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FACULTY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

SHIP DESIGN II
SKMO 4533

REPORT OF SUSTAINABILITY
BULK CARRIER SHIP

GROUP 1
Amirul Akif Bin Abdul Aziz
Abdul Rahman Bin Jaafar

Ahmad Zuhairi Bin Abdollah

A12KM0242

B12KM0002

A12KM0152

10TH JANUARY 2015

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We have immense pleasure in successful completion of this project titled

Sustainability of Bulk Carrier Ship. The special environment of our Ship Design II class,
the welcoming and friendly peers that support our effort, supporting each other in other to
accomplish this project.

We acknowledge the support, encouragement, and all the guidance from our lecturer,

Tn Haji Yahya Bin Samian. To him we express our heart that is full with indebtness and

owe a deep sense of gratitude for he gave his full commitment in guiding us through this
project.

We are also thankful to our classmate, staff of Marine Technology Centre and all other

lecturers who directly or indirectly who have been helpful in some or other way.

We thank our dearest parent, who encouraged us to extend our rich. With their

support, both financial and moral, we are who we are today, and with their support we
have been able to complete this project.

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This report presents the results of sustainability study of 245-meter Bulk Carrier

Ship that have been carried out by members of A4 Marine Corporation (group 1). This

ship having its principle dimension of length overall, LOA of 244.84 m, breadth, B of 37.71
m, draught, T of 14.24 m and depth, D of 20.06 m was designed. The aim of this report is
to provide all necessary data that important for this sustainability analysis. The scope of

work covers through Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) and Energy Efficiency
Operational Indicator (EEOI). All calculation were carried out with the aid of computer
software such as Microsoft Excel. All calculation and assessment are done in accordance
to International Maritime Organisation (IMO) requirements.

The summary of the results is as follow;


a. The bulk carrier design has an EEDI value of 4.10 g/t . nm.

b. The EEDI reference line value for this bulk carrier is 4.21 g/t . nm.
c. The bulk carrier design has an EEOI value of 5.708 10
.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

UNITS

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

ITEMS

PAGE

TITLE PAGE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

LIST OF APPENDICES

INTRODUCTION

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1.1

Introduction to Sustainability

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1.2

Objectives of Sustainability

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BULK CARRIER PARTICULARS

12

2.1

12

Principal Dimension

PROCEDURE OF SUSTAINABILITY

13

3.1

EEDI

13

3.2

EEOI

14

CALCULATION AND RESULT

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4.1

16

EEOI

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4.2

EEOI

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6.0

DISCUSSION

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7.0

CONCLUSION

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8.0

REFERENCES

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APPENDICES

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LIST OF TABLES

TABLE NO.

TITLE

Correction factor for power fj for ICE classed ships 16

1
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

PAGE

Main Particular for Bulk Carrier Ship

11

Capacity correlation factor fi for ice classed ships

17

EEDI Parameters

19

Parameters for determination of standard fw

17

Parameters for determination of reference values

20

The requirement of the IMOs EEDI

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The Assessment for comparing Attained EEDI

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for different ship types

Required EEDI for 88128.83 DWT Container Ship 21


and Required EEDI

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LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURES NO.
PAGE

TITLE

PAGE

Flow chart for EEDI calculation

12

VTO survey on Belgian Merchant fleet EEOI.

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Flow chart for EEOI calculation

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

Corp.

