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Comparative Management Models

By rasel November 18, 2013

Comparative Management models developed by scholars and
authorities in this field are discussed below:
Farmer and Richman Comparative Management models

Professors Richard N. Farmer and Barry M. Richman were the two
pioneers in comparative management. They emphasized that
environments external to the firm do affect management practices.
They very the first to identify the critical elements in the management
process and to evaluate their operation in firms in different cultures.
They also described the environmental factors they considered to
have a significant impact on the management process and managerial
excellence. These factors, viewed as constraints, are classified as:
1. educational variables
2. socio-cultural and ethical variables
3. legal and political variables
4. economic variables
How these environmental factors abbreviated as Ed. Sc, Lp and Ec in
table may influence the managerial functions abbreviated as p1, Or,
St. Le, Co and enterprise functions abbreviated as En, Pr. Ma. Fi.
It thus appears that enterprises may. For a time, succeed entirely
through non-managerial factors but excellence in management will
ultimately make the difference between continued success and
Comparative management literature emphasizes the following models: Farmer-Richman Model
(based on the assumption that environment represents the main factor whom influence upon
management is decisive); Rosalie Tung Model (using the following variables:environment,or

political and legal. rather than viewing factors in the environment simply as “constraint a term that has negative commutation considers them as environmental factors. It is. intense/low uncertainly avoidance. culture and economic system-threated as items objectively connected). Koontz model is more complex than the ones used by previous researchers in the field of comparative management. be they either constraints or opportunities. however. Child Model (including the three determinative domains-contingency. economic. Koontz has shown the factors affecting enterprise excellence and the role of the underlying science through a model which appears below. Geert Hofstede Model (the main feature for the most popular comparative management model is represented by the five sides taken into account in this conception:induvidualism/colectivism. technological. short/long term approach). Also. intra-organisational variables. Both types of activities will be affected by the availability of human and material resources and by the constraints and influences of the external environment.extra-organisational variables. nonmanagerial activates will be affected by the relevant underlying science or knowledge. Modified Koontz Model for Analyzing comparative Management This model encompasses two broad categories of enterprise activities managerial and non-managerial. socio-cultural or ethical. This model. personal and result variables). Either or both can be the casual factors at least to some degree for enterprise excellence. just as managerial activities will be affected by the relevant underlying science. believed to be far more accurate and realistic. great/small power distance. . masculiniy/feminity. whether these are educational.

some laws of country may be restrictive for conducting business. in the economic category of factor endowments. This requires an understanding of managerial practices in various countries. . a country may be short on natural resources but rich in capital.For example. Likewise. The Koontz model of comparative management helps identify the factors that contribute to managerial and organizational excellence. Thus environmental restraints could become opportunities in certain situations. but others may be favorable. In fact managers need to adopt a global perspective in leading their enterprises.