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# STEERING SYSTEM

1) Caster
A positive caster of 3 is
set because positive caster
creates a lot of align torque
(the force that straightens the
steering wheel when you go
forward) which improves
straight line stability of the
car. Due to the geometry of
positive caster it also will
increase negative camber gain
when turning which is a good
thing. It increases tire lean
when cornering.
2) Camber
A positive camber of 1
is set because a positive
camber is set at front, so as to
give directional stability i.e.
aids bringing back the wheel
after the turning is made. It
also causes the tires to
straighten out.
3) Kingpin Inclination
It is inclined at 7because
the King Pin Inclination of an
axis of turn provides weight

## movement of the automobile

on a straight line and in turns.
10mm is provided because steering
becomes less sensitive to braking
inputs. It also produces stable
straight-running
stability
but
requires counter-steering by the
driver in case of uneven braking
effect
5) TOE-IN
A toe-in of 2mm is provided as it
improves straight line stability.
Rear wheel drive vehicles have
slightly positive tow in the rear
due to rolling resistance causing
outward drag in the suspension
arms. The slight positive toe
straightens out the wheels at
speed, effectively evening them
out and preventing excessive tire
wear.

SPECIFICATIONS
Steering type
Steering ratio
Inner
wheel
turning angle
Outer
wheel
turning angle
Caster angle
Camber angle
Kingpin
inclination
Toe angle
Track width
Wheelbase
Ackermann
percentage

Pitman Steering
1:1
27 deg
20.64 deg
3m
3 deg (positive)
1 deg (positive)
7 deg
2 deg (toe-in)
10mm
1m (front) and
1.05m (rear)
1.15m
96.64%

STEERING CALCULATIONS
The main goal of our steering
system is to provide directional
Simplicity and safety were the main
design considerations of our steering
system. The steering system includes
steering wheel, steering column,
steering arm, tie rod and knuckle.
Common inner wheel angle for any
automobile is 41 degrees and outer
wheel angle ranges from 28 to 29
degrees. In order to achieve those
angles, the stoppers were attached,
intentionally on both sides of the
frame such that the angular movement
of steering arms is restricted to
desired position. From the known
inner wheel and outer wheel angles,
reverse engineering process is carried
out to find the turning radius of the
kart by using the simple Ackermann
principle.
Rear track width
=

1.0m

Wheelbase
=

1.15m

=
0.80m
=

3m

410

tan=( b/ y )

y=b tan

## =28 . 44 (outer wheel angle)

Ackerman=tan-1(WB/(WB/tan(Angle
outside wheel - Front Track))
=tan-1(1.15/(1.15/tan(28.44)-1)
=27.4
= /Ackermann

% Ackermann

= 28.44/27.44

y=1323 mm

% Ackermann

=100.3%

1) INNER WHEEL
Rif =(

FRONT

b
ac
)(
)
sin
2

1.15
0.2
)(
)
sin 41
2

Rif =1 . 65 m

Rof =(

b
ac
)+(
)
sin
2

Rof =(

1.15
0.2
)+(
)
sin 28.44
2

Cotcot=(c / b)
Rof =2 .514 m

## Cotcot ( 41)=(0.80 /1.15)

3) INNER REAR

WHEEL

Rir=

b
( tan
)( ac2 )

Rir=

( tan1.1541 )( 0.22 )

1.15
( tan28.44
)+( 0.22 )

Ror=

Ror=2 .22 m

Rir=1 . 22m

4) OUTER REAR