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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT) 128

Volume 4 Issue 4, April 2016, ISSN No.: 2348 8190

Comparative Analysis on Partial Replacement of Cement by Flyash and


Coarse Aggregate by Ceramic Waste
J. Thivya1, S. Kanimozhi2
Asst Professor, Dept of Civil Engg, University College of Engg, Dindigul, Tamilnadu
2
PG Scholar, Anna University, Regional Campus, Madurai

Abstract
Concrete is a versatile engineering composite material made
with cement, aggregates and admixtures in some cases.
Extensive use of concrete leads to the scarcity of natural
aggregates. Because of this reasons the reuse of demolished
construction wastes and solid waste. Total replacement of
concrete is not possible due to no material plays the role of
concrete in terms of strength, durability, and workability. We
have to partial replace all the material to achieve desire
properties of concrete in terms of workability, strength and
durability. In order to reuse and so to reduce the volume of the
ceramic waste which occurs during the production of ceramic,
it is possible to use as aggregates in the production of
concrete. Fly ash has been used as a mineral admixture in
cement and concrete. Using it provides several advantages,
such as improved strength and workability properties, and
environmental benefits related to the disposal of waste
materials and to reduced carbon dioxide emissions. The use of
fly ash leads to a reduction in early strength of concrete but
there is an increase in long term strength.
Key word: Concrete, Flyash, Strength studies, Waste tiles

1. INTRODUCTION
Cement industry is one of the major contributors to
pollution by releasing carbon dioxide. One ton of OPC
production produces approximately one ton of Carbon
dioxide. So by partially replacing cement with pozzolanic
material such as fly ash, the cement industry can serve both
the purposes of meeting the demands of construction industry
and at the same time providing a green and clean environment.
Fly ash is difficult to decompose so using flyash is a major
step towards sustainable development. Fly ash is the finely
divided mineral residue resulting from the combustion of
ground or powdered coal in electric power generating thermal
plant. Fly ash is a beneficial mineral admixture for concrete. It
influences many properties of concrete in both fresh and
hardened state. Moreover, utilization of waste materials in
cement and concrete industry reduces the environmental
problems of power plants and decreases electricity generation
costs. Cement with fly ash reduces the permeability of
concrete and dense calcium silicate hydrate (CSH).
Research shows that adding fly ash to concrete, as a partial

replacement of cement (less than 35 percent), will benefit both


the fresh and hardened states. While in the fresh state, the fly
ash improves workability. This is due to the smooth, spherical
shape of the fly ash particle. The tiny spheres act as a form of
ball bearing that aids the flow of the concrete. This improved
workability allows for lower water-to-cement ratios, which
later leads to higher compressive strengths. In the hardened
state, fly ash contributes in a number of ways, including
strength and durability.

2. MATERIAL PROPERTIES
2.1 Ceramic Waste
Ceramic wastes are generated as a waste during
the process of dressing and polishing. It is estimated that 15 to
30% waste are produced of total raw material used, and
although a portion of this waste may be utilized on-site, such
as for excavation pit refill, The disposals of these waste
materials acquire large land areas and remain scattered all
around, spoiling the aesthetic of the entire region. It is very
difficult to find a use of ceramic waste produced. Ceramic
waste can be used in concrete to improve its strength and other
durability factors. Ceramic waste can be used as a partial
replacement of cement or as a partial replacement of coarse
aggregate sand as a supplementary addition to achieve
different properties of concrete.
Table No 2.1 Chemical properties of Ceramic Powder
Matrials
Ceramic Powder (%)
SiO2
63.29
Al2O3
18.29
Fe2O3
4.32
CaO
4.46
MgO
0.72
P2O5
0.16
K2O
2.18
Na2O
0.75
SO3
0.10
CL0.005
TiO2
0.61
SrO2
0.02
Mn2O3
0.05
L.O. I
1.61

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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT) 129


