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5.

8 Preservation Of Water Quality


Healthy Water, Healthy Life
Water pollution
Water pollutants come from industrial waste, domestic waste, chemicals, agricultural
activities, mining activities, siltation, and oil spillage from tankers.
Examples of water pollutants
a) Industrial Waste
Factory waste includes inorganic solids and toxic chemicals. Examples of such
chemicals are acids, alkalis, mercury, radioactive substances and more.
Factory waste is discharged into rivers and seas, polluting the water and
aquatic life.
b) Domestic Waste
Sewage is waste matter that is dissolved or suspended in water. It has a high
content of human faeces and urine.
Domestic rubbish includes leftover food and wastes such as plastic, paper
and metal.
c) Agricultural Waste
In agricultural, the use of chemical fertilisers, pesticides, insectisides can
pollute water.
These substances leach into the ground and enter the water source in the soil
which later flows into rivers and lakes.
d) Siltation
When forests are cut down and construction activities are carried out, the
mud and silt flow into rivers and lakes.
e) Oil Spills
Oil spills occur when oil tankers are involved in accidents with other ships at
sea.
The layer of oil that formed on the surface of the sea does not dissolve in
water. The oil spreads quickly and son forms a large area on the surface of
the sea. This layer of oil kills animals in the sea and ruins beaches when it
turns the shores black and sticky.

Control Water Pollution


1. Holding campaigns to prevent water pollution. These campaigns educate the
public on the dangers of water pollution.
2. The use of fertilisers, pesticides must be controlled to reduce water pollution.
3. Recycling paper, plastic prevents these materials from ending up in drains
and rivers.
4. Implementing the laws under the Environmental Quality Act on the disposal
of chemical wastes, and rubbish into rivers and seas.
5. The authorities should implement a system of detecting oil spills.
Conserve and preserve water and its quality
1. In the agricultural sector, steps should be taken to reduce the use of
pesticides, fertilisers. These chemicals pollute water.
2. A factory that has caused water pollution must be responsible for its actions.
It must pay compensation for the damages brought about by its activities.
3. Cleaning agents that are used in homes are mostly petrochemical-based.
These cleaning agents contain substances that can pollute the rivers and
lakes.
4. Educational programmes for the community should be carried out. This
increases the public awareness of conserving water to preserve water quality.