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Chapter 1: Introduction and basic concepts




1. Introduction
Thermodynamics: is the study of relationship between ________and _________
(deals with ____________ and ___________).
Energy: Property of objects which can be transferred to other objects or converted
into different forms but cannot be _________ or __________. (Conservation of
energy 1st law)
Examples: _________________________________________________
Heat: Heat is the transfer of _____________ to or from a ____________________
due to ___________________________.
Work: The transfer of ____________ to or from body of matter due to
________________________ acting on them.
The first law of thermodynamics:
Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but can change forms.

Applications of thermodynamics in our daily life:

The human body, power plants, cars radiators, refrigerators, coffee makers,
electronic devices, etc

2. System, Boundary and Surrounding

System: The quantity of matter or region in space chosen for study
Boundary: The real or imaginary surface that separates the system from its
surroundings. Boundary can be fixed/movable/closed/open.
Surroundings: Everything external to the system

3. Type of system
1) Isolated system: neither mass nor energy can cross the selected boundary.
2) Closed system: only energy can cross the selected boundary.
3) Open system: both mass and energy can cross the selected boundary

Thermodynamics Sem 1 2016/2017

4. Properties of System
1) Extensive properties: varies directly with the mass
2) Intensive properties: are independent of the amount of mass.
5. State, Cycle, Equilibrium
1) State: a set of properties that describe the conditions of a system.
2) State Postulate: The thermodynamic state of a simple compressible
substance is completely specified by two independent intensive properties.
3) Cycles: A process (or a series of connected processes) with identical end
states. Or the process returns to its ________________________.
4) Reversible process: a process that always at ___________________ even
when undergoing a change
5) Irreversible process: a process if it ________________________________
and the surroundings to their _________________________when the
process is reversed.
6) Equilibrium: system that maintains thermal, mechanical, phase and
chemical equilibrium.
7) Quasi-static or quasi-equilibrium: System remains practically in
equilibrium at all times
8) Zeroth Law of thermodynamics: If two bodies are in thermal equilibrium
with a third body, there are also in thermal equilibrium with each other.

6. Process and Paths

Process: change from one equilibrium state to another.

Path: series of states which a system passes through during a process
Isobaric Process: A process during which the __________________
remains constant (=0)
Isothermal Process: A process during which the _______________
remains constant (T=0)
Isochoric Process: A process during which the _________________
remains constant (V=0)
Adiabatic Process: A process that has ___________________________
into or out of the system. It can be considered to be perfectly insulated.
Isentropic Process: A process where the ________________ of the fluid
remains constant.
Polytropic Process: When a gas undergoes a _________________ in which
there is heat transfer, it is represented with a straight line, = constant
Throttling Process: A process in which there is ____________________,
no work is done and the process is adiabatic.
The Steady-Flow Process: A process during which a _________________
through a control volume steadily.
Steady-Flow Conditions:
_________________ contents of a control volume remain constant.
Fluid properties within the control volume may change with
_________________ but not with _________________.
Example devices: ______________________________________________
Engineering devices operate for long periods of time under the same

Thermodynamics Sem 1 2016/2017

7. Importance of Dimensions and Units








Specific volume

m /kg

Specific weight



Specific gravity



Universal gas constant









9. Universal gas constant, R

R for Air = 0.287kJ/kgK
R for water = 0.461 kJ/kgK
10. Temperature

To Fahrenheit

To Celsius

To Kelvin

Fahrenheit (F)

(F - 32) * 5/9

(F - 32) * 5/9 + 273.15

(C * 9/5) + 32

C + 273.15

(K - 273.15) * 9/5 + 32

K - 273.15

Celsius (C

or )
Kelvin (K)
11. Force
1 J = 1 Nm
1N = 1 kgms
12. Mass
1kg = 1000g
1 metric ton = 1000kg

13. Length
1m = 100cm = 1000mm
1km = 100m
14. Pressure:

1 Pa = 1Nm
1 atm = 101.325 kPa
1 bar = 100 kPa
1 MPa =1000 kPa
Definition of pressure:

Thermodynamics Sem 1 2016/2017

Unit of pressure:

Schematic Diagram showing gauge, vacuum and absolute pressure

Absolute pressure:

Positive gauge pressure:

Vacuum pressures or negative gauge pressure:

Zero absolute pressure:


15. Manometer

Determine low pressure and quite accurate

Difficult and very costly to measure high pressure
Contains one or more fluids (mercury, water, alcohol, oil) to measure small and moderate pressure
differences (measure pressure drop).

