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Faculty of Engineering.
Department of Civil Engineering.

AUM

## Construction of Materials Laboratory

Report # 8
(Normal Consistency )

Names
Tamara al-Tawal

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## URN: (University Registration

Number)
1310360

AUM

Faculty of Engineering.
Department of Civil Engineering.
Spring Semester 2015-2016.

## Submitted on: Day.Month.Year (26th of Apr 2016)

Abstract
.

Abstract...........................................................................................................................................2
Introduction and Background.........................................................................................................3
Objectives.......................................................................................................................................3
Methods and Procedure..................................................................................................................3
Apparatus and Materials.............................................................................................................3
Steps...........................................................................................................................................3
Calculations and Discussion...........................................................................................................5
Conclusion......................................................................................................................................5
References......................................................................................................................................5

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AUM

Faculty of Engineering.
Department of Civil Engineering.
Spring Semester 2015-2016.

## Introduction and Background

Consistency of cement is defined as the consistency at which it will permit a vicat
plunger having 10 mm diameter and 50 mm length to penetrate to a depth of 9-11 mm from top
of the mould. This parameter indicates the amount of water and cement present in a mix which
is called water/cement ratio. This number is highly important, because the amount of water that
should be added to a certain mix must be standardized so as to obtain optimum characteristics.
As a decrease in the amount of water used will result in the chemical reaction not being
completed thus a reduction is strain. And on the other hand an increase of water content would
result in a reduction in the strength of the hardened concrete.
The importance of the normal consistency test also arises from the fact that a neat
cement past is required for the samples that are used for the initial setting time, final setting
time, Le Chatelier soundness test, so as to obtain values that are as accurate as possible.
Note: one should know that the importance of water addition to the cement is to
complete the hydration reaction (chemical reaction), that would cause the concrete mix to
harden and become strong.
As for the second part of the test, initial and final setting time experiments were
conducted on the sample that was at first tested for normal consistency. To begin with Setting
time is a term used to describe the stiffening of cement paste; caused by hydration of C3A and
C3S and is accompanied by temperature rise in the cement paste. Moreover, initial setting time
corresponds to a rapid arise in temperature where as final setting time corresponds to the peak
temperature .
Note: there is also flash setting time and false setting time, and are defined as follows flash
setting corresponds to the hydration of C3A and is accompanied by heat release. Whereas false
setting sometimes occurs within a few minutes of mixing with water (no heat is evolved, and
concrete can be re-mixed without adding water).

Objectives
This test aims to :
Normal consistency of Portland cement .
To determine the water content that would produce a consistent mix
To determine on initial and final setting time

## Methods and Procedure

Apparatus and Materials
1. Vicat apparatus
2. Cement
3. Water
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AUM

Faculty of Engineering.
Department of Civil Engineering.
Spring Semester 2015-2016.

5. Cylindrical container for cement past
6. Balance

Steps
1. Mix a known mass of cement with a known mass of water together
2. Make them into small balls and fill a cylindrical container with the mix
3. Smooth out the top of the mix in the container, and place the Vicat needle at the top of
the mix (almost touching the top)
4. Let the needle free fall into the mix
5. Redo the mix for a few trials to obtain number
6. Record the water content and the cement mass along with the penetration depth for each
trial .
7. Calculate NC % and the sample that yield a number between 26 -33% use for the next
test
8. Run the initial and final setting time on this sample, were we let the Vicat penetrate the
sample and we take the reading of the penetration every 15 minutes.
9. Then sketch time versus penetration depth.
Note : Care shall be taken to maintain the specified temperature, humidity and the time of
mixing so as to avoid setting of cement paste.

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AUM

Faculty of Engineering.
Department of Civil Engineering.

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## Spring Semester 2015-2016.

Faculty of Engineering.
Department of Civil Engineering.

AUM

## Calculations and Discussion

Normal consistency
Trial No.
Quantity of
water

Trial (1)

Plunger

Trial (2)

84g = 84mm

87g = 87mm

1mm

5mm

## for 300 g of cement

87/300 *% = 29 %

Time (min)
35 min
50 min
65 min
450 min

Penetration depth
(mm)
38 mm
37 mm
23 mm
0 mm

40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100

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