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ENGINE AND

TRANSMISSION
The engine used in our go
kart is four stroke, single
cylinder engine provided
by Briggs and Stratton
(550 series).
The design parameters are
calculated as follows.

Engine
Specifications
Ship Weight
Engine
Displacement
(cc)
Start Type
Application

Vehicle design criteria:35.0 lbs


(14Kgs)
127
Recoil

Engine Type

Mid-Duty
chore
Applications
550 Series

Torque (ft/lbs)

5.5

Fuel Tank
Capacity
Ignition System

2
Electronic

Cylinder

Cooling System

Air Cooled

Max RPM

3,300

Gross vehicle weight


=(GVW)=130 kg=1275.3N
Weight distribution 50:50
Weight on rear wheel=Fr
=981N=(WW)
Weight on front wheel=Ff
=637.65N
Radius of wheel tire=Rw
=11inc=0.2794m
Desired top
speed(Vmax)=60km/hr
Desired acceleration
time(ta)=20s

Maximum incline
angle()=3degre

RR = GVW x Crr
Where;

Worst working surface=


concrete (good)

RR = rolling resistance [lb]

Necessary to determine the


total tractive effort (TTE)
requirement for the
vehicle:-

Crr = surface friction

TTE = RR + GR + FA

GVW = gross vehicle


weight [lb]

RR=1275.3N x 0.01
=12.753 N

Where;
TTE = total tractive effort
RR = force necessary to
overcome rolling resistance
GR = force required to
climb a grade
FA = force required to
accelerate to final velocity

Determining
resisitance(RR) :-

rolling

Rolling Resistance (RR) is


the force necessary to propel
a vehicle over a particular
surface. The worst possible
surface
type
to
be
encountered by the vehicle
should be factored into the
equation

Determining grade
resistance (GR):Grade Resistance (GR) is
the amount of force
necessary to move a vehicle
up a slope or grade. This
calculation must be made
using the maximum angle or
grade the vehicle will be
expected to climb in normal
operation.
To convert incline angle, ,
to grade resistance:
GR [lb] = GVW x sin ()
Where:
GR = grade resistance [lb]

GVW = gross vehicle


weight [lb]

Determining total tractive


force (TTE):-

= maximum incline angle


[degrees]

The Total Tractive Effort


(TTE) is the sum of the forces
calculated in steps 1, 2, and 3.
(On higher speed vehicles
friction in drive components
may warrant the addition of
10%-15% to the total tractive
effort to ensure acceptable
vehicle performance.)

GVW=1275.3N, =3degree
GR=1275.3 x sin (3) =66.744N

Determining
force (FA)

acceleration

Acceleration Force (FA) is


the force necessary to accelerate
from a stop to maximum speed
in a desired time.
FA = GVW x Vmax / (9.81 x ta)
Where:
FA = acceleration force
GVW = gross vehicle
weight
Vmax = maximum speed
ta = time required to
achieve maximum speed
[s]
GVW =130kg=1275.3N
,Vmax =60km/hr=16.667m/s
, ta=20s
FA=1275.3 x16.667/(9.81x 20)=
108.3355 N

TTE = RR + GR + FA
TTE= 12.53+66.744+108.3355
TTE =187.6095N

Determine Wheel Motor


Torque:To verify the vehicle will
perform as designed in
regards to tractive effort and
acceleration, it is necessary
to calculate the required
wheel torque (Tw) based on
the tractive effort.
Tw = TTE x Rw x RF
where:
Tw = wheel torque
TTE = total tractive effort
Rw = radius of the
wheel/tire
RF = resistance factor

times the radius of the drive


wheel.
MTT = Ww x x Rw
where:
Ww = weight (normal load)
on drive wheel

The resistance factor accounts


for the frictional losses between
the caster wheels and their axles
and the drag on the motor
bearings. Typical values range
between 1.1 and 1.15 (or 10 to
15%).
Tw =187.6095 x 0.2794 x 1.1
=57.66N-m
Reality Check:The final step is to verify the
vehicle can transmit the
required torque from the
drive wheel(s) to the
ground. The maximum
tractive torque (MTT) a
wheel can transmit is equal
to the normal load times the
friction coefficient between
the wheel and the ground

= friction coefficient
between the wheel and the
ground (~0.4 for plastic on
concrete)
Rw = radius of drive
wheel/tire
MTT=637.65x0.4x0.2794
=71.
2637N-m
Interpreting result:
Total Tractive Effort is the
net horizontal force applied
by the drive wheels to the
ground. If the design has
two drive wheels, the force
applied per drive wheel (for
straight travel) is half of the
calculated TTE.
The Wheel Torque
calculated in Step Five is the
total wheel torque. This
quantity does not change
with the number of drive
wheels. The sum of the
individual drive motor
torques (see Motor
Specifications) must be

greater than or equal to the


computed Wheel Torque.
The Maximum Tractive
Torque represents the
maximum amount of torque
that can be applied before
slipping occurs for each drive
wheel. The total wheel torque
calculated in Step Five must
be less than the sum of the
Maximum Tractive Torques
for all drive wheels or slipping
will occur.
TORQUE CALCULATION
Weight of the vehicle (130
kg) =1275.3N
Weight distribution ratio
50:50
Weight on rear Fr=Weight
on front Ff = 637.65 N
(65kg)

F = (Fr+ Ff)
= (637.65+637.65)0.5
=637.65
Frictional force while Rolling:-

F = Weight of vehicle =
1275.30.015 =19.129 N
Maximum torque can be applied
while stationary:-

F(radius of tyre) =
637.650.1397=134.8875 Nm
Minimum torque required to be
in wheels while vehicle is in
motion:-

F (radius of tyre)
=19.1290.1397=2.674 N-m

Coefficient of static
friction = 0.5
Coefficient
of
friction =0.015

rolling

Frictional force while


Stationary:-

According to engine
specifications,
torque , T=7.425Nm
RPM, N=3300rpm
P=

2 NT /60 , 000

P=

2 3300 7.425
60000

P=2.565KW
Technical Specifications:

Input torque
Power
No. of teeth
on driver Z1
No. of teeth
on driven Z2
Speed of the
driver n1
Speed of the
driven n2
sprocket ratio

7.425 Nm
2.565KW
9
43
3300 rpm
660 rpm
1:5