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Universitas Gadjah Mada

Universitas Gadjah Mada

Universitas Gadjah Mada

Outline

Coal and CBM resources in Indonesia

Overview
Adsorption (Gas content)
Porosity
Permeability (Cleat system)
Gas Flow
Reserve Analysis
Dynamic reservoir
Enhanced recovery

CBM Reservoir
Adsorption (Gas content)
Ferian Anggara

Stevens and Hadiyanto, 2004

Coal bed methane (CBM):


337-453 Trillion cubic feet

Management Reservoir

Management Reservoir

CBM- 1

Universitas Gadjah Mada

Universitas Gadjah Mada

Coal resources and reserves

Management Reservoir

CBM- 2

CBM- 3

Universitas Gadjah Mada

What is Coal Gas?

Schematic showing biogenic and thermogenic gas generation

This gas was considered one of the many hazards of coal mining
Recently: unconventional resources
Gas is generated during maturation of organic matter into coal and by
microbes residing in a coal
Coal deposits of all geologic ages have generated gas

LRC
HRC

Geological agency, 2010

Taylor et al., 1998:


LRC: Low rank coal
HRC: High rank coal

< 7000 cal/gram


> 7000 cal/gram

Moore, 2012
Management Reservoir

Management Reservoir

CBM-

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Universitas Gadjah Mada

Typical of CBM Production Curve

Management Reservoir

CBM- 5

CBM- 6

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Conventional Gas Vs. CBM

Outline
Overview
Adsorption (Gas content)
Porosity
Permeability (Cleat system)
Gas Flow
Reserve Analysis
Dynamic reservoir
Enhanced recovery

Seidle, 2011

Levine, 1990
Management Reservoir

CBM- 7

Management Reservoir

CBM- 8

Management Reservoir

CBM- 9

Universitas Gadjah Mada

Universitas Gadjah Mada

Universitas Gadjah Mada

ADsorption vs ABsorption

Sampling

Moore, 2012
Chiper coal, 2015

Seidle, 2011
Management Reservoir

Management Reservoir

CBM- 10

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Universitas Gadjah Mada

Gas desorption measurements

Management Reservoir

CBM- 11

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Q1 calculation

Q2& Q3 calculation

1. Lost gas (Q1)


is the calculated amount of gas that has potentially been lost from the time the core leaves the
reservoir at depth to when it is placed within a canister at the surface

Q2

CBM- 12

2nd order polynomial regression

Linear regression

Q3

2. Measured gas (Q2)


the gas which is directly desorbed from the canister and measured using a manometer

3. Residual gas (Q3)


operator decides that enough has been
measured to achieve the desired goals of the sampling, the coal is removed from the canister
Crushing coal to approximately 250
size particles, which has gas tight seals and a gas lead
from which the gas evolved can be removed for measurement.

Total gas volume = Q1 + Q2 + Q3


Moore, 2012
Management Reservoir

Moore, 2012
Management Reservoir

CBM- 13

Universitas Gadjah Mada

Universitas Gadjah Mada

Adsorption test

Moore, 2012
Management Reservoir

CBM- 14

CBM- 15

Universitas Gadjah Mada

Adsorption test

Langmuir parameters

Gasem et al., 2009

PVT Apparatus, Kyushu University-Japan


Management Reservoir

CBM- 16

Management Reservoir

CBM- 17

Management Reservoir

CBM-

Universitas Gadjah Mada

Universitas Gadjah Mada

Universitas Gadjah Mada

Gas saturation

Gas saturation and desorption pressure


Maximum storage capacity

1. Desorption Isotherms

Gas desorption pressure

reservoir temperature

2. Adsorption Isotherms
reservoir temperature
fresh samples!
95%

%g = 1-((a-d)/a)*100
where,
%g, is gas saturation
a, is maximum gas holding capacity [adsorption]
d, is total measured gas [desorption]

20%

45%

Maximum
holding
capacity

Moore, 2010

Management Reservoir

Gas production
Abandonment gas content
Abandonment gas content

Initial Pressure

Which deposit would you pick?

Seidle, 2011

Management Reservoir

CBM- 20

Universitas Gadjah Mada

50%
saturation

Initial condition

Moore, 2010
Management Reservoir

CBM- 19

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Under saturation

Initial In-situ
Gas content

But different
types of coal
can hold more
or less gas (i.e.
different coals
have different
holding
capacities)

CBM- 21

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Coal properties & Gas content

Coal properties & Gas content

80% saturation

300 ml

264 ml

Moore, 2010
Management Reservoir

Moore et al., 2014


Management Reservoir

CBM- 22

Universitas Gadjah Mada

Universitas Gadjah Mada

Coal properties & Gas content

Moore et al., 2014


Management Reservoir

CBM- 23

CBM- 24

Universitas Gadjah Mada

Adsorption isotherms
Well A

Adsorption isotherms related to rank


Moore, 2012

Well B

Kim, 1977

Moore et al., 2014


Management Reservoir

CBM- 25

Moore et al., 2014


Management Reservoir

CBM- 26

Rank gas relationships shown are in general correct, they are far from universally observed
Management Reservoir

CBM- 27

Universitas Gadjah Mada

Universitas Gadjah Mada

Gas in-place (GIP)


GIP= A x CT x d x GC
A : area or distribution of coal being estimated
CT: coal thickness
d : density
GC: gas content

End

Moore, 2010
Management Reservoir

CBM- 28

Management Reservoir

CBM- 29