Corporation

d.w.t

Deadweight Tonnage

Meter

Length Between Perpendicular

UTM
LCG

University Technology of Malaysia

Longitudinal Centre of Gravity

LOA

LWL

Length Waterline

Draught

FP

Forward Perpendicular

EEDI

Energy Efficiency Design Index

LPP
B

AP

EEOI

CF
SFC

PPTO
PPTI

Length Overall

Breadth

Depth

After Perpendicular

Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator

Power of Main Engines Measured in Kw at 75% MCR

Auxiliary Engine Power in kW

Non dimensional conversion factor between consumed fuel and

emitted carbon dioxide

Specific fuel oil consumption of engines, measured in g/kWh

Shaft generator power in kW at 75% output of each installed shaft

Shaft motor power in kW at 75% output of each installed shaft


motor

generator

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Peff

75% of the main engine power reduction (kW) due to

PAEeff

Auxiliary power reduction (kW) due to innovative electrical

feff

fj

innovative mechanical energy efficiency technology

energy efficient technology measure at PME

Availability factor of each innovative energy efficiency


technology

Non dimensional correction factor

fw

Non-dimensional coefficient indicating the decrease of speed in

fi

Capacity factor for any technical or regulatory limitation on

fc

Cubic capacity correction factor

Vref

Capacity

representative sea conditions


capacity

Ship speed, measured in knots, in maximum design load condition


For conventional vessel types deadweight and gross tonnage for

passenger ships and Ro-RO passenger ships

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LIST OF APPENDICES

APPENDIX

TITLE

Technical Data of Wartsila 16V46F

Main data and Outputs of Wartsila 46F Engine

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INTRODUCTION TO SUSTAINABILITY
The Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) is a value indicating the specific CO2

emissions of cargo ships. The new Chapter 4 of Annex VI is an amendment to the Marpol

Convention and was initiated in order to take into account the CO2 emissions that are only

dependent on the fuel consumption in shipping. The EEDI of the ship is one of the
important process to ensure the new ship able to meet the requirement of minimum fuel
efficiency standards that have been set by IMO and the ship owners will be penalized of
they not followed it. The International Maritime Organization has proposed a measure to
cutting greenhouse gas emissions from ship

Thus, the EEDI is e expected to stimulate continued innovation and technical

development of all the components influencing the fuel efficiency of a ship from its

design phase. From 1 January 2013, following an initial two-year phase zero when new
ship design will need to meet the reference level for their ship type, the level is to be
tightened incrementally every five years.

EEOI is a voluntary monitoring tool to monitor the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from
the vessel and also as a measurement for the ships operational performance efficiency.

However, there is actually no actual baseline for EEOI and there is no strict compliance
required yet for a particular vessel. In other words, EEOI is a representative value for the
energy efficiency of the ships operation over a consistent period.

OBJECTIVES OF REPORT
The purpose of this sustainability analysis is to:
a)

To determine the EEDI at design stage

c)

To present the design and operational efficiency of the vessel regarding the

b)

To present the EEOI at operational condition


sustainability as required by the IMO

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BULK CARRIER PARTICULAR


The ship particular for this bulk carrier ship as shown in Table 1 below;
Table 1: The ship particular of Bulk Carrier Ship.

Table 1: Main Particular for Bulk Carrier Ship

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PROCEDURE OF SUSTAINABILITY
To present the design and operational efficiency of the vessel regarding the

sustainability as required by the IMO


3.1

EEDI
Data Collection: Engine Power (Main & Auxiliary)

Determine Emission of Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

Calculate Attained EEDI

Calculate Required EEDI

EEDI Analysis

EEDI Verification

Results

Figure 1: Flow chart for EEDI calculation

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Formula for EEDI can be expressed as:


=

.
.

+
.

Where:
Main Engine =
.
.
.
Auxiliary Engine =
.
.
Shaft Generators/Motors Emissions
=
.

.
.
.
Efficiency Technologies =
.
.
Transport Work =
.
.
.
3.2

EEOI
Formula for EEOI can be expressed as:

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Determine the Fuel Consumption


Determine the Voyage Distance

Estimate Cargo Mass Transported

EEOI Calculation
Figure 2: Flow chart for EEOI calculation

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CALCULATION AND RESULT


4.1

EEDI
The EEDI will be using the formula given for convectional propulsion system.

The engine type, engine capacity, specific fuel consumption, maximum continuous rate
as shown in Appendix A.

+
.

