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using detection of edges for the evasion of obstacles

Ayala Mara Jos, Gallegos Joselyn y Rojas Darwin.

{mjayala3, jegallegos1, djrojas1}@espe.edu.ec

Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE

Departamento de Elctrica y Electrnica

Quito- Ecuador 2016

comparative analysis of methods that give solution to the

problem of evasion of obstacles for a mobile robot. The above

mentioned system integrates methods of artificial vision for the

detection of edges. The proposed system determines the edges

of the obstacles that form the environment of the robot using

algorithms as the Hough's transformed one, detector of edges of

Sobel and Canny.

Key words: Robotic, artificial vision, Canny, Sobel, Hough

I.

INTRODUCTION

applications, between which designs appear for

mobile terrestrial, aquatic, air and spatial robots.

Great part of the investigations nowadays they are

focused in technologies of autonomous navigatio n.

In case of mobile robots, the processes of knowledge

associated with the planning of movements, they are

a competition of the control of navigation [1].

On having provided local or global information of

the environment that makes a detour to the mobile

robot, in addition considering the mission that this

type of robot must fulfill, the control of navigation is

a module entrusted to take decisions according to the

given information, to manage to reach aims of the

surest and ideal form.

Inside the mobile robotics there exists a great

investigation dedicated to algorithms and systems of

autonomous navigation, so much in environme nts

structured like in unknown areas, which includes the

artificial vision, cooperative systems, handle real

time of random events, systems of communicatio ns,

mechanical systems between other topics that they

must be studied in depth to achieve the independence

of a robotic system [2].

The control of navigation tries to integrate all the

topics mentioned previously to achieve the planning

of paths, depending on the royal environment and the

mission of the robot. In this respect the major

achievement in mobile robotics has been the pair of

robots that were sent to the planet Mars: Spirit and

Opportunity, which possess one of the systems of

navigation more outposts that one has developed [3].

II. STATE OF THE ART

Being the robotics a field of born study years

behind, it tells nowadays with a considerable record

as for works of investigation, developments and

offers that to a great extent they sustain the bases for

tests of major scope and inclusive new offers or lines

of investigation. In this part of the article there appear

the principal methods developed for evasion of

obstacles using artificial vision.

The first one of these, called VFF, was born in 1999,

with Khatib's exposition, this one was taking as a

point of item the system of forces raised by Craig

Reynolds, [4] in which there are related the obstacles,

an aim (point of arrival) and the direction of the robot

of a vectorial way.

The method VOA ("Obstacle Velocity

Approach") and his improvement the method BOA

Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE. Ayala, Gallegos, Rojas. Solucin evasin de obstculos.

the surrounding objects to the robot in every instant

for hereby, admit the free spaces where the robot

could move without smashing; in these algorithms

there was done a calculation of areas of danger of

shock and safety to move, they were depending on

the angle in the one that was meeting the robot in

relation the analyzed obstacles, his speeds and

present and future positions. Hereby it was ordering

him to the robot to happen for the areas that were

implying less danger of collision.

Inside the possibilities of controlling a mobile

robot of autonomous form there exist methods that

imply that the robot must be capable of taking his

own decisions and in case obstacles appear it must

find viable ways between a point of item and a point

of destination, to this it is known like path planning

and there exist great quantity of methods between

them the graphs of Voronoi, Visibility graphs, Road

Maps, between others.

The

algorithms

of

treatment

and

characterization of images like the Bag of Words ",

"Sift", Visual LandMarks, with them one seeks to

obtain more information about the environment of

the robot.

The studies realized by Carnegie-Mello n

University (CMU) [5], [6], [7] served to shape the

world of the robot in a matrix form; the cells of the

array were defined as values of probability of

existence of obstacles C (ij) ". While more big one

was the value of the cell (C (ij)), bigger it is the

certainty of which an obstacle occupies this cell. The

force of repulsion generated by the obstacles was

directly proportional to the value C (ij) and

inversely proportionally to the square of the distance

between the cells and the robot.

increasingly correct in the distance of the mobile

robot. The references that are mentioned are the most

representative on mobile robots. The presented work

will focus in the problem of the evasion of obstacles

using potential fields with mobile robots.

