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August 1 6, 2016, IIT Roorkee Extension Centre, 20 Knowledge Park II, Greater Noida, India

FINES MIXTURES

Muttana S Balreddy

Research Scholar, IISc, Bangalore &

Asst. Professor, Dept. of Civil Engg,

Siddaganga Institute of Technology,

Tumakuru, Karnataka

S V Dinesh

Professor,

Dept. of Civil Engg.,

Siddaganga Institute of Technology,

Tumakuru, Karnataka

T G Sitharam

Professor,

Dept. of Civil Engg.,

Indian Institute of Science,

Bangalore

ABSTRACT

Dynamic deformation characteristics of soil namely shear modulus and damping are input parameters for the soil dynamic problems

such as ground response analysis, soil structure interaction problems, response of marine sediments and marine structures to wave

induced cyclic loading. In this paper, a series of laboratory undrained stress controlled cyclic triaxial shear tests were conducted on

reconstituted samples of sand-fines mixtures to evaluate the dynamic properties. Sand was procured from Cauvery river bed,

Karnataka and locally available low plasticity clay fines were used to prepare sand-fines mixtures. The results indicate that shear

modulus decreases with increase in fines content and damping ratio decrease with increase in plasticity index.

INTRODUCTION

Engineers are concerned with the design and construction of

civil structures and are obliged to perform calculations which

demonstrate the safety and serviceability of new structures.

But before these calculations are performed, the mechanical

behaviour of engineering materials such as steel, concrete and

soil must be understood. The Earthquake induced dynamic

activities are the major destructors for the infrastructure such

as bridges, slopes and embankments. The response of soil

subjected to dynamic loads will be governed by the dynamic

properties of soils which are expressed in terms of shear

modulus and damping ratio. Many investigations based on

laboratory and field testing have revealed that the dynamic

properties namely, shear modulus and damping ratio are

influenced factors like soil type, plasticity index, cyclic strain

amplitude, relative density, frequency, confining pressure,

overconsolidation ratio and number of loading cycles (Hardin

and Drnevich.,1972, Iwasaki et al., 1978, Kokusho., 1980.,

Ishibashi & Zhang., 1993 and Vucetic and Dobry., 1991).

Empirical relationships between shear modulus and confining

pressure based on void ratio/relative density, confining

pressure and shear strain amplitude were proposed by many

researchers (Hardin and Drnevich., 1970, Seed and Idriss.,

1970, Seed et al., 1986, Silver and Park., 1975, Sitharam et al.,

2004, Sitharam et al., 2004,). The dynamic properties of clays

depends upon factors i.e., void ratio, confining pressure, grain

Paper No. 54

number of loading cycles that have significance influence

(Hardin and Richart., 1963, Iwasaki and Tatsuoka., 1977,

Kokusho et al ., 1982, Seed et al., 1986, Sun et al., 1988,

Vucetic and Dobry., 1991 and Wang and Kuwano., 1999).

Similarly, empirical relationships for the initial shear modulus

and dynamic properties of pure clays and sand-fines mixtures

have been proposed (Kokusho et al., 1982, Zen et al., 1987,

Vucetic and Dobry., 1991, Ishibashi and Zhang., 1993, Dinesh

et al., 2008, Yamada et al., 2008 a, b). Many researchers such

as (Hanumantharao and Ramana., 2008, Sitharam et al., 2011,

Dinesh et al., 2011 and Maheshwari et al., 2012) have studied

dynamic properties of sand-fines mixtures experimentally.

Significant reductions in the small-strain stiffness of sand with

addition of silt i.e., shear modulus decreases with increase in

silt content (Randolph et al., 1994). Small-strain stiffness at a

given relative density and confining pressure decreases

dramatically with the addition of small percentage of silt

(Salgado et al., 2000). There are limited number of studies on

dynamic properties of sand-fines mixtures. Therefore, there is

a need for further investigation of the dynamic properties of

sand-fines mixtures. In the present paper the results of

undrained cyclic triaxial tests on remolded sand-fines mixtures

have been analyzed to determine the shear modulus and

damping properties.

EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMME

Materials used

For the present experimental investigation the materials used

are sand and clayey sand soil. Sand samples were collected

from Cauvery river bed, Karnataka state and clayey sand from

a local site near Tumakuru. Figure 1 shows the grain size

distribution curves for both the soils and curves for

liquefaction susceptible soils proposed by Tsuchida (1970). It

is observed that the Cauvery river sand lies within the

boundaries of most liquefiable soils. The sand is basically

angular in shape. The specific gravity (G) is 2.62, co-efficient

of curvature (Cc) is 0.9 and co-efficient of uniformity (Cu) is

2.4. The other engineering properties of sand and fines used

are mentioned in Table 1. From the above data according to IS

classification, the sand is classified as poorly graded sand (SP)

and the soil is classified as clayey sand (SC).

