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[3/6, 10:33 PM] shreyansbakhda: Motor - orals

ME Alarms and trip- jcw, lo, pco, cyl oil, spring air, safety air, control air, t/c oil, fo
low pr, cam shaft lo pr,
scavenge air ht, exhaust ht,
1.Exhaust temp of one unit is high; what could be the reason? Leaky injector,leaky
exhaust valve,scavenge
fire,incorrect fuel injection timing,incorrect fuel pump setting,scavenge ports
choked, temp indicator faulty.
2. How is L.O. For X head lubrication delivered in (B/W SULZER Engines)separate
pipe fron m\e sump in
BNW and separate crosshead pump for sulzer engines.
3. How many the rods will be there? Function of tie rods?funtion pf tie rods is to hold
the cylinder block,
engine frame and bed plate under compression. 2N+2
4. What is the role of the Thrust block? The role of thrust block is to transmit the
axial thrust from the
propeller to the hull to avoid misalignment of crankshaft
5. Where is the thrust bearing in MC series or RTA engines?? in MC series engines
thrist block is placed
after the flywheel.
6. Why is the thrust bearing at the aft end of the engine and not at the forward end?
in the aft end to take the
axial thrust from propeller. Correct location of crankpin wrt centre of cyl.
7. Why is the thrust bearing close to the engine and close to the stern tube? Area
near stern tube small and
nt adequately stiffened.
8. M/E stuffing box components? Housing, 4 part scrapper, 8 part sealing, 4 part
sealing, 8 part sealing,
nitrile rubber rings, garter springs, diaphragm

9. What is the role of the stuffing box? Isolate crankcase from combustion chamber,
avoid mixing of oils,
avoid combustion products goin to c/c
10. What is the difference between stuffing box drain oil and scavenge space drain
oil? Scavenge space
drain oil is cyl oil. Stuffing box drain oil is c/c oil.
11. Why are piston rings changed? Excessive wearing, broken, avoid blow past,
proper sealing.
12.stroke Valve timing diagram
13. What are the strokes in 2 stroke and four stroke engines? Compression/
expansion stroke.
14. Why are telescopic pipes used for oil lubrication? For X hd lubrication.
15. Why is fuel timing important? Efficient combustion, avoid fuel knock, maximum
power output, avoid
after burning.
16. How is checked and adjusted? (engine type based on candidate?s experience)
changing relative angular
position of cam peak to crankshaft, raising plunger wrt follower, raising or lowering
the casing.
17. What is the principle of a diesel engine? Dual cycle.
18. Why are 2 springs sometimes used in inlet and exhaust valves? Avoid breaking
or bending due to
Resonance, one right hand and other left hand, twisting moment neutralized,
increase closing force on
valve, avoid valve bounce.
19. What will you check in springs during overhaul? Dropping from a height,
compress on a vice
20. I-low does a roto-cap work?
21. How is BHP calculation using indicator diagram done?

22. What is MEP and MIP? Mean effective pressure, mean indicated pressure.
23. What is the difference between the two
24. Why is cylinder head fitted in engines house the cyl hd mountings, provide an
enclosed combustion
chamber, take compression and gas load.
25. Are there engines w/o cylinder head? Yes, double acting doxford 2 stroke
opposed piston engines.
26. Draw 2s timing diagram
27. Why is an expansion tank provided in jacket cooling water system? Air removal,
replenishing water,
expansion of hot liquid, positives suction head for pump.
28. Why do we Blow through? Engines? To avoid water hammer.
29. How is T/C RPM measured? Proximity sensor
30. Is there any difference between A/E and M/E Governors a/e governor- load
dependent constant speed
covernor, m/e governor- speed dependent variable speed.
31. Indicator cards why and and how are they taken? Me performance,
32. What is Hydrodynamic lubrication? Wedge of liquid is formed due to rotation,
moving surfaces
separated by pr of continuous unbroken film of lub. Load taken completely by oil
33. What is rolling contact bearing? Ball or roller bearings
34. What is MCR and CSR? Maximum continuous rating- max continuous output at
which engine can be
run safely and continuously, used for calculation of strength of engine. CSRcontinuous standard ratingoutput
at service speed for economical and efficient operation corresponding to thermal
and mechanical
load. Maintenance point of view

35. What is PS? What is its relation to kilowatt? PS german unit for horse power. 1 PS
= 0.7355 KW =
0.986 hp
36. What was the specific fuel consumption in your last ship? 171 +- 5% @ mcr
37. What was the specific cylinder oil consumption? Cylinder oil consumption in
grams per KwHr.
38. What is relation between power and rpm of a main diesel engine? Direct
39. What will be the power developed by a main engine if it runs in DD? Bhp is
generated but Tp and Ep
wud be 0.
40. What is the relation between the ship?s speed and engine power?
41. Will the engine develop any power, if it is run when a ship is aground? yes
42. What is a CPP? How does it function?? controllable pitch propeller,
43. What is the difference between fuel valve opening pressure and fuel injection
44. What is an under slung crankshaft? Supported from top, having springs on axles
below. Low cog.
45. How many crankshafts are there in ?V? type engines? one
46. How are connecting rods fitted?
47.Do two stroke engines need tappet clearance adjustment? no
48. How will you know, without opening anything, that an engine is 2S or 4S?
49. What are the two strokes in 2S engines called? Compression, power
50. Why does Sulzer use hydraulic jack bolts for main bearings?
51. What is the meaning of TBN in lubricating oils?
52. Why is LO of different TBN used for M/E cylinder oil and Crankcase oil??
53. What are the valves of TBN for main engine crankcase oil? 8-10 for c/c oil, 70-80
cyl oil, trunk piston30-40

54. What is the difference between ?heat? and ?temperature?? heat is a form of
energy. Temp is the degree
of hotness or coolness of the body
55. If water is found in crank case lo, what could be the cause? Liner leakage,
purifier not efficient,
56.How will you test the opening pressure of a crank case relief door? Relief valve
assembly removed from
place and fitted to a blank flange with connections for compressed air and pr.
Gauge. Comp air then
admitted slowly to check lifting pr,
57.Sketch stern tube lubricating oil system. Type of seal arrangements to prevent
lubricating oil going
overboard/sea water coming in. lip seal, stuffing box, radial face seals
58. How and why are tappet clearances taken?
59. What will you check in crane case inspection? Crankshaft deflection, metal
particles in oil, smell and
colour of oil, paint peeling off, scoring on piston rod, black oil underside of stuffing
box, web slippage,
bearing metal oozing out from casing, oil flowing from all lubricating points,
crankcase vents clear,
connecting rod playgeneral inspection for any cracks.
60. State the starting interlocks on Main Engine. Turning gear interlock, running
direction interlocks, cam
position interlock, telegraph interlock
61. How will you commission Aux. Engine (Generator) after its decarbonization?
62. How will you draw out lubricating samples for analysis and what information is
require to he furnished
to laboratory? After filters when engine is still running. Running hours, machinery,
original grade of oil.
63. If a piston has suffered damage/crack, how is the main Engine Unit out off?

64. How will you remove Main Bearing bottom half of Main Engine and also push
65. How is poker gauge reading taken and what is its significance? To measure
propeller drop.
66. What is Impressed current system? Where is it fitted ? What is its purpose? How
does it work?
67. What checks are carried out on Tall Shaft? Bending, resin grease on flange
between tail and
intermediate shaft, cracks, alignment, grooving in way of seals, shaft grounding
68. How will you proceed to take crankshaft deflections? What could possibly he
reasons for crankshaft
misalignment? Bearing wear down, saddle wear, grounding, distortion of bed plate,
uneven loading,
prolonged low load operation, slak foundation bolts, improper loading and ballasting
69. State your main engine specifications. in line 6 cyl,super long stroke, 600 mm
bore dia, 2000 mm stoke
length, turbocharged, 11500 kw @ 97 rpm, cam operated
70. What action will you take if Main Engine Piston is about to seize? Increase
cylinder lub and keep
turning on turning gear.
71. Setting pressure of crankcase relief valve? Relationship between area of relief
valve and volume of
crankcase. Aggregate area of all valves to be 115 cm2 per m3 crank case
volume.0.2 bar. Fiteed for engines
more than 200mm bore or 0.6 m3 cc volume. 200-250- 1 at each end, 1 more if
more than 8 cyl, 250-300one at each alternate crank throw, minimum 2, >300- one in each crank throw. One
in chain case.
72. What is the difference between Main Engine and Aux. Engine Governor?
73. How will you reverse the the engine from full ahead/full astern/ crash stop?