A. THE HOUGH TRANSFORM

image that they can be expressed mathematica lly,

such as straight lines, circles or ellipses. The Hough's

transformed ones determine the location of curves

parametrized inside an image. In this case they will

use for the location of straight lines and circles. If the

curves corresponding to two points are intercepted,

the point of intersection in Hough's space

corresponds to a line in the space of the image that

happens for these two points. Generalizing, a point

set that they form a straight line, they will produce

sinusoids that are intercepted in the parameters of

this line. The algorithm of the Hough's transformed

one uses a counterfoil, called accumulator, which

dimension is equal to the number of unknown

parameters of the problem, in case of a straight line

the dimension of the accumulator will be two,

corresponding to the values quantified for (,) [8].

To be able to represent all the possible straight lines

that could appear in the image, we can use the

equation of the straight line in polar coordinates:

+ =

III.

CLASSIFICATION OF METHODS OF

EVASION OF OBSTACLES

to his architecture they find the mobile robots, in

which the principal task to developing is to evade

obstacles during his path from an initial point

towards his goal, for it different series of algorithms

have developed with the purpose of minimizing

transforms every point (x, y) of the image of origin,

in the points (i, i), the space defined for (, ), it is

named a Hough's space for the set of straight lines in

two dimensions. For an arbitrary point in the Fig 2

with coordinates (x0, y0), are the straight lines that

happen for this point the couples (, ), with r =

x*cos + y*sin Where (The distance between the

line and the origin) is it determined for . Does this

Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE. Ayala, Gallegos, Rojas. Solucin evasin de obstculos.

(i, i), that is only for this point.

= 2 + 2

= | | + | |

this wants to say, that zero is done in areas of

constant intensity and his values are proportional to

the degree of change of intensity, in areas where the

values of the pixels are variable. It is common to

refer to the magnitude of the gradient or his

approximation simply as "the gradient.

Fig 2. Intersection of points

intercepted, the point of intersection in Hough's

space corresponds to a line in the space of the image

that happens for these two points. Generalizing, a

point set that they form a straight line, they will

produce sinusoids that are intercepted in the

parameters of this line.

The detector of edge Sobel uses the mask that

appears in the Fig 4 to bring near in digital form the

first derivatives Gx and Gy, of such a way, that the

gradient in the central point of a neighborhood can

be calculated by the detector Sobel. The operator of

Sobel looks for axes in the horizontal and vertical

directions by means of the use of masks and

combines this information by means of the

magnitude [10].

1

2 3

4 5 6

7 8 9

Fig 4. Mask

Fig 3. Sinusoids formed by a set of points

B. DETECTION OF EDGES

An edge, inside an image, it is considered to be a type

of discontinuity, by this what it can be detected using

derivatives of the first and second order. The

derivative of the first order for an image is the

gradient, which, for a function in two dimensio ns,

f (x, y) it comes given for:

f = [ ] = [

]

The magnitude of this vector is:

1

= () = [2 + 2 ] 2

1

2 2

sensitive to the diagonal edges that that of Prewitt

(K=1) though in the practice there is few differe nce

between they.

Gradient Row

-1 0

- 0 K

K

-1 0 1

= (3 + 26 + 9 ) (1 + 24 + 7 )

Gradient Column

-1 K

0 1

-1

= [( ) + ( ) ]

= (7 + 28 + 9 ) (1 + 22 + 3 )

omitting the square root of the operation:

= [ 2 + 2 ]2

Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE. Ayala, Gallegos, Rojas. Solucin evasin de obstculos.

= {[(7 + 28 + 9 ) (1 + 22 + 3 )]2 +

1

[(3 + 26 + 9 ) (1 + 24 + 7 )]2 }2

Canny's algorithm

One of the most important methods to realize a

global detection of edges on an image is the

acquaintance

as Canny's method.

