basics

n-ary Relation

Representing Relations

Graph Basics

Graph Terminology

Graph Representations

Connectedness

Euler and Hamilton

Planar Graphs

Coloring

Review

Sections Skipped

2.6

3.5

4.7

5.3, 5.4

6.4, 6.5, 6.6

7.6

Logic

A proposition is a statement that is true

or false. Atomic propositions p,q,r

are combined to form compound

propositions using the following

logical connectives :

Review

Logical Connectives

Operator

Negation

Conjunction

Disjunction

Exclusive or

Conditional

Biconditional

Review

Symbol Usage

Java

not

and

&&

or

||

xor

(p||q)&&(!p||!q)

if,then

p?q:true

iff

(p&&q)||(!p&&!q)

6

Truth Tables

Logical operators/connectives are defined by

truth tables:

p

p

Negation truth table (unary):

F

T

T

F

Binary truth tables:

p

q

pq pq p q p q p q

T

T

F

F

T

F

T

F

T

F

F

F

T

T

T

F

F

T

T

F

T

F

T

T

T

F

F

T

Bit Strings

Can define logical operators on bit

strings. This is done bit by bit. No

carry-over is taken.

EG:

01 1011 0010 1001

Review

11 1001 1101 0000

8

Tautologies

Logical Equivalence

A compound proposition is a tautology if it

is always true, regardless of the its

atomic propositions (e.g. p p ). If its

always false, its a contradiction (e.g.

pp ). If neither, its a contingency

(e.g. p p ).

Two compound propositions p, q are

logically equivalent if p q is a

tautology. Notation: p q .

Review

Given an implication p q

the converse is q p

while the contrapositive is q p

Review

10

Logical Proofs

There are two basic techniques for proving

tautologies and logical equivalences:

1) Build a truth table. Verify that

last column is all TRUE for tautology

relevant columns equal for equivalence

TRUE starting from supposed tautology

1st proposition from 2nd

Review

11

Identity laws

Like adding 0

Domination laws

Like multiplying by 0

Idempotent laws

Delete redundancies

Double negation

I dont like you, not

Commutativity

Like x+y = y+x

Associativity

Like (x+y)+z = y+(x+z)

Distributivity

Like (x+y)z = xz+yz

Review

De Morgan

12

Excluded middle

Negating creates opposite

Definition of implication in

Review

13

Quantifiers

Existential Quantifier

reads there exists

Universal Quantifier

reads for all

Order matters:

y x R (x,y ) and x y R (x,y ) may

not be logically equivalent to.

Review

14

DeMorgan Identities

Not all true iff one is false.

Conjunctional version:

(p1p2pn) (p1p2pn)

Universal quantifier version:

x P(x ) x P(x )

Review

Disjunctional version:

(p1p2pn) (p1p2pn)

Existential quantifier version:

x P(x ) x P(x )

15

Logical English

Logical Puzzles

Precise English statements can be expressed in

terms of logical constructs. In cases of English

puzzles, this can be useful for solving.

EG: Can there be a man that shaves exactly all

the people that dont shave themselves.

Let S(x,y) = x shaves y. Asking if following

statement satisfiable:

x y S(y,y ) S(x,y)

Not satisfiable (trying plugging in y = x )1

Review

16

Natural numbers: N = { 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, }

Integers: Z = { -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, }

Positive integers: Z+ = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, }

Real numbers: R

Rational numbers: Q (decimal numbers with

repeating decimal expansion)

Review

17

Set Notation

element : 3 S

not an element : 3 S

subset : S T

strict subset : S T

empty (or null) set : {} or

cardinality : |{1, -13, 4, -13, 1}| = 3

Review

18

power set : P (S ) or 2s

Cartesian product :

A B = { (a, b) | a A and b B }

|A1A2An| = |A1||A2| |An|

complement :

A={x|xA}

union :

A B = { x | x A x B }

intersection : A B = { x | x A x B }

difference :