74. When blowing through main engine, one of the units relief valve is lifted. What
could be the reasons?
Indicator cock shut and water inside.
75. Why does a Piston seize? What action must be taken? Cylinder lubrication
inadequate, micro seizure.
76. What will you check if piston cooling and jacket cooling temperatures start going
high? Preheat setting,
jcw temperature controller, purge oil from controller, lt cooling temp high.
77. What are the symptoms of piston crack and liner crack? What action will you
take? Rapid rise in sump
level, piston cooling temperature high.
78. What is athwart ship4? Port starboard
79. What is name Thrust Block and what is its purpose and where is it fitted?
80. What is the name of big end Bearing Bolts?
81. Give reasons for main engine not starting on air. Starting air pr low, v/v on start
air bottle closed, valve
to star air distributor closed, main air block valve closed, turning gear engaged,
pistons in distributor
sticking, distributor wrongly adjusted, sticking control valve of distributor, cylinder
air start valve
defective, no control air, in cpp control air blades not on zero pitch.
82. What is Compression pressure in main engine? 100-110 bar
83. What is the first symptom of Scavenge fire? Increase in scavenge air
temperature, increased exhaust
temp, surging, smoke from t/c air inlet, smoke, noise
84. Why do we measure Butt clearance? To maintain the specified clearance
85. What is the use of telegraph? Communication device.
86. State maximum and minimum clearances of Butt clearance. 0.5% to 1% of bore

87. Describe safety features of a main engine. Cylinder head relief valve, crankcase
relief valve, oil mist
detector, scavenge air high temp. alarm, bearing high temp alarm,bursting disc in
starting air line
88. State remedial measures of a Scavenge fire. in small fire continue to run engine,
cut off fuel to affected
unit, inc cyl oil, keep clear of scavenge door, check parameters, if large fires reduce
speed stop engine,
auxiliary blower off, t\c inlet covered, fuel oil shut off, scavenge drains closed, cyl
lube shut, introduce
fixed fire fighting, boundry cooling,when temp low enogh , enter ,clean, find
outcause and rectify.
89. What is diesel knock and how does it affect engine performance? Combustion
noise due to ignition
delay, occurs during starting from cold. Rapid increase in pressure and temperature,
after burning,
uneconomic running.
90. What is after burning and what are its symptoms? Exhaust temp high,
uneconomic running, reduction in
thermal efficiency, loss of power, fouling from carbon deposits, overheating in
exhaust system.
91. What are the types of Scavenging?? loop, cross, uniflow
92. What will you do if jacket temperature of Auxi. Engine increases in the watch?
Change over jacket
water cooler or put both coolers in service.
93. How do you come to know an exhaust valve is leaking in any cylinder?? high
exhaust temperature, loss
of compression pressure, spark from funnel,
94. How do we know if an air inlet is leaking? Starting air line will be hot, relief
valve/ bursting disc will

95. What is the requirement of a crosshead? take the axial thrust exerted by the
connecting rod and transmit
it to A frame.
96. How is an engine installed on a tanktop? Holding down bolts, side and bottom
97. What is scavenge fire? Causes, Prevention and action taken?
98. What is crankcase explosion? Causes, Prevention and action taken?
99. To what pressure is a crankcase relief door valve set and how does it function?
0.2 bar.
100. During manoeuvring if automatic air starting valve gets seized, what action will
you take? in one
deign I t can be operated by hand by engaging a clutch on a collar on the valve
spindle, in another design
auto valve operated by hand wheel can be set to three position, positively shut,
positively open and auto
101. What have you gained from the Simulation Course attended by you?
102. What is the safety out simulator?
103. From where we do the crash manoeuvring? Engine control room or local control
104. How is an AE decarbonised?
105. What precaution will you take while increasing oil scraper ring in piston groove
and why?
106. How do you start a generator??
107.How to start a purifier and stop it? Fill operating water tank, open steam to
heater, start motor, wait till
amperage drops to normal. manual starting...first run the px motor...then supply the
bowl closing water for
10 sec...then supply seal water till u see it coming out of sludge port. then supply
bowl opening water for 2

sec...then supply closing water supply water ....confirm no leakage

from bowl....then start the
feed of oil
108. State the symptoms at of piston running hot. Piston cooling oil outlet temp
109. If thrust bearing lubricating oil temp. is getting higher, what action will be
taken by you? Check flow
of oil, put a gunny cloth soaked with water on it a s an emergency
measure,reducing speed not advisable
because less speed less lubrication.if possible inform bridge and stop engines asap.
investigate the sourse of
high temperature and rectify...mostly it is due to failure of lubrication or damage to
110. What is the purpose of clutch pad in a purifier?
111. What are the probable cause of H.O And L. 0. Purifier Overflow? Throughput
high, sludge deposits,
sealing water low, improper gravity disc.
112. If generator sump is rising what a probable cause and action you will take?
Contamination by f/o
water or cyl oil.
113. When are safety cut outs of Main Engine tried out and how often?
114. What is the effect of a gravity disc on the separation in a purifier?creates a
back pressure in the oil
thus maintaining the intrephase within the disc stack?
115. Principle and operation of remote level indicating gauges. Electric/ pneumatic
116. What is a micrometer gauge?
117. Procedure for removing a Main Bearing and taking clearances.
118. How is thrust clearances measured? Pad and pad, pad and collar, pad and
stopper. 0.5 to 1.0, 1.5 max,
5mm between thrust pad and stopper.

119.How is an indicator Card Diagram taken? Power card- drum in phase with piston
Compression card- drum in phase, fuel cut off, out of phase dia- drum 90 deg out of
phase, light spring diain
phase with a light comp spring.
120. Bunkering Procedure.
121. Why does surging take place in Turbo charger? Reduction in load, back
pressure wave.
122. How is a fuel injector tested onboard? Fuel injector test kit.
123. Methods of starting.
124. Describe lubricating systems of Main Engine and Aux. Engine.
125. Define mechanical efficiency, brake power, thermal efficiency. Mechanical eff =
brake power/
indicated power. Brake power is the power available at the flywheel measured by
dynamometer. Thermal
efficiency = heat converted into work / heat added.
126. What are the starting precautions taken for AE?
127. Difference between 2-S and 4-S.
128. Crankcase explosion.
129. Spark coming from funnel. Exhaust valve leaking, after burning, late injection,
egb fire, fuel pump
timing incorrect.
130. 2 hour notice, action for sailing. Aux gen, lo/ fo/ purifier, propeller clearance,
prelube, turning, stering
gear test, control test, t/c drains and main air start line drains shut, top up air
bottle, blowers on auto, blow
131. M/E parameters and safety devices.
132. Black smoke coming out of exhaust, reason and action. Improper combustion,
dripping injector, fuel

bad quality, scavenge ports chocked,

133. Expansion tank getting overflow. What actions if you are the watchkeeping
engineer. Drain water,
134. Setting of fuel pump timing, reason for change in timing.
135. Regulation for crankcase relief v/v
136. Checking of tappet clearance after decarb of engine.
137. Quantity of air required for starting of A/E. 7k air motor
138. While 0/H of engine, before completing the 0/H job, 2/E was going on leave.
Work is in incomplete
position. I-low to attend the job to complete the same 0/H.
139. Lub and cooling system of MIE.
140. Timing diagram.
141. How to lower and raise the plunger of fuel pump
142. Piston diagram of 2/S, 4/S.
143. Fuel value, fuel pump.
144. Function of piston rings, scrapper ring.
145. Piston cooling.
146. Removing of liner as a full E/R incharge.
147. Low L.0. Pressure cut-out according to last ship. 1.8
148. Indications of scavenge fire.
149. What is surging and why? Imbalance between air delivery by t/c and air take
off from manifold.
150. Indication diagram.
151. Crankshaft deflection.
151.Why T/C is fitted, can we run without T/C?
152 .Types of scavenging.
153.Take over watch.

154.Funnel spark.
155. How to avoid sparking? Proper fuel preparation and injection, timing, good
quality fuel, egb soot
156.Engine starting flow diagram.
157. Safeties of M/E.
158.What is power? Rate of doing work.
159.Crank pin dia measurement. Crank pin top bottom, port starboard.
160.Vemier calliper (zero setting)
161.Fuel injector testing.
162.Piston ring calibration. Axial clearance, butt clearance, radial clearance.
163.Air starting line, safeties. Bursting disc, relief valve, stop valves on air bottle,
main air stop valve nrv,
drain valve at lowest point, separate filling and main air line on bottle.
164.Liner gauging. Template in fwd-aft and port starboard direction. Various point
from top to bottom.
165. Propeller + rudder drop and effect. Propeller drop- whirling of propeller,
increase in load on stern tube
bearing, loss of lubrication, cracks in tail shaft, vibrations, loss of propelling
efficiency, chance of water
leakage into e/r. rudder drop- wear of rudder carrier bearing or pintle bearings.
Slamming of rudder in
heavy seas, decrease in steerin efficiency.
166.Explain Air system of M/E. 30 k line-air bottle ? main air valve- automatic block
valve ? distributor ?
starting air valve.
167. Indication for air starting v/v leaking.
168. Flash point, power point, Auto ignition. Flash point is the minimum temperature
at which the vapours

emitted by a volatile fluid are enough to give a momentary flash of fire and fire
point is the temp at which
vapours are enough to support continuous burning. Auto ignition temp is the
minimum temperature at
which the substance will ignite spontaneously without any external source of
169.Liner is coming with piston (during removal).
170.Exhaust valve opening. Overhaul ? close spring air. Shut hp lo line. Close jcw
water inlet and drain.
Remove hp line. Remove spring air line. loosen bolts hydraulically. Put I bolt on top,
lift by crane. How
valve opens- opened by oil supplied from cam shaft lo system. Hydraulic pump on
cam shaft. Hp oil
delivered to a cylinder on top of valve spindle. Inside cylinder is a piston which is
actuated by hp oil which
opens the valve. Within the casing is another cylinder and piston. Space under this
piston is supplied with
compressed air 6k. this causes exhaust valve to close when hp discharge stops.
171.A/E piston removal and checks. Piston rings, ring grooves, template for piston
top profile, cracks,
gudgeon pin clearance and ovality,
172.Adjustment of compression ratio in trunk piston and 2 stroke. For two stroke use
shims between palm
of piston rod and cross head pin. Trunk piston engines173.Bearing and clearance.
174.MCR, How to calculate? Maximam continuous rating, it is said to have reached
when one or more of
these factors are fulfilled- maximum quantity of fuel burnt efficiently in the engine,
maximum safe stresses
on the engine parts without failure, when the mean piston speed and revolution can
not be increased safely

any more.
175.M/E trip, How to check?
176.Difference between 2S, 4S connecting rods. 2s- flat palm bearing top and
bottom, 4-s- oblique type con
rod with bush @ top end.
177.Chain elongation. Due to slackness the cam shaft may lag behind crank shaft
which delays all timings.
Provided that total stretch is within maximum limits, chain can be tightened to
reduce slackness. Chains
generally do not elongate but slackness is due to wear down of sprockets. Slack
adjusted by chain
tensioning device which functions by moving a sprocket in and out to take up slack.
As the chain is
retensioned the cam shaft sprocket eventually gets retarded thus causing change in
I 78.Steering safeties. Relief shock valves, buffer relief valves, by pass valves,
isolating valves,
replenishing pump, standby pump, motor overload alarm, hyd oil lp alarm, tank low
level alarm, supply
from esb, control system failure alarm, steering failure alarm, power failure alarm.
179.Engine not reversing, what to check? Reversing servomotor at end position,
relief valve on pneumatic
cylinder for camshaft shiting, lifted, running direction interlock, cam position
interlock, air bottle pressure
180.AlE not starting, What are checks? Lo priming pump not running, turning bar
not in place, fuel pump
rack stuck, distributor not working properly, piston seized In liner,
181.How to remove piston?
182.Starting and reversing.

