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Christian C. Fetalco
Arman L. Ola

Southern Luzon State University

College of Engineering
August 26 2016

In our society, one of the major problems is concern about transportation.
Transportation is one of the major considerations in growing and developing of a country.
People travel in one place to another by use of different kind of transportation through air,
land and sea. Convenient transportation is a long-time dream of all people in a country
like Philippines.
Building new and extending existent roads and widening highways lanes can
result in may benefits for rural areas, such as better access to jobs and markets, and
reduce costs of production which will lead to economic growth and development.
Highways are one of the most important infrastructures links in rural development. In
essence, transportation system is the major player in the economic activities of most
urban. Recent times, many cities have seen a large increase in road traffic and transport
demand, which has consequently lead to deterioration in capacity and inefficient
performance of traffic systems. In the past, it was thought that in order to resolve the
capacity problem it was simply to provide additional road space.
Piers have been built for several purposes, and because these different purposes
have distinct regional variances, the term pier tends to have different nuances of meaning
in different parts of the world. Thus in North America and Australia, where many ports
were, until recently, built on the multiple pier models, the term tends to imply a current or
former cargo-handling facility. In Europe in contrast, where ports more often use basins

and river-side quays than piers, the term is principally associated with the image of
a Victorian iron pleasure pier. However, the earliest piers pre-date the Victorian age.
Their open structure allows tides and currents to flow relatively unhindered,
whereas the more solid foundations of a quay or the closely spaced piles of a wharf can
act as a breakwater, and are consequently more liable to silting. Piers can range in size
and complexity from a simple lightweight wooden structure to major structures extended
over 1600 meters. In American English, pier may be synonymous with dock.
Background of the Study
Piers are common structure found in an island. It has been known to help people
to easily go to seashore. Pier, in engineering, term applied to a mass of reinforced
concrete or masonry supporting a large structure, such as a bridge. When piers are built
on ground of poor bearing value, it is often necessary to drive piles to obtain a firm base.
Construction of piers built in riverbeds is facilitated by the use of cofferdams or caissons.
Structures that extend out from the shore and over the water, serving as a place to land
passengers and merchandise from vessels, are also known as piers.
Philippines comprising of more than 7,000 islands and divided into three main
part namely Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. Most of the islands known for its nature and
beauty such as Cagbalete Island which in Mauban, Quezon. Consist of different beach
resorts namely Pansacola Beach Resort, Doa Choleng Camping Resort, Villa Noe
Beach, Villa Cleofas, and Cagbalete Jovens Blue Sea Beach Resort. Travelling to island
by use of boat which needs a pier for passenger to lay on for landing in. Pier is a structure
built on posts extending from land out over water, used as a landing place for ships, an

entertainment area. Thus construction of pier can be meaningful to the resident of said
This study aimed to design of pier in Cagbalete, Mauban, Quezon and to fulfil the
following objectives.
1. To provide the design and structural analysis of Pier in Cagbalete, Mauban,
2. To determine the important of Pier in Cagbalete, Mauban, Quezon.
3. To determine and estimate the cost of material to be used.
Significance of the Study
This study will give a gain to all the residents of Cagbalete, Mauban, Quezon
when it comes to transporting of goods and products. It could also increase the rate of
tourism that comes to said island thus add the economic progress. It could also create a
new opportunities for agricultural and manufacturing purposes.
This study would serve as source of information for the next researchers that
related to this topic. It will also give an idea for better understanding about application of
engineering theories.
Scope and Limitation
The estimated cost of the materials to be used, the computations, design and
structural analysis of pier are covered in this study. Testing of soil analysis under
seawater and the actual driving of piles are not included.
Definition of Terms

Beams - a long, sturdy piece of squared timber or metal spanning an opening or part of a
building, usually to support the roof or floor above.
Bollard - a short, thick post on the deck of a ship or on a wharf, to which a ship's rope
may be secured.
Deck - a structure of planks or plates, approximately horizontal, extending across a ship
or boat at any of various levels, especially one of those at the highest level and open to
the weather.
Dock - a structure extending alongshore or out from the shore into a body of water, to
which boats may be moored.
Fenders - a thing used to keep something off or prevent a collision, in particular.
Mooring - a place where a boat or ship can be anchored or moored. Moorings
Pier a structure leading out from the shore into a body of water, in particular.
Pile - a vertical structural element of a deep foundation, driven deep into the ground at
the building site.
Ports - a town or city with a harbor where ships load or unload, especially one where
customs officers are stationed.
Reinforced Concrete a composite material in which concrete's relatively low tensile
strength and ductility are counteracted by the inclusion of reinforcement having higher
tensile strength and/or ductility.
Transportation a transporting someone or something or the process of being