A-B={x|xA xB}

symmetric difference:AB={ x | xA xB }

Review

19

Venn Diagrams

Complement

Intersection

Union

Review

Disjoint Union

AB

A

AB

A B

20

Venn Diagrams

Difference

Symmetric Difference

AB

U

AB

U

B

Review

21

Sets as Bit-Strings

If elements ordered, each set can be viewed as

bit-string s. Operators act on bit-strings:

complement A 1s complement -s

union A B disjunction s t

intersection A B conjunction s t

difference A - B s (-t )

symmetric difference AB s t

EG: If U = {1,2,3,4}, A = {2}=0100,

B = {1,2,4}=1101 then:

Review

22

Functions

One-to-One

NO:

NO:

YES:

NO:

Reverse

YES:

Onto

NO:

reverse:

YES:

reverse:

Review

23

Function Notation

Composition : f g (a) = g ( f (a) )

n

Exponentiation :

f n (x ) = f f f f f (x )

Floor and Ceiling : x , x

f : A B --function from A to B

domain

codomain

Range : f (A )

Review

24

A sequence is a function N S. A finite

sequence in S is a function from first n

numbers to S. Notation {ai } or just ai usually

used instead of f (i ). Finite sequences

expressed as n-tuples, e.g. (1,2,3,4,5).

A string is just a finite sequence where S is a set

of characters. Strings denoted by putting

characters together, e.g. 12345. Empty

string denoted by . Can concatenate strings

u and v to obtain u v (or usually just uv ).

EG: v = v = v. Reverse of w is denoted

by w R .

Review

25

Summations

Sum of first n

numbers: n

n(n + 1)

i=

2

i =1

Sum of first n k th

powers: n

k +1

k

i

=

(

n

)

Sum of a sequence

n from 0 to n :

a

i =0

= a0 + a1 + a2 + ... + an

number in S :

x

xS

i =1

Double sum:

2

i=0

Review

j =1

Geometric sum:

ar n +1 a

ar = a + ar + ar + ... + ar =

r 1

i =0

n

ij

26

Countable ( 0 ): Same cardinality as N. I.e.,

there is a bijection with the natural numbers.

Lemmas: S is countable if

there is an onto function from another

countable set

there is an onto function from another

countable set

EG: Z is countable because it is enumerated by

the sequence

i + 1

ai = (1)

Review

27

Uncountability of R

Cantors Diabolical Diagonal

If R were countable could list all numbers in

(0,1) by a sequence:

r1 , r2 , r3 , r4 , r5 , r6 , r7,

Cantors diabolical diagonalization creates a

number revil between 0 and 1 which is not

on the list, contradicting countability

assumption. Let ri,j be the j th decimal digit

in the fractional part of i th number ri .

Define digits of revil by the following rule:

The j th digit of revil is 5 if rj,j 5. Otherwise

the j th digit is 4.

revil is an anti-diagonal of the seqencs {rn }

Review

28

Cantor's Diagonalization

Example

Decimal expansions of ri

r1

r2

r3

r4

r5

r6

r7

:

r

evil

Review

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

1

1

2

7

0

5

7

2

5

5

8

1

5

6

3

1

4

9

1

5

7

4

1

2

0

0

5

9

5

1

0

6

1

5

5

6

1

9

2

0

5

4

7

1

0

3

1

5

4

0.

29

DEF: Let f and g be functions with domain R0 or N

and codomain R.

f (x ) = O ( g (x ) ) if there are constants C and k

such x > k, |f (x )| C |g (x )|

f (x ) = (g (x )) iff g (x ) = O (f (x ))

Evaluate lim f ( x) = a Limit exists

x g ( x )

if and only if f (x ) = O ( g (x ) )

and positive, then f (x ) = (g (x ))

Sums are big-O of biggest term

Non-zero constants are irrelevant

30

Asymptotically Incomparable

Functions

Some functions are incomparable.