183.Mean piston speed. Average speed of piston in reciprocating engine. Function of

stroke and rpm. It is
a indicator of class and performance of the engine. Given by {2*stroke
length*rpm/1000*60 } in m/s.
increases from zero @ beginning of stroke to maximam near mid stroke and zero at
ends. If connecting rot
is of infinite length then mps and acceleration would be in simple harmonic motion.
184.Power from indicator card
185.Funnel black smoke, reasons.
1 86.Cetane numbers. Cetane number of distillate fuels is an indication of
combustion quality of the fuel. It
is the percent volume of n hexadecane (cetane ) in a mixture of n-hexadecane and
alpha methyl naphthalene
which gives the same ignition delay as the sample fuel in a test engine.
CCAI(calculated carbon aromaticity
index) is used for distillate fuels
187.How you know starting air v/v is leaking?
188.Lub of cylinder liner. Pump driven by M/E draws oil from main bearing system
and supplies via speed
control valve to a hydraulic motor which runs cyl lub oil pump and exh vv lo pump.
Cyl oil to pump by
gravity, each pump having a cam operated plungers driven by hyd motor. Plungers
supply oil to cyl quills
via accumulator.
1 89.Exhaust v/v. inlet v/v clearance. 0.5 mm exh vv, 0.2-0.3 inlet vv
190.Thrust bearing, clearance, maintenance, functions.
191.Piston material. 2s- crown- casting of low alloy steel with nickel, chromium and
nickel. Piston skirt- ci.
4s- allumunium alloys. Ring grooves chromium plated, piston rod- forged steel.
192.Liner material. Spheroidal grey cast iron

193.Sump lub oil level decreases. Purifier overflow, heater leakage, cooler leakage,
194.Diesel knock (TDC knock. BDC knock) diesel knock @ tdc due to ignition delay.
Bdc knockmechanical
knock hammering between moving parts or moving and stationary parts.
195.Single throw crank. Single throw means a set of web+pin+web between two
journals. Double throw
web+pin+flying web+pin+web between two journals
196.Types of exhaust v/v
197. A/E 500 hour, routine maintenance. injectors
198.Fuel injector cooling types. Diesel oil / Water cooled
199.Difference in lubrication of sulzer and B&W? crosshead lube oil pump.
200. M/E main and cross head bearing lubrication.
201.Cross head lubrication in B&W.
202.Camshaft drive. Chain drive or gear train.
203.Need for 2 exhaust valve on A/E. increase in area, reduction in weight of valve
and spring, reducing
inertia force and valve bounce, increase in volumetric eff
204.Manoeuvring diagram, safety, air-governor, emergency stop, ahead, astern,
pilot signal to air
distribution, air distribution interlock, other interlock circuit, crash maneuvering,
205.Camshaft lubricating oil pump. Tank-filter-pump-cam shaft casing- drainmagnetic filter-tank. Drains
so placed to retain some oil and cam to dip.
206. Why water in air bottle? Condensation on cooler part of the bottle
207.Difference between flywheel and governor. Flywheel retains energy for use
during comp stroke in 2s
and suc/comp/exh stroke in 4s. governor maintain speed of engine by varying fuel

208.Exhaust v/v burn out indication. Increased exh temperature, high jcw outlet
209.Scrapper ring functions? Why holes are provided? Oil flowing down the liner is
carried up again by the
ring, to drain the scrapped oil back into the cc.
210.Generator not starting on air, decks?
211 .Generator arrangement.
212. Power balancing approx equal power developed in each unit. Carried out by
varying amount of fuel to
each unit.
213.OMD calibration. Check button provided, meter should move to max, red
indicator warning lamp and
remote lamp to light and audible alarm should sound.
214.Engine not starting on air and fuel.
215.Scavenge fire inspection
216.Boiler air fuel ratio.
217.Indicator card reference line.
218. Sulzer reversing mechanism.
219. How T/G effects starting of engine, what if cut off?
220. While entering a channel, engine J. W. cooling temperature is raising, what
action wi11 you take? Use
high sea suction, c/o cooler or put both coolers in use
221.Charging piston rings (procedure)
222.Exhaust temp is going high, actions taken.
223.Setting of overfeed trip and its working. 115% for gen and 120% for me comes
to action when
governor fails. Shuts fuel supply. Overspeed trip required for safety reasons.
224.Cylinder head v/v opens inward (reason) if opening upwards cyl hd needed of
split construction.

Spring exposed to exh gases, deterioration. Closing force required would be more,
spring size increased.
225.Gear inspection? What is backlash? 1-low much it should be? Normal cond- .24
to .41, max-.73mm,
clearance between two enmeshing gears, measured by means of feeler or
micrometer with enmeshing gears
in line with center.
226. Max. allowable wear of cylinder liner. 0.6 to 0.8 of original dia.
227.What is mech efficiency? Why is it less in 4 stroke?
228.How to check o/s trip?
229.Piston running hot indications and action to be taken?
230. Firing order of last ship? 162534
231.Sequence of admitting starting air in cylinder.
232.Air distributor.
233.A/E decarb, safety precautions.
234.Liner removing instructions.
235.Line calibration, clearances
236.HP/KW 1hp = 746 w = 0.746 kw
237.Crankshaft deflections, out come, why is it taken, what happens if not correct.
238.Bridge gauge used where, how clearance measure.
239.Timing of 4-s.
240.Test carried out on L.O. water content, alkalinity, drop test, viscosity,
241.How will you check the fuel pump liming??
242.Causes of less L.O. Pressure. Filter chocked, pump efficiency reduced, blockage
of oil holes and pipes,
contamination of lo.
243.How mechanical seal works. Carbon or ceramic seal face
244.Prove uniform scavenging is better than other types.

245.How cylinder lub in 4-s and 2-s is actived.

246.Draw crank position diagram for cylinder lubrication. P 177 dk sanyal
247.What is overlap? (Advantage and Disadvantage) efficient scavenging and loss
of scavenge air.
248.How does the air enter into the cylinder?
249.Cylinder head tests. Pressure test, crack test.
250.How do you remove cylinder head?
251.Fuel injector, checks. Opening pressure, spray, interference fit between needle
valve and bore, hole dia,
lapping of nozzle face, needle valve lapping
252.Fuel pump function.
253.How do you know come to know starting and ending of injection of fuel?
254.Safeties provided in starting air system.
255.How reversing of M/E takes place?
256.What is long stroke engine? Advantages? Regulation.
257.Bearing clearance. 0.3 to 0.4
258.Crankshaft misalignment.
259. Manoeuvring line diagram

[3/6, 10:33 PM] shreyansbakhda: MEP- ORAL

Procedure for Overhaul of A/E.
a. Check whether all tools and spares are available or not.
b. If so, then star zt the Stand by generator.
c. Check all parameters are normal.
d. Now share the load with the help of synchroscope.
e. Again check all the parameters are within normal range.
f. Put full load on the Stand by generator.
g. Stop the generator on which work has to be carried out.
h. Put MEN AT WORK tag.
i. Shut the air starting valve, fuel oil inlet & outlet valves and isolate the system.
j. Let lube oil priming pump run for half hour after then stop it.
k. Drain the jacket water.
l. Remove the cylinder head cover.
m. Remove high pressure pipe.
n. Take out the injector using its tool.
o. Open the rocker arm bolts & remove it from its place.
p. Remove the Jacket water outlet pipe.

q. Disconnect the scavenge & exhaust manifold from the cylinder head.
r. Open the cylinder head bolts using the Torque spanner or hydraulic jack(As
provided on your vessel).
s. Check the lifting gear (Crane & chain block, Eye bolt, etc.)
t. Lift the cylinder head & put it at a suitable place.
u. Open the crankcase door.
v. Bring the piston to TDC position & attach eye-bolt on it and Attach hook of chain
block to it.(Before bringing Piston to TDC, the top part of liner needs to be cleaned)
w. Bring the piston to BDC and open the bottom-end bolts & remove bottom end
x. As load of piston is now on Lifting gear, so take it out & put it on the piston stand.
y. Remove the piston rings using ring extractor.
z. Remove the circlip from the gudgeon pin & take out the gudgeon pin, so
connecting rod can be taken out.

How do you decide if piston rings should be changed or not?

a. Butt clearance increased then its normal range.
b. Axial clearance increased.
c. Visual condition of piston ring.