This

technology, which is characterized for being

optimized for the detection of differential edges,

consists of three principal stages: leaked, initia l

decision, and hysteresis. The first stage consists

of the leaked one of convolution of the first

derivative of a Gaussian normalized discreet

function on the image realized in two directions :

horizontal and vertical [11]. The Gaussian

function possesses two fundamental parameters,

average value m, and standard deviation s. In this

case, the average value is void, being the

equation that defines the Gaussian filter of the

form:

() = exp (

2

2

)

2

is the unit in his discreet version. For the

accomplishment of the filter used in the first

stage, the previous expression stems, being

obtained:

2

) =

( ) = 2 exp ( 2 )

( )

2

(

a filter based on the first derivative of The

Gaussian one. Since it is capable to the present

noise in information of image without

processing, the original image is transformed by

a Gaussian filter. The result is an a bit blurry

image with regard to the original version. This

new image does not meet affected by the only

pixel of noise in a significant degree.

directions, for what Canny's algorithm uses four

filters to detect horizontally, vertically and

diagonally in the edges of the blurry image.

1

= [2 + 2 ]2

= arctan (

obtained with the gradient, the suppression realizes

of not maximums up to achieving edges of a pixel of

width. Also the hysteresis of threshold applies to

herself, this function of hysteresis that is based on

two thresholds; one wants to reduce the possibility of

false edges.

To fulfill the hysteresis of Threshold a process of

double is realized Threshold with which the pixels of

the edge were deciding: the pixels are marked by

value over a threshold T1; are marked those pixels

connected to the first whose value is above a second

threshold T2 (T2<T1). This will eliminate false

edges or edges double, at the same time that allows a

related result.

IV. ANALYSIS OF RESULTS

Later they present the results obtained on having

implemented the algorithms in Matlab, observing the

differences that exist between every method and the

existing edges in the image.

Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE. Ayala, Gallegos, Rojas. Solucin evasin de obstculos.

accumulator that uses family of straight lines for

every point or pixel in the image, hereby there

decides the straight line that it contains to all the

consecutive points in the image, the presented lines

depend on the existing noise in the photo to realize a

correct description, this method presents the

principal lines of edge, realizing a modification in the

equation of the families of straight lines it is allowed

identify circular edges. A significant difference with

the other two analyzed methods that it shows the

royal photo with the most significant principal edges

without modifying the image. The quantity of

presented edges they depend on the programming of

the algorithm, hereby we can obtain a very detailed

image of edges.

Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE. Ayala, Gallegos, Rojas. Solucin evasin de obstculos.

objects or figures that they find in the above

mentioned image, hereby what we can observe as

result is an image that presents many distortion, the

edges can be observed but in a slightly

understandable way. The method has two variatio ns

(vertical and horizontal), which present the same

disadvantages mentioned previously, but they can be

useful in cases where the image to using is in a

specific position already be horizontal or vertical.

When the original images have a good contrast and

with few quantity of noise, this one is the best

method adapted for the detection of edges, besides

which his time of calculation is limited.

to observe to the edges as a type of discontinuity that

can be detected using the derivative of the first order

that is the gradient, he presents neither any type of

filter of noise, nor any type of improvement in the

image, proves to be a general discretization of the

basic concept of the Sobels method, but to avoid the

whole noise generated of the image begins with a

Gaussian filter, then the gradient is realized and

finally a process of thresholding to determine which

are the pixels of edge, with this, the exact edges of

the whole image is obtained, showing much more

detailed the edges and exact, it is a very exact method

to the moment to show the edges of the image, on

having compared Canny's algorithm with that of

Sobel we observe that it proves to be much differs

with images to color existing very much noise in

Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE. Ayala, Gallegos, Rojas. Solucin evasin de obstculos.

images to white and black, in this case the edges are

detected better but incomplete in comparison with

canny.

in royal environments, since a royal environment

presents many details and this in turn does that the

algorithm tries to present the edges of all these details,

which appears as many present spots in the image

without having a clearer and general figure of the

obstacles and the way that must continue.

frequency of the image. It is possible to use the

algorithm of canny as a filter to realize the detection of

edges. This filter acts on the images in scale of gray, for

what there is necessary a transformation of the space of

color of the image. On the image delivered by the filter

of canny it is possible to apply the Hough's transformed

one that is an algorithm of extraction of characteristics

to identify the present lines in the image. This stage

returns an arrangement of parameter that shape the

existing straight lines in the image.