EG: |x 2 sin(x)| vs. 5x 1.5 :

y = x2

y = 5x 1.5

y = |x 2 sin(x)|

Review

31

Divisor (or factor): If a = bc then b | a

How many pos. no.s N divisible by d ?

Answer:

N/d

Identities:

a|b a|bc

a|b b|c a|c

divisor d there is a unique quotient q with

remainder r [0,d-1] satisfying: a = dq + r

Review

a mod d = r

32

Prime : A number divisible only by itself and 1

Composite : A number that isnt prime.

Primality Test : x is composite iff its divisible by some

prime x

Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic : Every number

can be decomposed uniquely into a product of prime

numbers.

Greatest common divisor (gcd): Biggest number which

divides both x and y.

lcm(x,y) = xy / gcd(x,y)

by both x and y

Relatively Prime : two numbers with no common

factors. Equivalently: gcd(x,y ) = 1

Review

33

Euclidean Algorithm

INPUT : integers m, n

(m > 0, n 0 )

OUTPUT : gcd(m,n)

integer euclid(m,n)

x = m, y = n

while(y > 0)

r = x mod y

x=y

y=r

return x

Review

INPUT : integers m, n

(m > 0, n 0 )

OUTPUT : s, t such that

sm+tn = gcd(m,n)

(int.,int.) ext_euclid(m,n)

r = m mod n

//remainder

q = m/n

//quotient

(s,t ) = ext_euclid(n,r)

return ( t , s-tq )

34

Modular Congruence

Often confused with mod function.

a a (mod b) is a relation on Z, not a function!

DEF: a a (mod b) ) iff b | (a a ).

a mod b a (mod b)

Suppose a a (mod b) and c c (mod b). Then:

ac ac (mod b)

a k a k (mod b)

Modular Inverse:

an inverse of a if ax 1 (mod b).

If x also in range [1,b -1], use notation x = a -1 (mod b)

Compute using extended Euclidean algorithm

1.

2.

3.

Review

Therefore sa = 1 tb so mod-b we have sa 1 (mod b)

35

Number Systems

A base-b number is a string

u = ak ak-1 ak-2 a2 a1 a0

with the ai taken from

{0,1,2,3,,b-2,b-1}.

u represents the number

(u )b = akbk+ak-1bk-1++a1b + a0

When b > 10, use capital letters:

A=10, B=11, C=12, etc.

Standard bases:

Binary (base-2)

Octal (base-8)

Decimal (base-10)

Hexadecimal (base-16)

Review

conversion algorithm :

INPUT :

positive integer n

positive integer b // the base

string represent(n,b)

q = n, i = 0

while( q > 0 )

ui = q mod b

q = q/b

i = i +1

return ui ui-1 ui-2 u2 u1 u0

36

Arithmetical Algorithms

Addition and Multiplication

Addition in any base b :

Binary multiplication:

string add(xk xk-1x1x0,

bitstring multiply(xk xk-1x1x0,

yk yk-1y1y0)

yk yk-1y1y0 , int b)

x = xk xk-1x1x0

carry = 0, xk+1 = yk+1 = 0

p=0

for(i = 0 to k+1)

for(i = 0 to k+1)

digitSum=carry+xi

+yi

if(yi == 1)

p = add(p , x << i )

zi =digitSum mod b

carry =digitSum /b return p

return zk+1zk zk-1z1z0

Review

37

1s and 2s Complement

1s Complement

Fix k bits.

Represent numbers |x | < 2k-1

Most significant bit tells the

sign

0 positive

1 negative

standard binary expansion

Negate numbers by flipping

all bits

Adding numbers:

1.

2.

Review

Add as usual.

If there was carryover, add 1

2s Complement

Fix k bits.

Represent no.s in [-2(k-1),2(k-1))

Most significant bit tells the

sign

0 positive

1 negative

standard binary expansion

Negate numbers by flipping all

bits then adding 1

Adding numbers:

1.

2.

Add as usual.

Drop any carryover!