How you check lifting gear.

a. Check the condition of wire rope & grease it.
b. Check the visual condition of chain.
c. Check the limit switches in the forward, aft, Port & starboard direction are
d. Check that emergency button is working.
e. Check the visual condition of the insulated cover is satisfactory.
f. Check overload trip is working satisfactorily.

g. Check the visual condition of chain block, no cracks should be there.

h. Check that safety latch is there on chain block.

What checks on piston and liner.

a. Piston:i. Check the piston for any cracks.
ii. Check the piston top profile.
iii. Check for any carbon deposits.
iv. Check the butt clearance, axial & radial clearance.

What to do if valve seat damaged?

Checks on crankcase inspection in Main Engine?

Safety Precautions:
Inform bridge and Chief Engineer.
If in port, take Immobilization certificate.
Get propeller clearance from the duty officer.
Shut off starting air valve.
Put ?Men at Work? tag.
Stop lube oil pump.
Indicator cocks to open.
Turning gear should be engaged
Wear proper PPE, Shoes & helmet.
No naked lamp to be taken inside.
Open the crankcase door taking it as a shield.
Ventilate the crankcase door properly.

No items should be inside the pockets of boiler suit.

a. Check the condition of lube oil, for any smell, discoloration, degradation.
b. No paint parts to be there in the sump.
c. Turn the engine to BDC and under stuffing box area for any black oil.
d. Check piston rod for any scoring & roughness.
e. Check piston palm bolts & locking.
f. Check the guide shoes and the area around it.
g. Check guide shoe end cover bolts.
h. Check X-head bearing general condition.
i. Check all bearing for white metal.
j. Check oil pan area of every unit for any sludge formations, bearing metals &
foreign particles.
k. Check top & bottom of connecting rod bolts, nuts & locking device.
l. Check the axial movement of bottom end bearing.
m. Check slippage of web & journal by reference marks.
n. Check the teeth of transmission gear.
o. Check the tightness of chain drive.
p. Check c/case relief door spring tension, wire mesh & sealing ring.
q. Check & clear the O.M.D sampling pipes.
r. Start the lube oil pump & check flow .
s. Check c/case door sealing condition & close it c/case door.
t. Make sure no foreign matter or tools should be left inside the c/case.

Tappet clearances why plus how to check.

Tappet clearance is taken to ensure positive closing of the valve & for thermal
expansion of the valve.

Taking all safety precautions.(See Ans. 1)

Make sure the piston is on TDC.
i. From the marking on the flywheel.
ii. From the fuel cam.
iii. Push rod should be free.
Make sure the engine has cooled down.
Loosen the lock nut of the rocker arm.
Now adjust the tappet clearance between the rocker arm & valve stem by
tightening or loosing the nut below the lock nut.
If tappet clearance is less:
i. Valve will open early & close late
ii. Air induced through inlet valve may leak out. So, less air for combustion.
iii. Power will be reduced.
iv. Fuel consumption will increase, engine may become unbalanced, exhaust temp.
will be very high.
v. In worst condition, valve may remain open, resulting in loss of compression
pressure, burning of exhaust valve, T/C fouling will increase.
If tappet clearance is more:
i. Valve will open late & close early.
ii. Lesser heat energy to T/C, so reduction in scavenge air & hence power.
iii. No proper removal of gases.
iv. Hammering of valve stem-may cause damage to valve stem.

What to check if Engine is not starting on air and fuel

Engine not starting on Air:a. Low air bottle pressure or air line valve may be shut.
b. Air bottle isolating valve or automatic valve or distributor not functioning.

c. Control air valves faulty or less control air pressure.

d. Start air automatic valve jammed.
e. Turning gear engaged.
f. Reversing has not taken place completely.
g. Control valve for fuel or start is not in it?s end position.
h. Bursting diaphragm on start air line damaged.
i. Fuel lever on maneuvering stand not on remote mode.
j. Auxiliary blower not running or not on ?auto? mode.
k. Emergency stop has activated.
l. Interlock is operated.
m. Cylinder air start valve defective or sticky.
n. Piston not in firing mode.

Engine not starting on fuel:

a. Less fuel in service tank.
b. Fuel filter is chocked.
c. Fuel supply pumps not delivering required pressure. Or fuel pump tripped.
d. Fuel level on local maneuvering stand, is not on remote stand.
e. Fuel rack stuck.
f. Fuel pump malfunctioning, jammed plunger.
g. Injector nozzle needle sticking or holes blocked.
h. Compression pressure is too low due to broken piston ring or exhaust valve not
closing properly.
i. Fuel pump relief valve leaking.
j. Start air pressure insufficient to turn the engine fast enough.

What to check if Engine is not taking load.

What precautions to take to start A/E After overhaul.

a. Water tightness to be checked.
b. Air to be removed from jacket water outlet line.
c. Priming lube oil pump to run before starting the engine.
d. Check the lube oil level.
e. Check the flow of lube oil.
f. Blow through the engine before starting.

How to change purifier to clarifier.

Remove the gravity disc.

How to select damn ring for purifier.

From the monogram provided with manual, which is drawn with respect to viscosity
of oil & which size damn ring to be used.

If monogram not there, then

a. Chief Engineers experience will come into use.
b. Hit & trial method to be used.
i. First use the largest gravity disc and whether oil is overflowing, if so, then use
small size gravity disc and follow this process until oil stops overflowing.

What to check if purifier over flowing.

a. Size of gravity disc.
b. High throughput.
c. Temperature of the oil.

How to stop Aux Engine if not stopping by stop handle.

a. Pull the fuel rack to zero position.
b. Operate any trip.

Charging gas in Dom Fridge?

Close the receiver outlet valve and collect the gas in the receiver.
Check the liquid level, if it is below L/3, Charging is reqd.
Check the weight of the refrigerant bottle & keep it upright.
Connect the charging line to the connecting point and keep it loose.
Open the bottle valve slightly and purge the line into the collecting cylinder and
then tighten the connection.
Open the charging valve and fully open the bottle valve.
Check the liquid level in the sight glass and make sure no air bubble present in the
Close the charging valve and the bottle valve.
Open the receiver outlet valve & start the compressor.
Carry out let detector test.

Charging oil in Domestic fridge.

Method 1.
Mostly ships have hand p/p provided which develop more pressure than the inside
Method 2.
Reduce the L.P Cut out setting.
Dip the pipe inside the c/case of compressor.
Run compressor, vaccum will develop.

So, compressor will start sucking the oil.

Make sure the pipe is diped fully, because it has got chances of sucking air.
If air gets in, then purge it in a separate bottle after charging of oil gets completed.

What to check if Room temp (one room) not coming down?


What to check if all room temp not coming down?

- Room doors not shut properly.
- Room insulation is bad.
- Air in system.
- Room fans not running.
- Evaporators frosted.
- Compressor not working satisfactorily, unloader defective, valve leaky, rings
- Expansion valves choked/ malfunctioning.
- Evaporator blocked.

What to do if dom. fridge is short cycling/

- L.P Cut out is defective.
- L.P Cut out setting not correct, too low difficult for Cut In.
- Lesser gas flow
Less gas in system.
Drier Choked.
Expansion valve filter choked or Expansion valve Malfunction.
Evaporator Choked.
Compressor valves leaking.

Actions:a. Check L.P. Cut out setting, Cut out pressure OK.
b. Check flow of gas by seeing sight glass which should show full flow of refrigerant.
c. If no full flow- Either less gas or drier chocked, Clean the drier.
d. Check level in receiver, if low, then charge gas.
e. Expansion valve filter choked, then clean it.
f. Expansion valve malfunctioning- Change it.
g. Evaporator choked- Blow-thru evaporator with nitrogen.

Overhaul of centrifugal pump.

Changing pipe join below floor plate without removing pipe.

Can not pump out bilges. What checks? What to do if pipe holed?
Check Sounding of bilge tank.
Check Bilge tank outlet v/v open or not.
Check P/p inlet v/v open or not.
Check p/p working properly.
If vaccum developing that means hole in pipeline.
If pipe is holed:Carry out Vaccum test by closing inlet valve & opening outlet /v.
If hole is between the inlet v/v and p/p, vaccum will develop, now remove top of v/v
and put water.
If hole is in between Inlet v/v and bilge tank outlet v/v, then again put S.W

Boiler press coming up and gone above the safety valve lifting pressure. What to

Use the easing gear to release the excess pressure.

Bridge informs steering not responding. What to do?

Air comp bumping clearance how to check and adjust.

Start the Stand by compressor.
Stop the compressor whose bumping clearance has to be taken.
Isolate the system.
Put ?Men at Work? tag.
Loosen the cylinder head bolts and lift it.
Measure the diameter /size of the lead ball.
Bring piston to TDC and put lead ball on centre of it.
Now, put the cylinder head and tighten it to required torque.
Now, again loosen the cylinder head bolt and remove the ball.
Measure the size of the ball.
The difference between the initial size and final size is the bumping clearance.
It can be adjusted by either putting a thinner gasket or putting shim on top half of
the bottom end bearing.

Removal of broken stud.

First drill the stud little bit & then use Thread extractor which has left hand thread.

Bridge informs lot of smoke from funnel what to do?

Reduce load on engine.
Check purifier operating alright/ reduce throughput to have better purification.
Drain water from settling & service tank.
Check scavenge air temperature & adjust if reqd. .

Soot blow the economizer.

Ensure, fuel oil end heater outlet temperature proper corresponding to attain
viscosity at the point of injection.
Check, if any particular Exhaust temperature is higher than others, if so, then stop
the engine, Change the injector with a spare overhauled injector.
Check all fuel pump timings are correct or not.
Dismantle and carry out overhaul of T/C.
Send fuel oil for Laboratory analysis.