Volume 4 Issue 4, April 2016, ISSN No.: 2348 8190
2.2 Flyash
Fly Ash is a by-product of the combustion of
pulverized coal in electric power generation plants. When the
pulverized coal is ignited in the combustion chamber, the
carbon and volatile materials are burned off. However, some
of the mineral impurities of clay, shale, feldspars, etc., are
fused in suspension and carried out of the combustion
chamber in the exhaust gases. As the exhaust gases cool, the
fused materials solidify into spherical glassy particles called
Fly Ash. Due to the fusion-in-suspension these Fly Ash
particles are mostly minute solid spheres and hollow
ecospheres with some particles even being plerospheres,
which are spheres containing smaller spheres. Th e size of the
Fly Ash particles varies but tends to be similar to slightly
larger than Type I Portland cement. The Fly Ash is collected
from the exhaust gases by electrostatic precipitators or bag
filters.
2.3 Experimental Work
2.3.1 Compression Tests For Cubes
For cube compression tests on concrete, cube of size
150mm were employed. All the cubes were tested in saturated
condition after wiping out the surface moisture from the
specimen. For each trial mix combination, three cubes were
tested at the age of 7, 14 and 28 days of curing. The specimen
were tested 100 tone capacity of HELICO compression testing
machine a BIS: 516-1959.the tests were carried out at a
uniform stress after the specimen has been centered in the
testing machine. Loading was continued till the dial gauge
needle just reserves its direction of motion. The reversal in the
directions of motion of the needle indicates that the specimen
has failed. The dial reading at the instant was noted, which is
the ultimate load. The ultimate load divided by the cross
section area of the specimen is equal to the ultimate cube
compressive strength. The test setup for the compressive
strength and typical failure pattern is shown in photos.
Compressive strength = Load/Area N/mm2
2.3.2 Split Tensile Tests For Cylinders
This is an indirect test to determine the tensile
strength of the specimen. Splitting tensile tests were carried
out on 150mm x 300mm sized cylinder specimens at an age of
7, 14and 28 days using 100 Tonne capacity of Heico
compression testing machine as per IS: 5816 1970. The load
was applied till the specimen split and readings were noted.
The splitting tensile strength has been calculated using the
following formula.
Split tensile strength

Where
Fsp = Split tensile strength of the specimen in MPa
P = Maximum load in N applies to the specimen
D = Measured diameter in mm of the specimen
L = measured length mm of the specimen.
2.3.3 Flexural Strength Test
The flexural strength of concrete prism was
determined based on IS: 516 1959. Place the specimen in
the machine in such a manner that the load is applied to the
upper most surface as cast in the mould along two lines spaced
13.3cm a part. Apply load without shock and increase
continuously at a rate of 180 kg/min and it is increased until
the sample fails. Measure the distance between the line of
fracture and nearest support.
If a > 13.3cm then
Modulus of rupture fb =
If a < 13.3

fb=

P xl
b x d2

3P x a
b x d2

If a < 11, discard the specimen


Where, P = Maximum load applied to the specimen in kN.
L= Supported Length in mm , d = Depth of the
specimen mm
a = Distance of the crack from the nearest support.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


3.1 Test result for Compressive Strength
Table No 3.1 Result for Compressive Strength Test
Description
Average Compressive Strength
(N/mm2)
7 days
14 days
28 days
Conventional Mix
22.11
26.34
31.67
10% of FA+10%
of WT
20% of FA+20%
of WT
30% of FA+30%
of WT
40% of FA+40%
of WT
50% of FA+50%
of WT

2 * P/ D * L N/mm2

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22.25

27.50

32.61

24.51

29.22

34.53

23.10

27.10

33.60

21.90

25.31

30.35

20.11

23.12

29.13

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT) 130

Compressive Strength

Volume 4 Issue 4, April 2016, ISSN No.: 2348 8190


3.3 Test result for Flexural Strength
Table 3.3 Result for flexural Strength
Description
Average Flexural Strength
(N/mm2)
Conventional Mix
4.2

40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

7 days
14 days
28 days

Mix Percentage
Fig.3.1 Chart For Compressive Strength
3.2 Test result for Split Tensile Strength
Table 3.2 Result for split tensile strength
Description
Average Split Tensile Strength
(N/mm2)
7 days
14 days
28 days
Conventional
1.26
1.55
1.90
Mix
10% of
1.31
1.61
1.65
FA+10% of WT
1.67