38

Fermats Little Theorem

To exponentiate quickly mod-N :

Use repeated squaring

technique coded on the right

Simplify as much as possible

before any squaring

than 392 mod 23

Use Fermats Little Theorem1

when possible:

Review

a n a n mod p-1(mod p)

EG: 923 mod 23

= 9(23 mod 22) mod 23

= 91 mod 23 = 9

fastExp(m,e,N)

unun-1 un-2 u2 u1 u0 =

representInBinary(e)

sqPow0= m mod N

for( i = 0 to n-1)

sqPowi+1 = sqPowi 2 mod N

pow = 1

for(i = 0 to n)

if (ui == 1 )

pow = powsqPowi mod N

return pow

39

Solve1 x [0, m1m2m3)

x a1 (mod m1)

x a2 (mod m2)

x a3 (mod m3)

1. y1=a2a3 , y2=a1a3,

y3=a1a2

2. z1=y1(y1-1mod m1),

z2=y2(y2-1mod m2),

z3=y3(y3-1mod m3)

3. z = a1z1+a2z2+a3z3

4. x = z mod m1m2m3

Review

exists and is unique in

range [0, m1m2m3)

assuming m1 , m2 , m3

relatively prime.

Useful for carrying

arithmetic out relative a

big number N = m1m2m3

1.

2.

Patch solutions together by

Chinese remaindering

decryption works

40

Including RSA and Caesar

1. Messages are converted into blocks of numbers.

2. Each number block m is scrambled using some

modular function f (m).

Examples of f (m):

f (m) = (m+h) mod N with constants1 h,N

Decrypt g (n) = (n - h) mod N

f (m) = (cm ) mod N with constants c,N

Decrypt g (n) = (c-1n ) mod N

f (m)=(cm+h) mod N with constants c,h,N

Decrypt g (n) = c-1 (n - h) mod N

f (m) = m e mod N with constants2 e,N

Decrypt g (n) = m d mod N [d = e -1 (mod (p-1)(q -1))]

Review

41

Prove statement P Q

Direct Proof

Useful Tricks

Try to use algebraic

Assume P true, show Q true

form of definition and

Indirect Proof

reduce algebraically

Assume Q false, show P false

Write rational numbers

Reductio Ad Absurdum1

(in Q) p/q with p,q

Assume P Q true,

show P Q true

relatively prime

Disrefutation of x P (x):

Just find a counterexample

Review

42

Mathematical Induction

Well Ordering Property: Non-empty subsets S of

N have a smallest element.

Simple Induction:

If the following hold:

1)

[basis] P (0) is true

2)

[induction] n P(n)P(n+1) is true

Then n P(n) is true

Strong Induction:

If the following hold:

2)

[strong induction] n [P (0)

P (1)

P (n)] P(n+1)

Then: n P(n) is true

1)

Review

43

Recursive Definitions

Factorial

Fibonacci sequence

Binomial Coefficients

n-choose-k

Addition of nonnegative integers

1, if n = 0

n! =

n ( n 1)! , if n 1

n , if k = 0 or 1

f (n) =

f ( n 2 ) + f ( n 1), if k 2

0, if k < 0 or k > n

C (n, k ) = 1, if k = n = 0

C (n 1, k 1) + C (n 1, k ), otherwise

m, if n = 0

m + n = m + 1, if n = 1

( m + (n 1)) + 1, if n > 1

0, if n = 0

n 1

=

a

i

i =1

ai + an , if n > 0

i =1

1, if n = 0

n

n 1

a

=

i

a

i =1

i an , if n > 0

i =1

n

Summation Notation

Product Notation

Review

44

More Recursion:

Sets, Relations, Graphs

Can define sets and relations recursively as well.