V. CONCLUSIONS

different methods of evasion of obstacles,

however the choice of which to use will

depend on the application, the environment in

which it develops the robot and the availab le

devices at the time of its implementation.

The algorithm of the Transformed of Hough

performs well in images with little noise. The

images must not have too much noise or more

than 256 pixels that belong to a line already

that each cell that accumulates is 8 bits

The edge detection using the method of

Canny allows you to highlight the

effectiveness of the method when it comes to

check what are the regions previously

discovered.

The algorithm of sobel is the method that

presents more problems in the description of

the edges, since it is capable to the noise, and

presents a distortion with regard to the

original image, this problem is solved using

the derivations, as long as the orientation of

the image is born in mind to improve the

results.

the noise, thus present of a much more

specific way the principal edges of the image

nevertheless limits itself to presenting only

linear and circular edges.

With Canny's algorithm, to the being an

algorithm that contains a filter, is achieved to

determine thinner and definite edges,

obtaining hereby a much clearer image and

with major detail of the edges.

REFERENCIAS

Manipulators and Mobile Robots. IEEE International

Conference on Robotics and Automation, 1985

[2] Ballard, D. y Brown, C. (1982) Computer Vision,

Prentice.

[3] W. Craing Reynolds. Steering Behaviors For

Autonomous Characters. Sony Computer Entertaimen t

America. 1986

[4] P. Fiorini and Shillerz. Motion Planning in dynamic

Environments. Int. Journal of Robotics Research, Vo l.

17, No. 7, 1998 pp. 760-772

[5] A. Elfes. Sonarr-based Real_world Mapping and

Navigation. IEEE Journal of Robotics and Automation,

Vol. RA-3, No 3, 1987, pp.249-265.

[6] H.P. Moravec and A. Elfes. High Resolution Maps fro m

Wide Angle Sonar. IEEE Conference on Robotics and

Automation, Washington D.C., 1985, pp. 116-121.

[7] Behan J. y OKeeffe D., (2007). The develoment of an

autonomous service robot. Implementation: LucasThe library assistant robot. Springer-Verlag.

[8] GONZLES Rafael C. y WOODS Richard E.. Digital

Imaging. Addison-Wesley, 1992

[9] Borenstein J. y Koren Y., (1985). A Mobile Platform for

Nursing Robots. IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics ,

Vol. 32, No.2, pp. 158-165.

[10] Pea O, Len C, Rojas E. Methods of Planning of

routes and evasion of obstacles for a Robot Wizard",

University Santo Tomas, Colombia.

[11] ] Rock Or, Len C, Red E. Planations Methods of

Routes and Evasion of Obstacles for a Robot Assistant ",

University Saint Thomas, Colombia.

VI. BIOGRAPHY

Joselyn Estefana Galleos

Valenzuela was born in Quito,

Ecuador, on 07 November 1992.

Made his primary and secondary

studies in the Educational Unit

"Perez Pallares" south of Quito,

graduating bachelor of physicomathematical. At the moment is

Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE. Ayala, Gallegos, Rojas. Solucin evasin de obstculos.

Automation and Control, at the Universidad de las

Fuerzas Armadas ESPE. Currently she works as a

professor in the Pre-Universitario Stephen Hawking

south of Quito.

Mara Jos Ayala Farfn was born in Quito,

Ecuador, on 1 September 1992.

Graduated from the National

College Experimental "Maria

Angelica Idrobo" in the year

2010 of bachelor of physicomathematical and is currently

studying the eighth level of the

race in Electronic Engineering in

Automation and Control at the

Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE.

Ecuador on 22 May 1990.

Made his primary studies in

the school Educational Unit

FAE. Then continued his

secondary studies at the

College Educational Unit FAE

graduating with the specialty

of Physical mathematician. At

the moment he studied at the

Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, the

career of electronics with mention in Automation and

Control.

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