1. Type of manometer: U tube manometer, cistern manometer, micro manometer

2. Closed end manometer

3. Open end manometers

Thermodynamics Sem 1 2016/2017


Thermodynamics Sem 1 2016/2017

Tutorial: Introduction and basic concepts

1. Fundamental Concepts
1. Define energy, work and heat.
2. Give 3 types of system and define.
3. State the First Law of thermodynamics
4. An orange has a mass 0.05kg, volume of 100cm and temperature at 8 C. Find the density of orange
and list three intensive properties and two extensive properties of the apple [500kg/m ]
5. Find the force if the mass given is 2.5kg [24.525N]
6. Find the force if the mass given is 2.5g [2.4525x10 N]
1. Define pressure and convert 450bar to kPa, 85bar to kPa, 1kPa to bar, 1bar to kPa and 150Pa to bar
[45000kPa; 8500kPa; 0.01bar; 100kPa; 1.5x10-3bar]
2. Convert the following readings of pressure to kPa. Assume the barometer reads 760 mmHg. (i) 90
cmHg gauge (ii) 65 cmHg vacuum (iii) 1200mm H20 gauge and (iv) 4 bar [221.4kPa; 48.03kPa;
113.172kPa; 310kPa]
3. What is pressure at the base of tube of (i) 300 cm (ii) 1m high of water? [29.43kPa; 9.81kPa]
4. Force of 800N is exerted on 50mm diameter of syringe. Calculate the pressure on the syringe.
5. Calculate the gauge pressure at a tank that contains oil to a 1500mm depth. Given the specific gravity
of oil are 900. [13.244kPa]
6. Determine the absolute pressure of steam on open u-tube mercury manometer as shown in figure
below. [114.4kPa]
7. Calculate the gas pressure if the difference in the height of mercury in two tubes are 650 mm as
shown in figure below.[1.8825bar]

Figure Question No 6

Figure Question No 7

Figure Question No 8

8. Mercury manometer is used to measure the pressure of steam that flowing in a tube as shown in
Figure above. Some steams are condensing into water. Calculate the steam pressure in kPa.
9. Oil are rejected from cylinder using pump at the rate of 0.05m3/s. Given the volume of cylinder are
8m and mass oil inside cylinder are 2500kg. Determine the density and the mass flow rate of the oil
handled by the pump.
10. Calculate the local atmospheric pressure of a city over which a plane at 9000m altitude reads an
absolute pressure of 25kPa. Assume density of air 1.15 kg/m3 and density of mercury is 13,600
kg/m .
11. Determine the atmospheric pressure at a location where the barometric reading is 740 mm Hg and
the gravitational acceleration is g 9.81 m/s2. Assume the temperature of mercury to be 10oC, at
which its density is 13,570 kg/m3. (Measuring Atmospheric Pressure with a Barometer)

Thermodynamics Sem 1 2016/2017

12. Determine the gage pressure of air in the tank as shown in figure below. The densities of mercury,
water and oil are given to be 13600, 1000, and 850 kgm- and h1 are 200mm, h2 are 300mm and h3
are 460mm respectively.
13. Determine the value h as shown in figure below if the pressure at the bottom of the tube is 120 kPa
and density of water is 103 kg/m .
14. A pressure difference of mercury inside manometer is 200cm. Find the pressure difference in kPa.
15. Alex swims 500cm down in the sea. Find the absolute pressure there. Assume the density of water is
1000 kgm . [106.23kPa]

Figure Question No 12

Figure Question No 13


1. Convert: (a) -20 C to a temperature in degrees Kelvin (b) 180 C to a temperature in degrees Kelvin.
2. Find the smallest temperature (a) degree Celcius (b) Kelvin (c) Fahrenheit
3. The temperature t on the thermometric scale is defined in terms of property K by the relation
t=a In K + b where a and b is constant
Given the value of K are 1.83 at ice point and 6.78 at steam point. The values of t are assigned 0 and
100 respectively. Determine the temperature corresponding to a reading K equal to 2.42 on the
thermometer. [21.33 C]
4. A new scale of N of temperature is divided as shown in figure below. Given the freezing point of ice is
100 N and 0 C and the boiling point is 400 N and 100 C. Find the new scale when the temperature
given is 150 C.

Figure Question no 4

Thermodynamics Sem 1 2016/2017