Improper combustion.
Burning of carbon particles collected at EGE.
Overloading of engine.
Inform bridge & Chief engineer.
Raise engineers? call/emergency alarm.
Before starting bilge pump note down the position of vessel & time of starting.
Other engineers will in between try to locate the hole or burst of pipe and repair.
If ingress of water very high, start another pump.
Reduce the engine r.p.m.
Change over main s.w suction to emergency bilge suction.
If level is still coming up try to protect the motor from short-circuiting , if required
start emergency bilge suction valve.
If situation is not coming in control, prepare lifeboat for lowering.
Flooding in Engine Room what to do?

What checks to be made on Aux Engine when running?


Check scavenge air temperature.

Check Exhaust gas temperature.
Check r.p.m
Check load on A/E.
Carry out peak pressure.
Check for any abnormal noise or vibration.
Check jacket water inlet & outlet temperature.
Check Lube oil temperature & pressure.

During running Main Engine stops. What checks?

Check whether Emergency stop operated by any personnel.
Check level of fuel oil in Service Tank.
Check whether purifier working properly.
Check whether water is there in Service tank due to improper purification.
Low lube oil pressure trip operated, Check L.O P/p developing correct pressure.
Control air trip operated, Check control air pressure.

Boiler blow back what to do and reasons?

Reasons:Insufficient pre-purging.
Blower not working.
Accumulation of oil.
Leaky solenoid valve.
Dripping of burner.

Action:Stop the firing.

Check the condition of burner, if it is dripping, then overhaul is required.
Do the inspection of the furnace.
Carry out sufficient pre-purging.
Start the boiler on ?Auto? mode.

Boiler extinguishes what to do?

Accept the alarm.
Find out the reason for extinguishing:if too low water level alarm came, then check pump is developing correct pressure
or not , its is working properly.
If Tripped on high pressure, let the steam pressure come down.
Fuel oil low pressure alarm , then check functioning of fuel pump, oil in service tank.
Fuel oil low temp. alarm, then use the heater.
Flame failure trip, then clean flame eye, check the furnace & overhaul the burner.

Overhaul of fuel valve?

Safety Precautions:a. Check whether all tools and spares are available or not.
b. If so, then start the Stand by generator.
c. Check all parameters are normal.
d. Now share the load with the help of synchroscope.
e. Again check all the parameters are within normal range.
f. Put full load on the Stand by generator.
g. Stop the generator on which work has to be carried out.

h. Put MEN AT WORK tag.

i. Shut the air starting valve, fuel oil inlet & outlet valves and isolate the system.
j. Let lube oil priming pump run for half hour after then stop it.
k. Remove the lock nut of the high pressure pipe.
l. Now, remove the high pressure pipe.
m. Take out the fuel injector using it tool.
n. Put it on the testing kit.
o. Check the lifting pressure, atomization, pressure falling steadily, dripping of oil.
p. Now, take out the injector from the testing kit, put in a diesel oil & clean it.
q. Make sure the workshop table should be clean, no rags or jute to be there.
r. Put the injector on the vice and tighten it.
s. Loosen the lock nut of the injector.
t. Now loosen the compression nut to release the spring pressure, then take out the
u. Open the cap nut and take out the needle and guide.
v. Put the parts on the cleaned table.
w. Check the condition of spring by dropping on the floor plate, it should jump and
also check it by tightening in the vice and then releasing. The difference in the
length,no cracks to be there.
x. Check visually needle, there shouldn?t be any scoring marks because it is made
of Nitrite material.
y. Try to insert the needle inside the guide at angle of 45degree, the needle should
on its own weight.
z. Check the size of injecting holes by using Go or No go gauge.
i. If go gauge is going then hole size is OK.
ii. If no go gauge going, then it means the size has increased, then nozzle needs to
be changed.
iii. Now assemble the injector and do the lifting pressure setting on test kit by
adjusting the compression nut.

iv. After this check the injector again for its lifting pressure, atomization, steady fall
of pressure and dripping.

How pressure testing of Globe Valve is done?

a. Blank one side of valve and put water from the other side, check for any leakage.

Overhaul of a cylinder head & what all to check?

Overhaul of Inlet & exhaust valve of aux.enine?

Function of Roto-Cap in valves & how it is overhauled?

a. It helps to rotate the valve during operation with the help of the exhaust gas, so
as less wear occurs and stress doesn?t comes only at one point.

What is dye-pentration test, why is it done & how is it done?

Dye-Penetration test is a leak test carried out to know about the leakage/ crack in
any part.
In it, first the part or unit is cleaned, paint is removed where the crack is suspected,
then it marked on the unit. If water is coming, then colour will change, which shows
the crack.

How alkalinity test is carried out?

Take 200 ml water sample in the stoppered bottle.
Add one P.Alkalinity tablet & shake or crush to disintegrate.
If P.Alkalinity is present the sample will turn blue.
Repeat the tablet addition, one at a time, until the blue colour turns to permanent
Count the number of tablets used and carry out the calculation:

P.Alkalinity, ppm CaCO3 = (Number of tablet x 20) -10

f. Record the result obtainied on the log sheet provided, against the date on which
result was obtained.

Why water is kept heated in hot-well?

To prevent oxidation
To avoid thermal stress on boiler.

Position of Unloader in AC & Ref. compressor ?

Unloader in AC & Ref. compressor is located near the suction valve of the

What all clearances taken in centrifugal pump?

The wear ring & impeller.
The wear ring & the casing.
Shaft and the bush.

Why centrifugal pump is not self ?priming?

Because of the churning effect it is not be able to remove air positively as mass of
air is relatively zero.

What is the position of bearing in centrifugal pump?

Near the impeller.

What is the position of piston when taking bearing clearances

- Main Bearing Clearance --B.D.C

- Bottom End bearing clearance?B.D.C
- Cross-head bearing clearance.?B.D.C

How to overhaul gear pump and centrifugal pump? And clearance to take.

How to take out connecting road?

How to test cylinder head relief valve onboard?

During maneuvering Bursting disc of air compressor get damaged, what action to
Inform the bridge about the problem and to give lesser kicks.
Start the stand by compressor.
Isolate the compressor whose bursting disc is damaged.
Change the bursting disc, if available onboard.
If Not available, then let the S.W go into the E/room bilges, otherwise Fresh water
cooled , then join a flexible hose and put into the expansion tank.

How will you test the crankcase relief door?

The testing of the C/case relief door is done at shore.

Reasons of Purifier overflow?

Procedure for doing boiler blow down?
Ensure nobody is near the ship side blow down valve.

Not to be carried out in drydock or alongside.

Valve sequence to be followed.
Boiler shouldn?t be left unattended during blow down.
Monitor the end of blow down. Long blow down to be avoided.
Don?t blow down to the E/room bilges.

Ship side valve 1 is opened followed by valve 2.
Valve 2 is NR which is fully opened to avoid cutting off seat.
Rate of blow down controlled by Valve 3.
For scum blow down valve 4 & 5 are used.

Action to be taken, if chloride content is excess?

Blow down of boiler to be carried out.

How to blow through boiler Gauge Glass?

Make sure drain line is clear
Close the steam outlet valve.
Close the water outlet valve.
Open the drain valve.
Open the water out valve & let water flow thru it and close the valve after blowing
down with water.
Open the steam out valve and blow thru with steam.
Close steam valve.
Close the drain valve.
Now, open the water side valve.

Let water fill up 3/4th gauge glass.

Open the steam valve slowly.

How to tighten boiler gauge glass after overhauling?

Procedure of tightening:
First tighten all the bolts by hand slightly without putting any pressure.
Now, tighten bolt 1 & 2 equally. Then 3 & 4.
Tighten bolt 5 & 6. then 7 & 8 equally.
Tighten bolt 9 & 10.
Now again tighten 7 & 8. Then 5 & 6.
Tighten bolt 3 & 4. then 1 & 2.

Or you can say we first tighten outward bolts of both side & then inward side.
Then we move in opposite steps. i.e. tight inward bolts & then outward bolts.

Differences betwn Watercooled and Oilcooled piston

W - High specific heat capacity therefore removes more heat per unit volume
O - Low specific heat capacity
W - Requires chemical conditioning treatment to prevent scaling
O - Does not require chemical treatment but requires increased separate and
purification plant
W - Larger capacity cooling water pump or separate piston cooling pump and
coolers although less so than with oil
O - Larger capacity Lube oil pump, sump quantity and coolers

W - Special piping required to get coolant to and from piston without leak
O - No special means required and leakage not a problem with less risk of
hammering and bubble impingement.
W - Coolant drains tank required to collect water if engine has to be drained.
O - Increased capacity sump tank required
W - Pistons often of more complicated design
O - Thermal stresses in piston generally less in oil cooled pistons
W - Cooling pumps may be stopped more quickly after engine stopped
O - Large volumes of oil required to keep oxidation down and extended cooling
period required after engine stopped to prevent coking of

[3/6, 10:33 PM] shreyansbakhda: safety -oral

Description of camber, sheer, tumble home, Rise of floor by sketch

Camber:-The transverse curvature of the deck from the centerline down to the
sides. This camber is used on exposed deck to drive water to the sides of the ship.
Sheer:- The curvature of the deck in a fore & aft directions, rising from midship to
the maximum at the ends. It makes a ship more seaworthy by raising the deck at
the fore & after ends further from the water and by reducing the volume of water
coming on the deck.
Tumble Home:- In some ships, the midship side shell in the region of the upper deck
is curved slightly towards the centre line, thus reducing the width of the upper deck
& decks above.
Rise of Floor:- The bottom shell of ship is sometimes sloped up from the keel to the
bilge to facilitate drainage. The rise of floor is very small.