1.71

30% of
FA+30% of WT

1.31

1.55

1.61

40% of
FA+40% of WT

1.26

1.42

1.49

50% of
FA+50% of WT

1.19

1.31

1.40

2
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0

5.10

20% of FA+20% of WT

5.55

30% of FA+30% of WT

5.73

40% of FA+40% of WT

5.65

50% of FA+50% of WT

5.30

28 Days

Flexural strength

1.42

Split tensile

20% of
FA+20% of WT

10% of FA+10% of WT

7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

Fig.3.3 Chart for flexural Strength

7 days
14 days
28 days

Mix Percentage
Fig.3.2 Chart for split tensile strength

3.4 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS


The present study used the computer software
ANSYS version 11(Analysis System) for performing the
nonlinear model analysis. ANSYS is comprehensive general
purpose finite element computer program that contains more
than 180 different elements. This variety of elements allows
the ANSYS program to analyze two- and three - dimensional
structures, piping systems, two dimensional plane and ax
symmetric solids, flat plates, ax symmetric and three dimensional shells and nonlinear problems including contact
(interfaces) and cables. The program contains many special
features which allow nonlinearities or secondary effects to be
included in the solution, such as plasticity, large strain, hyper
elasticity, creep, swelling, large deflections, contact, stress
stiffening, temperature dependency and material anisotropy.
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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT) 131


Volume 4 Issue 4, April 2016, ISSN No.: 2348 8190

Fig. 3.4 ANSYS Result

4. CONCLUSION
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

The recycled, eco-efficient concretes presented better


mechanical behaviour in terms of compressive and
tensile strength than the reference concrete.
The mechanical properties of recycled concretes
improved as the percentage of natural coarse
aggregate substituted by recycled ceramic aggregate
rose.
Recycled ceramic aggregate does not interfere with
the chemical reactions which occur during cement
hydration whilst the concrete is setting and
hardening.
The recycled, eco-efficient concretes obtained by
partial substitution of gravel for ceramic aggregates
from sanitary ceramics industry waste can be used for
structural purposes.
The potential substitution of natural coarse aggregate
by recycled ceramic material coming from the
sanitary industry offers several technical, economic
and environmental advantages, which are relevant in
the present sustainability context within the
construction industry.
With the replacement of cement in concrete by flyash
the concrete prepared is environment friendly and
cost effective. The workability of concrete is
improved considerably by addition of flyash.

[2] Amitkumar D. Raval, Dr.Indrajit N. Patel, Prof.


Jayeshkumar Pitroda Ceramic Waste : Effective Replacement
Of Cement For Establishing Sustainable Concrete
International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology
(IJETT) - Volume4 Issue6- June 2013.
[3] R. Kamala, B. Krishna Rao Reuse of Solid Waste from
Building Demolition for the Replacement of Natural
Aggregates International Journal of Engineering and
Advanced Technology (IJEAT), Volume-2, Issue-1, October
2012.
[4]
Prof.
Jayeshkumar
Pitroda1,
Dr.
L.B.Zala2,
Dr.F.S.Umrigar
Experimental investigations on partial
Replacement of cement with fly ash in design Mix concrete
International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology.
[5] Tarun Sama, Dilip Lalwani, Ayush Shukla, Sofi A Effect
of Strength of Concrete by Partial Replacement of Cement
with Flyash and addition of Steel Fibres.
[6] Nithyambigai.G Partial Replacement of Manufactured
Sand and Fly Ash in Concrete International Journal of
Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, Volume 5,
Issue 6, June 2015.

REFERENCES
[1] Hemanth Kumar Ch, Ananda Ramakrishna K, Sateesh
Babu K,Guravaiah T, Naveen N, Jani Sk Effect of Waste
Ceramic Tiles in Partial Replacement of Coarse and Fine
Aggregate of Concrete International Advanced Research
Journal in Science, Engineering and Technology Vol. 2, Issue
6, June 2015.

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