Sand (%)

100

53

Silt (%)

28

Clay (%)

18

Cu

2.4

Cc

0.9

emax

0.99

emin

0.72

46

27

Plasticity Index

19

IS classification

SP

SC

Sand-Fines Mixtures

In order to understand the influence of fines on dynamic

properties, fines were separated from the clayey sand and

mixed with Cauvery river sand to prepare the sand-fines

mixtures. The details of sand-fines mixtures prepared are

shown in Table 2. The fines fraction of size less than 0.075mm

was separated from clayey sand and used as fines in the

experimental program. These clay fines were mixed with the

Cauvery river sand (S1) in various proportions (S1:90 + F1:10

and S1:80 + F1:20). The index properties of sand-fines

mixtures are shown in Table 2. The grain size distribution

curves of sand-fines mixtures used in the present investigation

are shown in Fig. 3.

sand (S1), Clay sand and liquefaction susceptible soils

(Tsuchida, 1970)

Table 1 Index Properties of Cauvery river sand and clayey

sand

Cauvery

river clean

sand

(S1)

2.62

Gravel (%)

Properties

Clayey

sand

(F1)

2.65

Fig.3. Grain size distribution curves of sand-fines mixtures

01

Soil

mixtures

Fines

(%)

D10

Cu

Cc

emax

emin

LL

PI

IS

Classification

S1:100

0.25

2.36

0.93

0.99

0.72

SP

S1:90+F1:10

10

0.13

3.46

1.54

0.98

0.60

22

SP-SM

Paper No. 54

S1:80+F1:20

20

0.08

5.25

1.86

Sample preparation

Triaxial specimens of 50 mm diameter and height 100 mm

were prepared by dry deposition method. The required mass of

oven dried Cauvery river sand (S1) and clay fines

corresponding to gross void ratio of 0.794, 0.755 and 0.717

were weighed separately and both mixtures were divided into

ten equal parts. The sand and clay fines were mixed uniformly

and each part was gently poured into the mould in dry state

with zero fall height so that a loose soil sample is formed. It

was then gently tamped by a wooden mallet giving uniform

blows on all the four sides, so that the required relative density

is achieved. In this way, the sample was prepared by filling the

mould in ten layers of equal height. Then the sample was

subjected to small vacuum and carbon-dioxide gas was passed

for one hour. After this, de-aired distilled water was drained

through soil sample at a very small head of 5 kPa. The

specimens were saturated by applying a back pressure of

100kPa and saturation time was maintained till the

Skemptons pore pressure coefficient B value exceeds

0.96.Required cell pressure (100kPa) was applied and

specimens were isotropically consolidated till the end of

Casagrandes primary consolidation. In this way, all the

samples were prepared at gross void ratio of 0.794, 0.755 and

0.717 before consolidation and after consolidation the void

ratio of the samples were around 0.752, 0.719 and 0.670.

1.06

S1:100

S1:90+F1:10

S1:80+F1:20

0.855

0.828

0.150,0.190,0.200,0.250

0.198,0.220,0.267,0.289

0.801

70

0.230,0.250,0.300,0.320

0.747

90

0.296,0.281,0.260,0.210

0.792

50

0.145,0.161,0.180,0.200

0.752

0.719

0.670

0.837

0.794

0.747

0.698

60

70

80

50

60

70

80

0.145,0.151,0.187,0.207

0.152,0.168,0.187,0.210

0.190,0.202,0.207,0.239

0.115,0.136,0.156,0.177

0.150,0.140,0.130,0.110

0.110,0.111,0.158,0.261

0.190,0.202,0.207,0.239

Void

Ratio

SP-SC

For the cyclic loading, sinusoidal harmonic loading was

applied at a frequency of 0.1 Hz under stress controlled

technique. The tests were carried out at different stress

amplitude and void ratios. The slope of secant line connecting

the extreme points on the hysteresis loop is the dynamic

youngs modulus, E, which is given by

Further,

and

Where

Soil

mixtures

26

conducting tests. The loading system consists of a submersible

load cell and the deformation was measured by LVDT. Pore

water pressure and cell pressures were recorded with pressure

sensors. The data was acquired by a computer controlled data

acquisition system (CCDAS). 128 data points were captured in

each loading cycle. The cyclic stress, axial strain, pore water

pressure and confining pressures are the test parameters and

were recorded by CCDAS. Tests were continued till excess

pore water pressure is equal to confining pressure or the

double amplitude axial strain is in excess of 5%.