What is freeboard and reserve buoyancy ?

Freeboard:-It is the distance from the waterline to the top of the deck plating at the
side of the deck amidships.

Reserve Buoyancy:- It is the potential buoyancy of a ship and depends upon the
intact, watertight volume above the waterline.
When a mass is added to ship, or buoyancy is lost due to bilging, the reserve
buoyancy is converted into buoyancy by increasing the draught. If the loss in
bupyancy exceeds the reserve buoyancy the V/L will sink.

why tankers have less freeboard

The openings in the tankers are small than of other ship & also the permeability is
what do u mean by stability of ship. How a stable ship returns to upright posn if
heeled by external force.
STABILITY OF SHIP: The tendency of ship to come back to its upright position when
healed by external force is defined as the stability of the ship.
When a ship is healed the centre of buoyancy shifts, this forms a righting lever .
thus the wt. of the ship

what is tender and stiff ship.

Tender Ship:- The ship with a small Metacentric height has a small righting lever at
any angle & will roll easily is said to be tender ship. In tender ship, In it the centre of
gravity lies below the transverse metacentre. The GM is more than GZ. & these kind
of ship are more stable.
Stiff Ship:- The ship with a large Metacentric height has a large righting lever at any
angle & has considerable resistance to rolling. A stiff ship is very uncomfortable. In
it the Centre of Gravity lies above the transverse metacentre.

6. What is free surface effect. How knowledge of free surface effect will be useful.
How it is reduced constructionally.
Free Surface Effect:- When a tank of liquid is partially filled & the mass of liquid is
moved. This movement affects the Metacentric height. This is called free surface
If free surface effects becomes more, then ship may Capsize.

Collision bulkhead purpose and location.

Purpose:Avoids flooding of ship in case of damage to bows.
Location is such that it is not so much forward as to get damaged on impact ,
Neither it should be too far aft so that compartment flooded forward causes
extensive trim by head. As a rule located at minimum distance to get maximum
space for cargo.
Minimum at 1/20 of ships length from forward perpendicular
The collision bulkhead is continuous to upper most continuous deck
The collision bulkhead is 20% stronger than other bulkheads
Collision bulkhead is 5 to 8 percent of ships length from forward.

types of bulkheads. Use of corrugated bulkhead. Sketch same

a. Flat Bulkhead
b. Corrugated Bulkhead
c. Longitudinal Bulkhead
d. Transverse Bulkhead.
e. Watertight Bulkhead
f. Non-Watertight Bulkhead
g. Fire Class A Bulkhead
h. Fire Class B Bulkhead
i. Fire Class C Bulkhead
j. Collision Bulkhead.
k. insulated bulkhead

Corrugated Bulkhead:-

Methods of reducing rolling. Sketch of attachment of bilge keel. What ensures ship
side will not be damaged if bilge keel suffers a damage.
Various Methods of Reducing Rolling are:a. Fin stabliser
b. Bilge keel
10. How much length bilge keel extends to.
It is half of the length of the ship. Starting from midship to fore & aft equally

11. Mid ship section of bulk carrier and tanker.

12. What is margin line.

Margin Line:- It is the imaginary line which is drawn 75mm below the uppermost
continuous deck. It Denotes the limit, upto which can be flooded/ loaded without

13. What is angle of loll?

Angle of LOL:- It is the angle at which the ship with initial negative Metacentric
height will lie at rest in still water.
If the ship is further inclined to an angle less than angle of loll, the ship will sink.
14. what are GZ and KN curves.

15. sketch plimsol marking.

16. How aft peak tank is sealed from stern tube.

The propeller enters the shaft outside from the ship, acting as its barrier. In case of
water cooled Stern Tube, Gland packing are used to prevent water ingress inside.
But incase of Lignum vitae bearing, some water is allowed to go.
In case of Oil cooled Stern tube, the rubber seals fitted with springs are used.

17. what is block coefficient. If we say that block coefficient of one ship is 0.9 and
0ther 0.95. what does it mean.
Block Coefficient:- It is the ratio of volume of displacement to the product of the
length, breadth & draught.
Cb = Volume of displacement / (L x B x d)
When Block coef. If more, it means Volume of displacement is more.

18. Regulations for pumping out ER bilges in Special areas and outside special
Pumping out ER Bilges outside special area:
As per Marpol Annex I, Regulation 15.
Any discharge into the sea of oily or oily mixtures from ships of 400 GRT & above
shall be prohibited except when all the following conditions are satisfied:1. The ship should be proceeding enroute from Point A to point B.
2. The oily mixture is processed through an oil filtering equipment.
3. The oily content of the effluent without dilution does not exceeds more than
4. The oily mixture does not originate from cargo pump room bilges on oil tankers.
5. The oily mixture, in case of oil tankers, is not mixed with oil cargo residues.
Pumping out ER Bilges inside special area.
1. The ship should be proceeding enroute from Point A to Point B.
2. The oily mixture is processed through an Oil filtering Equipment approved by the
3. The oil content of the effluent without dilution does not exceeds more than

4. The oily mixture does not originate from Cargo pump room bilges on oil tankers.
5. The oily mixture in case of oil tankers, is not mixed with oil cargo residues.
6. Any discharge into sea of oil or oily mixtures from any ship shall be prohibited in
Antarctic area.

19. Name special areas.

As Per MARPOL Annex 1, Regulation 1, the special areas are:1. Mediterranean Sea
2. Baltic sea
3. Black sea
4. Red Sea
5. Gulf area
6. Gulf of Aden area
7. Antarctic area.
8. North West European Waters
9. Oman area of the Arabian sea.

20. Regualtions for pumping out p/p room bilges.

As per MARPOL Annex 1, Regulation 34.
Outside Special area.
1. The tanker is not within a special area.
2. The tanker is more than 50 nautical miles away from the nearest land.
3. The tanker is proceeding enroute from Point A to point B.
4. The instantaneous rate of discharge of oil content does not exceeds 30litres/
nautical miles.
5. The total quantity of oil discharged into the sea does not exceeds 1/30000 of the
total quantity of the particular cargo.

6. The tanker has in operation an Oil Discharge Monitoring and Control System &
slop tank arrangement approved by the Administration.

Inside Special Area

Any discharge into the sea of oil or oily mixture from the cargo area of an oil tanker
shall be prohibited while in special area.

21. What to do if bilge oil separator for ER is not working.

1. Make an entry into the Oil Record book.
2. Inform the nearest port authority or the port where the V/L is heading.

22. Explain the procedure to pump out ER Bilge step by step.

a. Inform Chief Engineer.
b. Note down the V/L Position from the bridge.
c. Take the sounding of the bilge tank.
d. Check the 15ppm alarm for its proper working.
e. Open the overboard valve , open sea water valve & bilge pump inlet and outlet
f. Note down the time of starting.
g. Start the bilge pump & fill the OWS with sea water. Let the OWS run on sea water
for 10-15 mins.
h. Slowly close the sea water inlet valve & start opening the outlet valve of the bilge

23. SOPEP ? purpose

SOPEP :- Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan
As per MARPOL Annex 1, Regulation 37.
Every oil tanker of 150GRT and above and every ship other than oil tanker of
400GRT & above shall carry onboard a SOPEP approved by the administration.

The SOPEP consists of:1. The procedure to be followed by Master & other person having charge of the ship
to report an Oil Pollution incident.
2. The list of authorities or persons to be contacted in event of Oil Pollution incident.
3. A detailed description of the action to be taken immediately by persons onboard
to reduce or control the discharge of oil.
4. The procedures & point of contact on the ship for co-ordinating ship board action
with national & local authorities.

24. Garbage disposal how.

As per MARPOL Annex V, Regulation for the prevention of pollution by Garbage from

1. The disposal into the sea of all plastics, plastic garbage bags and incinerator
ashes from plastic products which may contain toxic or heavy metal residues is
2. The disposal of garbage i.e., dunnage, lining & packing materials to be made 25
Nautical miles away from the nearest land.
3. Disposal of food wastes and all other garbage including paper products, rags,
glass, metal to be made 12 Nautical miles away from the nearest land.
4. Disposal of food wastes can be permitted if it has passed through a comminuter
or grinder , distance is more than 3 Nautical miles from the nearest land. Such
comminuted or ground garbage shall be capable of passing through a screen with
openings no greater than 25mm.

25. What chapter of Solas refers to Bulk carriers, Chemical tankers, ISM code, ISPS
Bulk Carrier : SOLAS Chapter 12 Additional Safety Requirement for Bulk Carriers
Chemical Tankers:- SOLAS Chapter 7 Carriage of Dangerous goods.
ISM Code: SOLAS Chapter 9 Management for the safe operation of ship.
ISPS Code: SOLAS Chapter 11-2 Special Measures to enhance maritime security.

26. How to test emergency generator . What all places it supplies.

27. Markings on Life boat and life raft.

As per LSA Code book Chapter 4.
Marking on Lifeboat.
a. Name of Ship
b. Port of Registry
c. IMO Number
d. Lifeboat dimension
e. Carrying Capacity
f. Maker Name
g. Serial number

Marking on Liferaft:
a. Name of Ship.
b. Port of Registry
c. IMO Number
d. Carrying Capacity
e. Maker Name
f. Serial Number
g. Date of last servicing.

28. Types of brakes on life boat.

1. Centrifugal brake

2. Deadman Handle

29. Purpose of limit switches on life boat.

To prevent the overloading of motor, in case the person operating the heaving of
lifeboat gets unconscious.