Power of Main Engine,


= 0.75
= 0.75

19200 =

kW

Conversion Factor for Main Engine, CFME

CFME = 3.206

Conversion Factor for Main Engine, CFAE

CFAE = 3.114

Specific Fuel Oil Consumption for Main Engine 75% of Load,


=

Specific Fuel Oil Consumption for Auxiliary System 50% of Load,


=

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Auxiliary power (power of main engine greater than 10000 kW),


= 0.025

+ 250

= 0.025

19200 + 250 =

Correction Factor for Power, fj

Table 2: Correction factor for power fj for ICE classed ships

The power correction factor, fj, for ice-classed ships should be taken as the greater
value of fj0 and fj, min as calculated in Table B.2 but not greater than fj, max = 1.0.[1]
=
=

0.639

0.639

153.26
14400

= 0.3023

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Capacity correction factor, fi

Table 3: Capacity correlation factor fi for ice classed ships.[1]

*Capacity for container ships is 70 % of DWT at summer load draft.


=
=

Coefficient fw

0.00403

0.00403 153.26 .
70% 88 128.83
= 0.437

Table 4: Parameters for determination of standard fw

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For each ship type the standard fw coefficient is calculated as follows: [1]
Standard fw = a ln (capacity) + b
Where a and b are coefficients, see Table Parameters for determination of standard fw and
capacity is the deadweight at summer load draft

fw = a ln (capacity) + b

fw = 0.0429 ln (88 128.83) + 0.294


fw = 0.782

Cubic Capacity Correction Factors, fc [1]


fc = R-0.7 - 0.014

where R is less than 0.98

fc = 1.000

where R is 0.98 and above

or

R=
R=

R=0.7 which is less than 0.98


Therefore,

fc = R-0.7 - 0.014

fc = (0.7)-0.7 - 0.014
fc = 1.27

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EEDI Parameters
EEDI
Quantity
CFME
PME

SFCME

Definition
Marine Diesel Oil for Main Engine
Main Engine Output

Fuel Consumption for Main Engine

CFAE

Marine Diesel Oil for Auxiliary Engine

PAE

Generator Set Output

PPTI

No Shaft Motor Installed

SFCAE

Fuel Consumption for Generator Set

PAEeff

No Auxiliary Power Reduction

Peff
fj
fi

fw
feff

No Mechanical Energy Devices

Correction Factor for Power. For Other Ship


Types, Fj
Capacity Correction Factor
Coefficient fw from the Standard fw Curves
The Availability Factor

fc

Cubic Capacity Correction Factors

Vref

Ship Speed

Capacity

Ship Deadweight

Value
3.114
14400 kW
g kWh
3.114
0

179 g kWh
0
0
0.3023
0.437
0.782
1

1.27

88 128.83
18 knots

Table 5: EEDI Parameters

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Calculation of attained EEDI


Based on the value of parameter above, the value of EEDI is as follow,

.
. .

+
.

0.3023 . 14400 3.114 178 + 730 3.114 179


+ 0.3023 0 1 0 ]. 3.114 179 1 0 3.114 178
=
0.437 1.27 88 128.83 0.782 18

Calculation of Required EEDI

EEDI = 4.10 g/t.nm

Table 6: Parameters for determination of reference values for different ship types
1

100
=

For Bulk Carier Ship, as set by IMO the value of a, b and c is shown on table 5

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Therefore,

= 961.79 88 128.83

= .

Reduction Factors for the EEDI

Table 7: The requirement of the IMOs EEDI


The required EEDI will be reduced by some value each five years based on the initial
value (Phase 0) and depending on the vessel size. Below a certain size no reduction

applies. Above a certain ship size, the reduction is in general 10 % for each reduction
phase. In between of those sizes the reduction is linear interpolated.