Set of quantities payable with dimes and quarters:

BASE: 0 S

RECURSE: u + 10, u + 25 pal if u pal

Set of palindromes :

BASE:

, 0, 1 pal

RECURSE: 0u 0, 1u 1 pal if u pal

Review

BASE:

RECURSE:

connected

connected

If (a,b) R and {b,c} E then (a,c) R (if a is

to b, and there is an edge from b to c, then a is

to c)

45

Sum Rule : If A and B are

disjoint, then

|A B| = |A|+|B|

Product Rule

Set theoretic:

|A B| = |A||B|

Combinatorial: If have n

stages, where i th stage

allows ai different situation,

total number of combinations

is a1a2a3an

EG: No. of ways to order 5

card 52, 2nd choice 51 cards

remaining, etc. for total of

5251504948 orderings

EG: Method 1 for counting

anagrams

Review

into cells of size d then each cell

contains |S |/d elements

Combinatorial: If over-counting

by a factor of d for each case of

interest, divide by d

EG: No. of 5 cards hands.

answer if order matters. Since

order irrelevant, and there are 5!

different orderings of 5 elements,

answer is 5251504948 / 5!

EG: Method 2 for counting

anagrams

46

Inclusion-Exclusion

2 sets:

|A B | = |A|+|B |- |A B |

3 sets:

n - sets:

| A1 A2 An |

| A1 | + | A2 | + + | An |

| A1 A2 | | A1 A3 |

+ | A1 A2 A3 | + | A1 A2 A4 | +

+ ( 1) n 1 | A1 A2 An |

Review

47

Pigeonhole Principle

Simple pigeonhole:

If N+1 objects are placed into N boxes,

there is at least one box containing 2

objects.

Generalized pigeonhole:

If N objects are placed into k boxes, there is

at least one box containing N/k objects.

Review

48

r-permutations

r-combinations

r-permutations P (n,r )

Order matters

P (n,r ) =n r = n (n-1)(n-2)(n-3)(n-r+1)

r-combinations C (n,r )

L18

Value of (n,r )-element in Pascal triangle

Order irrelevant (so can pre-sort)

C (n,r ) = n r / r ! = n ! / ( r ! (n - r)! )

C (n,r ) =C (n,n-r ) (symmetry of Pascal)

49

Counting Formulas

Perms and Combos

Anagrams : with n letters with repetition

numbers a1, a2 , a3 , . , ak number of

anagrams is n ! / (a1! a2 ! a3 ! ak !)

Functions : Domain size m, codomain size n

General :

Bijections (m =n ):

One-to-one (m n ):

Onto (m n):

nm

n!

P (n,m )

+(-1)iC (n,i )(n-i )m ++ (-1)n-1C (n,n-1)1m

L18

1 1 1 1

n 1

Dn = n!1 + + + h + ( 1)

n!

1! 2! 3! 4!

50

Counting Formulas

Stars and Bars

Number of solutions in N of x1+x2++xk+1=n

C (n+k,k)

Also the number of different arrangement of n s

and k |s in a string

Further constraints

Review

If variable xi < k use Inclusion-Exclusion on

constraint xi k

If have inequality x1+x2++xk+1 n, add dummy

variable and count solutions to x1+x2++xk+1+y =n

51

Cards

52 cards per deck (not including Jokers)

4 suits :

Hearts

Diamonds Spades

Clubs

13 ranks :

L18

52

Straight flush

Five cards in sequence in the

same suit. A royal straight

flush (A-K-Q-J-10 in same

suit) is the highest non-joker

poker hand possible.

Four of a kind

Four cards of the same rank.

Full house

Three of a kind and a pair.

When matching full houses,

the one with the higher three

of a kind wins.

Flush

Five cards of the same suit.

L18

Straight

Any five cards in sequence but

not all of the same suit.

Three of a kind

Three of the same rank with

two unmatched cards.

Two pairs

Two cards of one rank with two

cards of a different rank with

one dissimilar card. When

matching pairs occurs between

players, the one with the

higher fifth card wins.

One pair

Any two cards of the same

rank.

