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Perbanyakan Tanaman

(Plant Propagation)
Kansih Sri Hartini

Sexual Propagation
Mainly applied, to conserve the richness of the
gene pool and develop new varieties, provides
opportunity for variation and evolutionary
On the production side, this method cannot
satisfy the requirements for production quality
and quantity
It carries unpredictable characteristics of its
own, which includes the tendency to revert to
a wild-like state of the species

Germination: The breaking of dormancy

The growth of the embryo and its penetration of the seed coat
Break down of barriers
Abrasion of seed coat (soil
Decomposition of seed coat
(soil microbes, gut enzymes)
Cracking of seed coat (fire)

Change in physical state rehydration

Destruction and dilution of

Light, temperature, water
2008 Paul Billiet ODWS

Production of growth


Rehydration imbibition of water.
RNA & protein synthesis stimulated.
Increased metabolism increased respiration.
Hydrolysis (digestion) of food reserves by
(e) Changes in cell ultrastructure.
(f) Induction of cell division & cell growth.




(a) Rupture of seed coat.

(b) Emergence of seedling, usually radicle first.

POST GERMINATION (a) Controlled growth of root and shoot axis.

(b) Controlled transport of materials from food
stores to growing axis.
(c) Senescence (aging) of food storage tissues.
2008 Paul Billiet ODWS

Stages leading to cell division


Initially anaerobic
Later aerobic

Soluble sugars

RNA activated
Protein synthesis (0.5h)
Enzymes (proteins)
DNA synthesis (45h)

Mitosis (70h)
2008 Paul Billiet ODWS

Asexual Propagation
an exact copy of the genome of a mother plant is
made and continued in new individuals
using part of two or more plants in a union or parts
of the same plant. In the first case we call it graftage
and in the second case we call it rooting
aims at the identical reproduction of plants with
desirable features such as high productivity, superior
quality, or high tolerance to biotic and/or abiotic
stresses, and as such, plays a very important role in
continuing a preferred trait from one generation to
the next

Reason for Vegetative Propagation

maintaining superior genotypes

problematic seed germination and storage
shortening time to flower and fruit
combining desirable characteristics of more
than one genotype into a single plant
controlling phases of development
uniformity of plantations


the most important factors, which influence

the success of rooting cuttings are: the
rooting substrate, humidity, plant
hormones, leaf area, light and temperature,
and plant hygiene.

the technique of combining two or more
different plants, has been practised for
many centuries
The most common grafting techniques are
top-wedge grafting, splice grafting, whip
and tongue grafting and approach grafting.
The most common budding techniques are
T- and patch budding.

Reasons for grafting and budding

To multiply a tree that cannot be multiplied through
sexual or other asexual propagation methods.
To obtain a tree that combines both the good
characteristics of one tree and the rootstock of
another one.
To decrease the amount of time that a tree needs to
attain maturity (flowering, fruiting and seeding).
To rejuvenate older trees through the use of young,
improved material from another tree.
To repair damage caused to certain parts of a tree.
To detect viral diseases

Grafting techniques

The term layering is used for all types of
propagation in which roots are formed
while the stem is still attached to the
mother plant
often used in species that are particularly
difficult to root
The most common layering techniques for
trees include: air layering, simple layering
and stooling

terms used for procedures to propagate plants from
plant cells, tissues or organs under aseptic
conditions in a controlled artificial environment
Since this technique requires a substantial
investment in infrastructure, equipment and
materials, its application is mostly justified in the
case of high value plants where traditional
vegetative propagation methods are considered
Not all plants can be successfully propagated
through micropropagation

Reasons for micropropagation

To multiply a tree which cannot readily be
multiplied by seed or conventional vegetative
To rapidly propagate large quantities of
propagules of superior tree provenances.
To clean pathogen infected clonal plant
To rejuvenate older trees through repeated invitro micrografting.
To multiply pathogen-free propagules for

Some of the techniques used for

tissue culture of trees

Hannah Jaenicke and Jan Beniest, 2002.
Vegetative Tree Propagation in Agroforestry
Training Guidelines and References. ICRAF.
Printed by: Kul Graphics Ltd, Nairobi, Kenya.
USAID. 2007. Vegetative Propagation
Techniques Perrenial Crop Support Series
Jalalabad, Afghanistan. Publication No.