Phase 0
Phase 1
Phase 2
Phase 3

Required EEDI

Reduction

3.79

10

2.95

30

4.21
3.37

20

Table 8: Required EEDI for 88128.83 DWT Container Ship

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Phase 0

Attained EEDI

Phase 1

4.10

Phase 2

Required EEDI

Assessment

3.79

FAIL

4.21
3.37
2.95

Phase 3

PASS
FAIL
FAIL

Table 9: The Assessment for comparing Attained EEDI and Required EEDI
4.2

EEOI
The EEOI for this 88 128.83 tonnes DWT bulk carrier is calculated per voyage

basis. The cargo is transported to the customers destination from Jurong Port, Singapore
to Port of Jeju of South Korean in 6 days at a service speed of 18 knots.
Transport Work
Transport work =

= 88 128.83 2472

= 2.179 10 t. nm

For Main Engine:


Mass of HFO consumed per trip;
=

= 14400
= 369.1

178 /

6 24

6 24

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Emitted per trip;

= 369.1 3.206
= 1183.33

Auxiliary Engine:
Mass of HFO consumed per trip;
=

= 144

= 18.82

179 /

6 24

6 24

Emitted per trip;

= 18.82 3.206

= 60.34

= 60.34 + 1183.33 = 1243.67

EEOI Calculation:

2.179108

= 5.708 106

2/

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x
Figure 3:

VTO survey on Belgian Merchant fleet EEOI.

However, the EEOI value for this design is considered acceptable. Comparing

the result with VTO survey on Belgian Merchant fleet EEOI in Figure 3, the marking X

for this design of bulk carrier lies on the average range of EEOI values. The EEOI value
obtained for this bulk carrier per voyage basis estimation is5.708 10
.

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DISCUSSION
For this sustainability study the EEDI calculated for the bulk carrier is slightly

below reference line. It is seen that the EEDI for this design only pass the phases 0 only

that is the reference line but not pass the other three phases of EEDI as indicated by IMO.
The EDDI that obtained for this study and calculation from the bulk carrier design is 4.10

g/t.nm which is slightly lower than the reference value 4.21 g/t.nm. Furthermore, the

assumptions made such as only considering the power of main engie, estimating the

auxiliary engine and rough estimation of the other paramteers which might lead to
inaccurate value.

The emission of CO2 will be higher than other vessel because of this is a capsize

vessel. Nevertheless, there are some step of improvement that can be taken to improve the
EEDI value, such as reducing ship speed, hull form optimization, and micro bubble

technology. Besides that, the using innovative efficiency technology also can be adopted

to improve or reducing the EEDI value. One of the example, the innovative efficiency
technology is Wates Heat Recovery System. It is a very effective way to make a vessel
more efficient by reducing emissions because the heat is use from main engine exhaust
gases. This excess waste energy is used to generate more power for the vessel.

Lastly, the sustainability study of the EEOI value for this design can be considered

acceptable. The value for the EEOI in this study that we get is 5.708
106

2/

which is we considerate as a smaller value because when

the EEOI value is smaller transport work is high, and then the cleaner fuel is consumed.

Besides that, the low the EEOI value the low HFO consumption in deliver trip. High speed
travelled by the vessel results in high duty load. After that the high demand of fuel will
give the high emissions.

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CONCLUSION

As a conclusion, the sustainability of this bulk carrier design has been studied,

Thee EEDI and EEOI valued were already calculated and analyzed for the
88 128.83 tonnes bulk carrier. The value of the calculated of EEDI is 4.10 g/t.nm while
the value calculated for the EEOI is 5.708 10

. The objective of

this project were achieved. Although the EEDI value does not passed the other phase other
than reference line which is phase 0, some alternative methods can still be taken into
consideration at this design stage.

For the EEOI value, the value has no specific requirement that have been decided

from IMO yet at the moment. The EEOI just only in used for as indicator by ship operators
to observe the efficiency of their vessel.

REFERENCES
[1]
[2]

SE, G. L. (2013). Rules for Classification and Construction: Guidelines for


Determination of the Energy Efficiency Design Index . Hamburg : Germanischer
Lloyd SE.
Vaasa. (2013). Wartsila 46F Product Guide. Finland: Wartsila.

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Appendix A

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Appendix B

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