30. Specialty of tanker lifeboat.

Sprinkler System.
Enclosed type
Oxygen bottle.

31. What type of fixed fire extinguishing system on board. Description.


32. Types of foams.

a. Low Expansion Foam
b. Medium Expansion Foam
c. High Expansion foam

33. Sprinkler system how tested?

Testing procedure
a. Close the section isolating valve, this will raise an alarm indicating zone
b. Now, open the test valve, if no water comes out, then it means the NR
valve placed after the section isolating valve is not leaking.
c. Since, the section after the NR valve remains pressurized, opening of the
drain valve will cause the water pressure in the section line to decrease. A pressure
switch sensor senses the decreased pressure & raises an alarm.

d. Now, close the drain valve, open the section isolating stop valve. To check
the flow switch, open the flow test switch to activate an alarm.
e. All the above alarms will be indicated on the navigation bridge, E/room as
well as in the Fire Control Room. The alarm will also indicate the particular zone
from where it has risen.
f. If all the alarm conditions are satisfied, close all the testing valves, open
the section isolating valve, purge the sprinkler line by air and again keep the line
pressurized. Check from the pressure gauge, that proper pressure has been
maintained or not.

34. Chemicals in DCO extinguisher.

Sodium bicarbonate & Magnesium striate

35. Sketches of DCP and Co2 extinguisher

36. Maintenance on Co2 system.

Check the hinges of the CO2 Room door & grease it.
Check the pressure gauge.
Check the condition of the blower.
Check all lightings are properly working.
If Manual pull cables operate the remote release controls, they should be checked to
verify the cables & corner pulleys are in good condition and freely move and do not
require an excessive amount of travel to activate the system.
Check the weight of the CO2 Bottles.
The discharge piping & nozzles should be tested to verify that they are not blocked.
The test should be performed by isolating the discharge piping from the system &
flowing dry air or nitrogen from test cylinder or through any other suitable means.
The hydrostatic test of all the cylinders should be done once in 10 years atleast.
The alarm to be tested.

The CO2 Lines should be blown through with service air.

37. Why fire line fitted with relief valve and drain valve
Relief valve:- Relief valve is provided if pumps are capable of developing the
pressure exceeding the design pressure of water service pipes, hydrants & hoses. It
assists to avoid any overpressure to develop in any part of the fire main.
The fire line is fitted with relief valve to prevent the damage to pipe in case , the V/L
is fighting fire with the help of shore while in dry-dock.
Drain Valve :- Drain valve is fitted to drain the fire line when not in use & also
prevent the damage to pipe due to icing, while V/L is operating in Sub-zero
temperature area.

38. Purpose of isolating valve and where situated

An isolating valve is fitted to separate the section of fire main within machinery
space containing main fire pumps from the rest of fire main.
Generally Situated in the Fire station

39. Discharge procedure for Co 2 in Er and Rentry.

40. International shore connection purpose and drawing

As per SOLAS Chapter II-2, Regulation 10 :- Construction Fire Detection, Fire
Extinction & Fire Prevention.
Purpose of International Shore Connection is to facilitate such a connection to be
used on either side of ships hydrant.
Dimension:O.D ? 178mm
I.D ? 64mm
Bolt Circle Diameter- 132mm

Slots in Flange ? 4 Holes 19mm diameter equidistantly placed.

Flange Thickness- 14.5 mm
Bolts & nuts ? 4 Each of 16mm diameter & 50mm long.

41. Maintenance of fire hoses, coupling, hydrants, nozzles

42. Bunkering procedure and precautions

43. What entries abt bunkers in oil record book.

Date and time of start & stop of bunkering.
Position of vessel.
Quantity of bunker taken.
Bunker taken in which tank
Any internal fuel transfer done while bunkering.

44. Purpose of ISM code.

ISM Code:- As per SOLAS Chapter IX. Management for the Safe Operation of Ship.
ISM is International Safety Management Code for safe operation of ships & for
pollution prevention as adopted.
Purpose of this code is to provide an international standard for safe management
and operation of ships and for pollution prevention.
The objective is to ensure safety at sea, prevention of human injury or loss of life &
avoidance of damage to the environment , in particular to marine environment and
to property.

45. Where u will find information on code on ship.

On Navigational Bridge

46. What certificate issued for ISM code.

DOC- Document of Compliance . Valid for 5 years
SMC- Safety Management Certificate. Valid for 5 Years
Interim DOC- Valid for 12 months.
Interim SMC- Valid for 6 months

47. What is difference between Non conformity and observation.

48. What is major non conformity

49. Which Imo publication gives u guidelines for watch keeping.

50. What certificate u r appearing for.
Officer in-charge of an engineering watch at Operational Level.

51. Enclosed space entry. How to prepare a tank for enclosed space entry.

52. IG system, function of PV valve, high velocity vent.

53. What is regulation 13G and 13 H

54. What is CAS

CAS- Condition Assessment Scheme
Tanker type 1:- Oil Tankers above 20000 DWT, not having segregated ballast
Tanker Type 2:- Oil tankers above 20000 DWT having SBT.
Type 1 tankers have already been phased out by 2005.

CAS Applies to only Type 2 tankers. Which are to be phased out in segregated
manner by April 2015.
CAS is a method of checking structural integrity of ship, & its certification by regular
inspection by authority. The said inspections are carried on annually by authorities.

55. How u measure rudder drop and purpose

Rudder drop is measured by Trammel Gauge.
Purpose:- To know about the rudder jumping.

56. what happens if allowed rudder drop is not kept.

The bearings on which rudder weight is coming will wear down fastly.

57. works done in dry dock.

58. What is transom post?

59. What is the function of Stern frame.

60. draw cross sectional view of stiffner

62.What are the routine tests and maintenance on high expansion foam system?
63. What are the preparations before the ship going for drydocking?
64. Your have just joined a ship then how will you identify that the ship is following
the regulations of Marpol Annex 1?

65.What are the entries made in Oil record book?

As per MARPOL Annex 1. Regulation 17. Regulation for the prevention of

pollution by oil. Enteries done in Oil Record book are:a. Ballasting or cleaning of fuel oil tanks.
b. Discharge of dirty ballast or cleaning water from fuel oil tanks.
c. Collection & disposal of oil residues, sludge & bilge oil.
d. Bunkering of fuel or bulk lubricating oil.
e. Any failure of the Oil Filtering Equipment.
f. Date & time of the operation.
66. p-v valve & p-v breaker settings

67. Alarms and trips of boiler and IG system

Alarms in IG System
a. Scrubber High Level
b. Scrubber low level
c. Deck seal High level
d. Deck seal low level
e. High O2 Content
f. High blower casing temp.
g. Low lube oil pressure alarm.

Trips in IG System
a. High Casing Temp. trip
b. Low lube oil pressure trip.
c. Low/ no flow scrubber water
d. Low / no flow deck seal water.
e. High boiler pressure trip.
f. Low boiler pressure trip.

Alarms in Boiler
a. Low water level Alarm
b. Too low water level alarm.
c. High water level alarm
d. High fuel oil temp. alarm.
e. Low fuel oil temp. alarm
f. Low boiler pressure alarm.

Trips in Boiler
a. Low Low level water trip
b. High boiler pressure trip.
c. Flame failure
d. Low fuel oil pressure trip.

69.EEBD/SCBA checks and operation.

Checks on SCBA
a. Examine all tubing for any cracks, cuts or any damage.
b. Examine inhalation/ exhalation valve and face mask is clear, clean & dry.
c. Open cylinder valve, listen for audible leaks( with positive pressure sets)
d. Check whether correct pressure is maintained inside the cylinder.
e.To check actual cylinder air pressure & that there are no leaks in the
system. Open the cylinder valve & read the pressure registered on the gauge,
compare with full pressure marked on the cylinder. Close the valve & observe the
pressure gauge. Pressure should not drop more than 10 bars in 1 min.
f. Check correct operation of the audible warning whistle. When 80% of
Oxygen is consumed whistle should blow automatically telling wearer that only 20%
( 10 mins) of air is left inside.

g. Tightness of face mask & wearer?s face be checked for effective tightness
of the seal.
h. Pressure gauge to be checked for proper working.
i. Cylinder valve should operate freely.

68. Why emergency bilge suction is BELL MOUTHED?

69. WHAT IS THE DIFF betn stiffeners of collision BKHD and normal BKHD .

70.What safeties on deck on tanker?

71.If fire takes place in CO2, What action to take?

72. Various alarms & trips in COPT System?

73. Diagram of Crankcase relief door?

(a) L.O.Low pressure alarm & trip.
(b) L..O High temperature alarm.
(c) Overspeed trip
(d) High back pressure alarm & trips.
(e) High discharge pressure alarm & trip.
(f) Steam inlet low pressure trip.
(g) Rotor axial movement trip.
(h) I.G. system abnormal trip.
(i) Pump bearing high temperature trip.
(j) Intermediate shaft bearing high temperature trip.
(k) Casing overheat trip.

(l) Emergency trip.

75. What is given in SOLAS Chapter 4, 5 & 11-1?

SOLAS Chapter 4 refers to Radio communication. In this chapter
International Navtex, Sea Area A1, A2, A3 & A4 , GMDSS, Digital selective Calling
are defined.
SOLAS Chapter 5 refers to Safety of Navigation . This chapter tells about
Voyage Date Recorders, Navigation Bridge visibility, steering gear testing & drills.
SOLAS Chapter 11-1 refers to Special measures taken to enhance maritime
safety. In this chapter, it is told about Ships Identification Number, Continuous
Synopsis Record.

