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CHAPTER 3
DESIGN OF THE STUDY
The study in this report will primarily rely on the published literature including scientific papers,
technical reports and Internet WebPages about various traffic simulation models. The entire
evaluation will be conducted through two-steps: initial screening and in-depth evaluation. The
initial screening will generate a shorter but more specific list of traffic simulation models. The
in-depth evaluation of each model on the shorter list will eventually identify which model is
suitable for what part of ITS applications. The evaluation of traffic simulation models for ITS
development needs a series of criteria to be based upon. Key points within the criteria identify
user requirements that were included in the listed criteria. These requirements include
functionality, relevance, and ITS modeling ability. The following provides the criteria that will
be used in the 2-step process in this study.

3.1

Criteria for Initial Screening

A general research of traffic simulation models yielded more than 80 models. In order to screen
models with no potential for use with ITS applications, criteria for initial screening were
developed. Models were judged based on their ability to meet or be modified to meet these
standards. These criteria are listed as follows:
1.

Credible theories used in the model.

2.

The model has been tested for real-world applications.

3.

The ability to output measures of performance such as travel times and speeds.

4.

Documentation has indicated incorporation of at least one ITS feature.

5.

Model is obtainable by the public.

3.2

Criteria for In-Depth Evaluation

In-depth evaluation attempts to identify more specific features and limitations of models selected
from the initial screening process. The following criteria were established for in-depth
evaluation:

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1.

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Must be capable of incorporating in the model the corresponding traffic devices such as
detectors, traffic lights, VMS, etc.

2.

Must also be able to imitate the functions of traffic devices, which includes providing the
specific traffic measurements at the required time intervals, increasing the phase timing in
a given amount of time and implementing a traffic calming strategy.

3.

Must realistically reflect driver behavior and vehicle interactions.

4.

Must have the ability to model different traffic flow conditions at a higher level of detail
(e.g. uncongested, congested, and incident).

5.

Must simulate the variability in traffic demand in time and space, and model the
growth/interaction and decay of traffic queues, as well as capacity reductions due to
incidents and bottlenecks.

6.

Must be capable of evaluating various control strategies (e.g. fixed/actuated/adaptive


control, and ramp metering).

7.

Must be capable of interfacing with other control algorithms of ITS applications.

8.

Must make reliable estimates of network traffic conditions.

9.

Must predict network flow patterns over the near and medium terms in response to
various contemplated information dissemination strategies.

10.

Must provide routing information to guide travelers through the network.

11.

Must have the ability to model both freeway and surface street traffic.

12.

Must be well documented.

In this evaluation, the most desirable model would encompass all the above criteria. However,
some of the features, although desirable, can be considered optional while others are strictly
essential. In Table 2, the criteria are rated based on their relative importance.

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Table 2. Ratings for In-Depth Evaluation Criteria


#

Criterion

Importance

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Model Traffic Devices


Imitate Traffic Device Function
Realistic Reflection of Driver Behavior and Vehicle Interaction
High Level Modeling of Traffic Flow
Simulate Variability of Traffic Demand
Evaluation of Control Strategies
Interface With other Control Algorithms of ITS Applications
Reliable Estimates of Network Traffic Conditions
Provide Routing Information to Travelers in Network
Model both Freeway and Surface Street Traffic
Obtainable by Public
Well Documented

Rating
**
**
****
****
****
****
****
***
****
****
****
**

Table 3. Microscopic Models

1
2

Model
A1MSUN2
ANATOLL

Developer
Universitat Politechnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain
ISIS and Centre dEtudes Techniques de lEquipment,

Classification
Integrated
ETC

3
4
5
6
7

ARCADY2
AUTOBAHN
AVENUE
CARSIM
CASIMIR

France
Department of Transport, UK
Benz Consult GMBH, France
Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan
No available information
Institut National de Recherche sur lis Transports et la

Signal
Freeway
Signal
Signal
Signal

Securite,France
TRL and Mott McDonald

Integrated

Developer
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), USA

Classification
Integrated

CONTRAM
Table 3 Cont.