53

Probability

If all outcomes equally likely the probability of

event E in sample space S is the ratio

p (E ) = |E | / |S |

If each outcome s has probability p (s )

probability of event E is

p( E ) = p( s )

sE

p( s ) X ( s )

Expectation of X : E( X ) =

sS

probability p of occurring. Probability that A

occurs exactly k times in n trials is

p k (1-p)n-k C (n,k )

L18

54

Conditional Probability

Independence

If E and F are events and p (F ) > 0 then

the conditional probability of E given F

is defined by: p (E |F ) = p (EF ) / p (F )

Independent events : p(EF )=p(E )p(F )

Review

55

Relations

n -ary relation on sets (A1,A2, ,An) is a

subset of A1A2 An.

binary relations : n = 2

Infix notation : aRb

Prefix functional notation : R(a,b) has value 1

EG: R = <:

Review

(3,2)

< <(3,2) = 0 (3 < 2) = 0

56

Relations

Relations on A

Representations

Adjacency matrix

Digraph

Properties

Reflexive : every element self-related

Symmetric : (a,b) R (b,a) R

Transitive :(a,b),(b,c) R (a,c) R

Exponentiation : R n = L

R OM

R m

R

O

ON

O

n times

Review

57

n-Join of R with S

Jn (R,S )

Each element in R whose last n coordinates match

with first n coordinates of S, create an element of join

EG, 2-join: (0,1,1)

2-join (0,1,1,1)

(1,1,1)

Projection of R to sub-coordinates

Review

Pi1,i2,, ik (R )

Keep only the indexed coordinates

EG: (0,1,1)

1,3 projection

(0,1)

58

Graphs

Undirected graphs

Multigraphs : Multiple edges allowed. No loops.

Pseudographs : Loops and multiple edges allowed.

Directed graphs

Directed multigraph: multiple edges also allowed

Graph families

Complete graphs Kn

Cycles Cn

Wheels Wn

Cubes Qn

Vertex degree :

edge, 2 for each loop

1

Edge-Vertex Handshaking: | E | =

deg(e)

2 eE

Directed graphs:

in-degree deg-: the number of edges that stick in

out-degree deg+:the number of edges that stick out

Handshaking Theorem: | E | =

deg

( e) =

eE

deg

( e)

eE

Review

Edge-Face Handshaking: | E | = 1

deg( F )

F R

60

n colorable : can use n colors so that no

two adjacent vertices have same color

Chromatic number : smallest number n

for which it is n colorable

Bipartite : same as 2-colorable

K2,3

K4,5

Review

61

Graph Isomorphism

Isomorphism from G1=(V1,E1) to G2=(V2,E2). A

function on vertices satisfying:

1)

2)

f is bijective

number of edges bet. u,v in G1 is same as bet. f

(u), f (v ) in G2

To prove isomorphism, describe f explicitly

To prove non-isomorphism, show that a graph

invariant differs for G1 vs. G2

Review

Degrees, degree numbers

Non-isomorphic subgraphs

Girth, connectivity

62

Path : a sequence of edges in graph with incident

consecutive edges

consecutive vertices

Simple path: no repeated edge

Circuit : first and last vertex the same

Length of path: number of edges traversed

Connectedness

Undirected graph

Review

2-Connected: Connected and no cut vertices

Connected Components: subgraphs that are connected and as

large as possible

Strongly connected digraph: given any vertices (a , b) there

is a path from a to b and vice versa

63

Euler path

Euler circuit : Euler path thats a circuit

THM: Euler path or circuit iff there are 2

vertices of odd degree.

Hamilton path

Review

Hamilton circuit : allowed to start vertex twice.

No simple all-inclusive theorem for Hamilton paths

(NP-complete problem).

64

Planar Graphs

Planar if can be drawn in

plane without any crossing

edges.

to redraw graph without

crossing edges:

of:

Kurotowskis theorem (see

text)

Euler formula method (see

next column)

Review

of regions:

r = |E | - |V | + 2

Girth g: smallest cycle length

in G

Face-Edge handshaking +

girth :

1

| E | rg

2

many edges, showing that

planarity assumption was

false

65

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