76.Meaning of Panting,Pounding?
Panting :- As the waves pass along the ship they cause fluctuations in water
pressure which tend to create an in- and- out movement of the shell plating. The
effect is mostly found to be greatest at the ends of the ship, particularly at the fore
end. Such effect is termed as Panting.
Pounding:- When a ship meets heavy weather and commences heaving and
pitcxhing, the rise of the fore end of the ship occasionally synchronises with the
trough of the wave. The fore end then emerges from the water and re-enters with a
tremendous slamming effect known as pounding.
77. Function of Bulbous bow?

78. What is COW?

COW :- Crude Oil Washing

As per MARPOL Annex 1, Regulation 33. Regulation for the prevention of pollution by
oil .Every crude oil tanker of 20000 Dwt and above shall be fitted with cargo tank
cleaning system using crude oil washing.
The purpose of COW is to reduce accumulation of sludge in tanks & reduce the
amount of carry over cargo.
During operation of COW, tanks must have oxygen content less than 8 % and under
positive IG Pressure.
The advantage of COW is that tank remains clean & ROB cargo is less & hence
increases cargo carrying capacity.

79. What IG System Requirement. Why IG System not used on ships which are less
than 20000 dwt?
Every oil tanker of 20000 DWT or above should be provided with an IG
IG System is not used on ship which are less than 20000Dwt because COW is not
applicable to ship which are lesser than 20000 DWT .

80. What is Bilge keel, duct keel , camber, flare?

81. Explain Sprinkler system operation, bulb colour code operation & draw diagram
of quartzoid bulb?

82. How to measure propeller drop?

Propeller drop is measured with Poker Gauge.

83. How to calibrate Oxygen Analyser?

a. SPAN Gas:- SPAN gas consists of 99.99% Nitrogen. As per it the O2
analyser should show 0.01% oxygen.
b. The analyzer is kept in fresh air where it should show 20.97% oxygen.

84. Limits of NOx & SO x and why they are not applicable to boilers? What are the
precautionary & prevention measure to reduce? What are the certificates
concerning this?
Limits of NOx:a. 17.0 g/Kw-h when n less than 130 rpm.
b. 45.0 x n -0.2 g/Kw-h when is 130 or more but less than 2000 rpm
c. 9.8 g/Kw-h when n is 2000 rpm or more.

Limits of Sox.
Outside SECA the Sox content in fuel oil should not be more than 4.5 %.
Inside SECA the Sox content in fuel oil should not be more than 1.5 %.
If the fuel oil taken in SECA is having more than 1/5 % Sox content , then Exhaust
Gas Cleaning system be fitted to reduce the total emission of sulphur oxides from
ship, including both auxiliary and main propulsion engines to 6.0 g Sox / Kw-h or
85. Difference between Major Non conformity & Non-conformity?

86. What is free-surface effect?

87. Regulation regarding air pollution?

MARPOL Annex VI:- Regulation for the prevention of pollution by air from ships.
Regulation 12:- Ozone depleting Substance
Any deliberate emissions of Ozone depleting substance shall be prohibited.
Deliberate emissions include emissions occurring in the course of maintaining,
servicing, repairing or disposing of systems or equipments.
New installations which contain ozone depleting substance shall be prohibited on all
ships, except that new installations containing HCFCs are permitted until January
The substances & equipment containing such substances, shall be delivered to
appropriate reception facilities when removed from ships.

Regulation 13:- Nitrogen Oxide(NOx)

This regulation applies to the diesel engine with a power output of more than 130
KW which is installed on a ship constructed on or after 1st January?2000. & to diesel
engines with a power output of more than 130 KW which has undergone major
conversion on or after 1st January?2000.
This regulation does not applies to emergency diesel engine, engines installed in
lifeboats & any device intended to be used solely in case of emergency.

Regulation 14:- Sulphur Oxide (Sox)

The sulphur content of any fuel used on board ships shall not exceed 4.5% m/m.
In SECA Area the sulphur content should not exceed 1.5% m/m.
If in SECA area fuel used is having sulphur content more than 1.5% m/m , then
exhaust gas cleaning system to be provided to limit emission of Sox to 6.0g Sox
/Kw-h or less.

Regulation 15:- Volatile Organic Compound

Regulation 16:- Shipboard Incineration
88. Why the ship's rudder stock diameter is always preferred to be more than 230

89. what is the difference between flame arrester and flame screen?
Flame Arrrester will not let the fire to come out from inside.
Flame Screen will not let the fire to come in from outside.
90. what is a sole plate?

shoe plate is dat plate which is placed at the bottom of sterframe

it helps give the ship a streamline finish and also reduces eddies formed
91. diffrence between code & convention?

onvention - meeting (example imo convention)

code - a book which has recommendatory legal mandate, published after a

example imdg code, blu code

Which Type of Pump is used to Drain Water from Cahin Locker?

Centrifugal pump.

What Is the Weight of a CO2 Bottel of Fixed Installation System.

What are the safety on Engine room Overhead Crane.

Overload trip.
Limit switch at fore & aft side.
Limit switch port & starboard movement.
Switch button have non-metallic body.
Emergency stop.

How You will Identify in Fixed CO2 Installation System that Which Particular Bottel is

How We Will Drain The Water & Mud From Chain Locker.

What are the regulation regarding use of Low Expansion Foam system on deck?
The ratio of low expansion foam system used on deck should not have ratio more
than 1:12.

NRT & GRT of your ship and definations?

NRT :- Net Registered Tonnage
It is the tonnage obtained by deduction from the Gross Tonnage, the tonnage of
spaces which are reqd. for the safe working of ship:

Master?s Accomodation


Crew Accomodation and allowance for provison stores.


Wheel House, Chartroom, Navigation Aids room

(d) Space for safety equipment & batteries.

GRT :- Gross Registered Tonnage
The Gross Registered Tonnage is found by adding to the Underdeck Tonnage, the
tonnage of all enclosed spaces between the upper & the second deck.

Emergency Generator- Location & services supplied.

Location:- Should be on the uppermost continuous deck outside from the engine
room but not located at the forward collision bulkhead.
Services Supplied:(a) For a period of 3 Hrs at Emergency lighting at every muster & embarkation
(b) For a period of 18 hrs at:(i)
In all service & accommodation alleyways, stairways & exits, personal lift
cars & personnel lift trunks.
In the machinery spaces & main generating stations including their control
In all control stations, machinery control rooms, and at each main &
emergency switchboard.

At all stowage positions.


At the steering gear.


At the fire pump & in all cargo pump rooms.


The navigational lights.


VHF & MF Radio installation.


The ship earth radio station.


At all internal communication equipment


The fire detection & fire alarm system.

Intermittent operation of the daylight signalling lamp & all integral signals
that are required in an emergency.

Emer. Fire pump-Location ,Capacity & how to check performance?

Location of Emergency Fire pump :- The space containing the pump
should not be contiguous to the boundaries of machinery space or those spaces
containing main fire pumps.
Normally located at : Steering Gear Compartment, Aft of Collision Bulkhead, Shaft
Tunnel, Forward part of ship.
Capacity:- Shall have capacity not less than 25 m3/hr & pump
should be able to deliver water at following pressure with two hydrants opens:
Passenger Ship above 4000 GRT :- 4 bar
Passenger ship below 4000 GRT :- 3 Bar
Cargo ship above 6000 GRT

:- 2.7 Bar

Cargo ship below 6000 GRT

:- 2.5 bar

The throw at the top most deck should not be less 12 meter.

Precautions to be taken before entering battery room?

Lifeboat lowering procedure?

Minimum of 5 persons are required to lower the L/B.
One person goes inside the L/B and passes the end of toggle painter and plugs the

Check all lifeline and falls are clear of L/B.

Make fast the other end of toggle painter on a strong point forward of the ship.
Remove forward and aft gripes and both person stand by for passing bowing tackle
and tricing pendant.
Remove harbour safety pin.
Make sure the ship?s side is free of everything, no water or garbage is there.
Now, one person lift?s the dead mans handle slowly which releases the brake.
The boat along with cradle sides downward till it comes to the embarkation deck.
By pulling tricing pendant , bring it alongside the embarkation deck.
Persons embark inside the boat.
Now, tricing pendant is removed and the whole load comes on falls.
Now, boat is further lowered with deadman?s handle.
As soon as the boat comes around 1meter above the sea-water, it can be released.

What are the lifeboat equipments?

Sufficient buoyant oars
2 boat hook.
2 Buckets
6 Hand Flares
2 Rocket parachutes
2 smoke signals.
Food Ration.
1 knife and 3 tin opener.
Hand Pump
Tow line

Anti-sea sickness tablets

1 set of fishing tackles.
Waterproof torch
Day light signalling lamp.
Radar reflector
First Aid Kit
Sea Anchor
1 Whistle
Portable fire extinguisher
Thermal Protective aid

What is Garboard Strake?

Strake adjacent to the keel on each side of the ship is called Garboard

What is sheer strake?

Uppermost strake in the side shell.

106. What is Stringer plate?

Outboard deck strake.

107. What is stealer strake?

Number of adjacent strakes fitted at the end of the ship area called stealer

108. What all things are written in BDN( Bunker Delivery Note)?
a. Name of Barge/Port
b. Position of vessel.
c. Delivery date
d. IMO number
e. Gross tonnage of Vessel
f. Vessel name
g. Time of starting
h. Time of stopping
i. Product name & code
j. Viscosity at 50 Degree C
k. Density @ 15C
l. Water Content % V/V
m. Flash Point C
n. Sulphur Content % m/m
o. Pour Point C
p. Quantity taken @ 35C