Model
CORSIM

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DRACULA

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Institut for Transport Studies, University of Leeds,

Integrated

UK

11
12
13

FLEXYT II
FOSIM
FREE VU

14
15
16
17

18

Signal
Freeway
Freeway

FRESIM
HIPERTRANS
HUTSIM

Ministry of Transport, Netherlands


No Available Data
University of Waterloo, Dept. of Civil Engineering,
Canada
FHWA, USA
European Commission DGIV (In Development), UK
Helsinki University of Technology, Finland

ICARUS

Elsevier Company, Amsterdam

Integrated

Queens University, Transport Research Group, Canada


Federal Highway Administration, USA
No Available Data
Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Japan
Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, France
Centre if Parallel Computing (ZPR), University of
Cologne, Germany
National Research Institute of Police Science, Japan
Automotive Automation Limited, UK
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA
Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific,
Netherlands
Mizar Automazione, Turin
Federal Highway Administration, USA
University of Duisberg, Germany
Nottingham Trent University, UK
The Edinburgh Parallel Computing Centre and Quadstone
Ltd., UK
Institut fur Kraftfahwesen Aachen, Germany
Institut for Simulation and Training, USA
Centre of Parallel Computing (ZPR), University of
Cologne, France
FHWA, USA
Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds,
UK
Robotics Institute CMU, USA
University of Newcastle, UK
Technical University of Aachen, Germany
ONERA Centre dEtudes et de Recherche de
Toulouse, France

Integrated
Signal

INTEGRATION

19
20
21
22
23

INTRAS
JAM
MELROSE
METROPOLIS
MICROSIM

24
25
26
27

MICSTRAN
MIMIC
M1TS1M
MIXIC

28
29
30
31
32

NEMIS
NETSIM
OLSIM
PADSIM
PARAMICS

33
34
35

PELOPS
PHAROS
PLANSIM-T

36

37

ROADSIM
SATURN

38
39
40
41

SHIVA
SIGSIM
SIMCO2
SIMDAC

Table 3. Cont.

Freeway
Signal
Signal

Integrated
Freeway
Signal
Signal
Safety
Integrated
Freeway
Integrated
Integrated
Freeway
Freeway
Integrated
Integrated
Signal

Freeway
Rural
Integrated
Other
Signal
Freeway
Freeway

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45

Model
SIMNET
SIMTRAFFIC
C1
SISTM
SITRA-B+

46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58

SITRAS
SIMARTAHS
SMARTPATH
SOUND
SPEACS
STEER
STREETSIM
TEXAS
TEXSIM
TRAFFICQ
TRANSIMS
TRGMSM
TRITRAM

59
60
61
63
64
65

THOREAU
UTSS
VEDENS
VISSIM
WATSIM
WEAVSIM

42
43

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Developer
Technical University of Berlin, Germany
Trafficware, The Traffic Signal Software Company,
USA
Transport Research Laboratory, Crowthorne, UK
ONERA Centre dEtudes et de Recherche de Toulouse,
France
University of New South Wales,, Wales
University of California Berkley, USA
University of California Berkley, USA
University of Tokyo, Japan
Prometheus Program, UK
Network Control Group at University of York, UK
Not Available
University of Texas, USA
Texas Transportation Institute, USA
MVA, USA
Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA
J. Wu and M. McDonald, USA
CSRIO and Roads and Traffic Authority of New South
Wales, Wales
MITRE Corporation, USA
Hong-Cha University, China
AEA Technology, USA
PTV System Software and Consulting GMBH, France
KLD Associates, USA
FHWA, USA

Classification
Freeway
Signal
Freeway
Integrated
Integrated
Unknown
Freeway
Integrated
Freeway
Freeway
Signal
Signal
Signal
Signal
Freeway
LRT
Free2way
Integrated
Signal
Integrated
Integrated
Integrated