This chapter presents the related literature and studies after the thorough and indepth search done by the researchers. This will also present the theoretical and conceptual
framework to fully understand the research to be done and lastly the definition of terms
for better comprehension of the study.
Related Literature
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Piers serve the same purpose as piles but are not installed by hammers and, if
based on a stable substrate, will support a greater load than a pile.
Especially adapted to large construction jobs, pier shafts having widths of more
than 1.8 m (6 feet) have been excavated to depths greater than 30 m. The lower portion of
a pier may be widened to better distribute the downward pressure of a massive overlying
structure. Formerly hand-dug shafts were widely used for piers where groundwater

presented no serious problem, but hand excavation has been largely superseded by the
use of rotary or percussion drilling. The massive augers used to drill shafts for the piers of
modern skyscrapers are mounted vertically on derricks, and the piers themselves are
sufficiently long and wide to support the tremendous weight of even the tallest building.
Piers for bridges are often installed by the caisson method. The caisson is a hollow
boxlike structure that is sunk down through the water and then through the ground to the
bearing stratum by excavating from its interior; it ultimately becomes a permanent part of
the completed pier. (
Related Study
According to Duque, Lyndyn Jane S., Mendoza, Joseph B .and Vergara, Jaime M.
Jr. Proposed Design of Pitogo Port (2012), the design port is situated along Tayabas
Bay. The rock causeway starts at station 0+00 through station 1+1.3374. The length of the
reinforced concrete pier is 63 meters and its width is 9 meters. The pier also considers the
highest water level (HWL) adopting +1.82 meters of catanauns tidal level, the
researchers came up with the crown height of +3.00 meters considering uplift action of
strong wave and efficiently handling. The pier has the following design water depth of
-2.00 meters and -2.5 meters for 100 GRT and 300 GRT passengers ships respectively
design low tide (DLT) is -0.3 meters. The researchers also used 1.3tf/m 3 dead load of
upper structures, included weight of the structures such as reinforced concrete slabs,
beams, bollards, fenders, etc.
A pier of long-spanned plate girder structure supported by piles was built in 1959
through 1960 with a total length of 700 meters. The water depth in front of the pier is 10

to 12 meters. After the completion of constructions some damages began to develop and
then worsen. By 1963, the structure of the pier was damages were impeded even though
the load o the pier did not attain the design criterion. (Wei, R. L., Dou, Y., and Shen, Z. J
Exploration for the Cause of Damage of a Pile Supported Pier, Marine Geotechnology
and Nearshore/ Offshore Structures, ASTMSTP 923, R.C. Chaney and H.Y. Fang Eds.,
American Society for Testing Materials, Philadelphia,1986).
Conceptual Framework
This figure shows the flow of concept of the study.

Data Gathering
Design Criteria
Transportation Issue


Design of Pier in
Cagbalete Mauban,



The study beholds a true piece of information and writes down the procedures,
design, and other methods with application of research.
Research Locale
Cagbalete is another jewel of the Quezon Province. Located in the Lamon Bay
fronting the Pacific Ocean, it is another paradise in the province of Quezon surrounded
by white sand that exposes during low tide. With unique variety of birds, rich marine life,
and the abundance of unique species of plants, the island is a complete paradise for
adventurers and nature lovers. Similar to Jomalig Island in Northern Quezon, a part of the
Cagbaletes beach is dotted with Agoho trees, a family of pine tree.
Cagbalete Mauban, Quezon with hectares of 1642 as the location of this study.
The population of the said locale is about 3000 plus yet continuing to grow with
Barangays named by Barangay I which have 735 and Barangay II have only 70 as of year
This place is situated in Quezon, Region 4, Philippines, its geographical
coordinates are 14 12' 0" North, 121 44' 0" East and its original name is Cagbalete.
Research Design
is a descriptive method since it was focus on designing of pier. The researchers used this
kind of method to obtain an accurate and detail about the present condition. It uses

research-based knowledge to discuss how the proponents gathered, analysis, and

organized the gathered data used.
Procedures/Data Collection
Before the actual planning, the researchers determined what data and information
were they needed in the study. The other methods used by the researcher were followed.

Gathering essential information that serve as a guide or pattern.

Collecting data from interviewing, books, internet, journal, and getting advices for

some resources persons that can help on this study.

Surveying the location to know and understand the designing if pier in the area.
Design Analysis and Computation
This is the most different parts for the researchers because of designing
with a standard provision of the National Structural Code of the
Philippines (NSCP) to ensure the required dimensions and safety of the

Preparation of Working Drawings
To the completion of the research study, the researchers needed to provide
the complete plans of the design according the possible cost of the
proposed project.

Data Analysis/Formula
For the computations and design analysis, the researchers used the formulas of
previous lessons learned codes and other computations to determine the design of the
project and cost of materials to be used.