mixtures at 100kPa confining pressure and 0.1Hz frequency

Relative

Density

(%)

50

60

0.61

E d /

(1)

(2)

E

21

= Deviator stress,

= Shear strain

(3)

= Axial strain

undrained specimens (Rollins et al., 1998). The damping ratio

(h), is a measure of dissipated energy versus elastic energy,

and may be computed from the equation

AL

4 AT

(4)

enclosed by the shaded triangle as shown in the Fig. 4

In order to simulate the stress conditions prevailing during

earthquakes, undrained stress controlled, constant amplitude

cyclic loading tests were performed on isotropically

consolidated samples at a frequency of 0.1 Hz. ASTM D 5311

Paper No. 54

al., 2004)

Effect of Relative density on shear modulus and damping

ratio

Figure 5 shows the shear modulus versus single amplitude

shear strain for the clean sand for relative densities varying

from 50% to 90% at 100kPa confining pressure. The shear

modulus decreases with increase in magnitude of shear strain.

Since, the cyclic triaxial test equipment is a large strain facility

the shear modulus corresponding to maximum strain of

0.045% could be recorded and at this strain the shear modulus

value is 16 to 18 kN/m2. In the lower strain ranges the shear

modulus increase with increase in relative density. However

the cyclic stress amplitude will vary from 0.15 to 0.23, stress

amplitude will affect the modulus value. Therefore it would be

better to consider the effect of relative density at constant

stress amplitude.

Figure 6 shows the shear modulus versus single amplitude

shear strain at constant stress amplitude (CSR=0.20) for

relative densities of 50% and 60%. The shear modulus is strain

dependent and decreases with increase in shear strain. It is

observed that both the curves overlap at all strain levels which

indicate shear modulus is independent of relative density at

constant stress amplitude.

various relative densities at constant stress amplitude

Figure 7 shows the plot of damping ratio versus single

amplitude axial strain. It is observed that the damping ratio is

increasing with increase in the shear strain. Damping ratio

decreases with increase of relative density.

various relative densities

Effect of Fines on shear modulus and damping ratio

varying relative densities

Paper No. 54

properties is examined. Figure 8 shows the effect of fines on

shear modulus of soil samples containing Cauvery river sand

with different percentage of F1 fines (10% and 20%) at a

confining pressure of 100 kPa and 0.1 Hz frequency. Addition

of clay fines will partially fill the voids of the sand matrix and

in the presence of water lubricate the contact surfaces and

facilitate the sliding of sand particles. Therefore, the shear

modulus decreases with addition of clay fines. From the

literature also it is evident that the modulus deceases till

limiting void ratio. Boulanger and Idriss., 2004 have reported

that sand like behavior is observed; showing a decrease in

liquefaction resistance till PI of the mixtures is equal to 7. The

trends of the present results are in agreement with the

published results. However, the reduction in shear modulus

with 10% and 20% fines is nearly same.

for samples containing F1 fines for 0% to 20% fines. The

results show that damping increases with increase in strain

amplitude. Cauvery river sand has higher damping ratio at all

strain levels when compared with sand-fines mixtures.

Damping ratio of sand-fines mixture is low and it decreases

with increase in PI value. Addition of fines decreases damping

ratio.

mixtures is same and independent of fines content.

3.

strain amplitude and with the addition of fines damping

ratio of sand-fines mixtures decreases over a wide range

strain. Damping ratio decreases with increase in PI.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The first two authors thank AICTE for funding the research

project tilted Liquefaction potential of Sand-clay Mixtures

under RPS scheme No.:20/AICTE/RIFD/RPS(POLICYIII)31/2012-13.

REFERNCES

1. ASTM D 5311(1996). Standard test methods for load

controlled cyclic triaxial strength of soil, American

Society for Testing and Materials, USA

Fig.8. Shear modulus versus single amplitude axial strain for

sand-fines mixtures at constant relative density

Determination of the Modulus and Damping properties of

Soils Using the Cyclic Triaxial Apparatus, American

Society for Testing and Materials, USA

3. Dinesh, S., Yamada, S., and Hyodo, M. (2008), Low

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CONCLUSIONS

A laboratory experimental programme involving a series of

stress controlled undrained cyclic triaxial tests were carried

out on sand-fines mixture to evaluate the influence of fines

content on dynamic properties. Based on the analysis of the

experimental results the following concluding remarks are

made.

1. The shear modulus is strain dependent and decreases with

increase in shear strain. At low strain levels shear

modulus of sand is independent of relative density.

2.

decrease with the addition of fines. The reduction in shear

Paper No. 54

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