Table 4. Macroscopic Models


66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77

ARTWORK
AUTOS
CORFLO
FREFLO
FREQ
KRONOS
METACOR
METANET
NETFLO 1
NETFLO 2
NET VACI
PASSER-II

No Available Data
Georgia Tech Research Institute, USA
Federal Highway Administration, USA
Federal Highway Administration, USA
No Available Data
No Available Data
No Available Data
Technical University of Munich, Germany
FHWA, USA
FHWA, USA
No Available Data
Texas Transportation Institute (TTI), USA

Traffic
Freeway
Integrated
Freeway
Freeway
Unknown
Unknown
Freeway
Signal
Signal
Unknown
Signal

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78
79
80
81

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PASSER-IV
TRANSYT-7F
TRANSYT/10
TEXAS

TTI, USA
FHWA, USA
MVA, USA
University of Texas, USA

Signal
Signal
Signal
Signal

Table 5. Mesocopic Models


82
83
84

DYNAM1T
DYNEMO
DYNASMART

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA


Innovative Concepts, USA
University of Texas at Austin, USA

Integrated
Integrated
Integrated

Table 6. Summary of Models Based on Initial Criteria


Model
AIMSUN2
ANATOLL
ARCADY2
AUTOBAHN
AUTOS
AVENUE
CARSIM
CASIMIR
CONTRAM
CORFLO
CORSIM
DRACULA
DYNAMIT
DYNASMART
DYNEMO
FLEXYT II
FOSIM
FRECON 2
FREFLO
FREEVU
FRESIM
FREQ
HIPERTRA
HUTSIM
ICARUS
INTEGRATION
INTRAS
JAM
Model

1
X

Criteria
2
3
4
X X X
X

MICSTRAN
MIMIC
MITSIM

X
X

Criteria
3
4
X
X
X X

MIXIC

NEMIS
NETSIM
NETFLO
NETVACI
OLSIM
PADSIM
PARAMICS
PASSERII
PASSERIV
PELOPS
PHAROS
PLANSIM-T
ROADSIM
SATURN
SHIVA
SIGSIM
SIMCO2
SIMDAC
SIMNET
SIMTRAFFIC
SITRA B+
SITRAS
SMARTAHS
SMARTPATH
Model

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X

Model
5
X

X
X
X
X

X
Criteria

X
X
X
X

Model
5

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X

X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X

2
x
x

Criteria
3 4
x

x
x
x

x
x
x
x

X
X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X
X
X X
X X
X X
Criteria

Model

X
X
X

X
X
X
X

TRAFFICQ
TRANSIMS
TRANSYT7F
TRANSYT
10
VEDENS
VISSIM
WATSIM
WEAVSIM

1
X
x
x

Criteria

x
x
x

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1
KRONO
MELROSE
METACOR
METANET
METROPOL
MICROSIM

X
X
X
X
X

2
X
X
X
X

3
X
X

4
X
X
X
X

1
SOUND
SPEACS
STEER
STREETSIM
TEXAS
THOREAU

2
X
X

4
X

X
X

X
X
X

X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X
X

X
X
X

X
X
X

X
X

X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X

VISSIM

PARAMICS

HUTSIM

X
X
X
X
X

FLEXYTII

INTEGRATION

ITS Features Modeled


Traffic devices (1)
X
Traffic device functions (2)
X
Traffic calming (2)
Driver behavior (3)
X
Vehicle interaction (3)
X
Congestion pricing (4)
Incident (4) (5)
X
X
Queue spillback (5)
X
Ramp metering (6)
X
Coordinated traffic signal (6) X
X
Adaptive traffic signals (6)
X
X
Interface w/other ITS
X
algorithms (7)
Network conditions (8)
X
Network flow pattern
predictions (9)
Route guidance (10)
Integrated simulation (11)
X
X
Other Properties
Runs on a PC
X
X
Graphical Network Builder
X
X
Graphical Presentation of
X
X
Results
Well Documented (12)
X
X
X
*( ) Corresponds to in-depth criteria.

CORSIM

CORFLO

CONTRAM

AIMSUN 2

Table 7. Summary of Models Based of In-Depth Criteria

X
X
X
X
X