Thermodynamics

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Thermodynamics

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Spring Semester 2008

concentric cylinders. The outer diameter of the inner cylinder is 15 cm, and the gap between

the two cylinders is 0.12 cm. The inner cylinder is rotated at 200 rpm, and the torque is

measured to be 0.8 N-m. Determine the viscosity of the fluid. What kind of fluid might have

this viscosity?

When measuring small pressure differences with a manometer, one arm of the manometer

may be inclined to improve the accuracy of the reading. (The pressure difference is still

proportional to the vertical distance and not the actual length of the fluid along the tube.) The

air pressure in a circular duct is to be measured using a manometer whose open arm is

inclined 35 degrees from the horizontal. The density of the liquid in the manometer is 0.81

kg/L, and the vertical distance between the fluid levels in the two arms of the manometer is 8

cm. Determine the gage pressure of air in the duct and the length of the fluid column in the

inclined arm above the fluid level in the vertical arm.

A multifluid container is connected to a U-tube. For the given specific gravities and fluid

column heights, determine the gage pressure at A. Also determine the height of a mercury

column that would create the same pressure at A.

A glass that is fully filled with water and covered with a thin paper is inverted. Determine the

pressure at the bottom (narrow end) of the glass, and explain why water does not fall out.

A retaining wall against a mud slide is to be constructed by placing 0.8-m-high by 0.2-mwide rectangular concrete blocks (=2700 kg/m3) side-by-side. The friction coefficient

between the ground and the concrete blocks is f = 0.3, and the density of the mud is 1800

kg/m3. Determine the mud height at which (a) the blocks will overcome friction and begin

sliding and (b) the blocks will tip over.

A water trough of semicircular cross-section of radius 0.5 m consists of two symmetric parts

hinged to each other at the bottom. The two parts are held together by a cable and turnbuckle

placed every 3 m along the length of the trough (the dimension going into the page).

Calculate the tension in each cable when the trough is filled to the rim.

Problem 1:

Solution The torque and the rpm of a double cylinder viscometer are given. The

viscosity of the fluid is to be determined.

Assumptions 1 The inner cylinder is completely submerged in

oil. 2 The viscous effects on the two ends of the inner cylinder are

negligible. 3 The fluid is Newtonian.

R

Analysis

Substituting the given values, the viscosity of the

fluid is determined to be

l = 0.12 cm

fluid

T

2

4 R n L

(0.8 N m)(0.0012 m)

2

0.0231 N s/m 2

Discussion This is the viscosity value at the temperature that existed during the

experiment. Viscosity is a strong function of temperature, and the values can be

significantly different at different temperatures. This could be SAE 10W oil at a high

temperature ~ 50 degrees C.

Problem 2:

Solution The air pressure in a duct is measured by an inclined manometer. For a

given vertical level difference, the gage pressure in the duct and the length of the

differential fluid column are to be determined.

Assumptions The manometer fluid is an incompressible substance.

Properties

Analysis

1 N

1 Pa

2

2

1

kg

m/s

1N/m

636 Pa

Air

L

8 cm

L h / sin 8 cm / sin35 13.9 cm

35

Discussion Note that the length of the differential fluid column is extended

considerably by inclining the manometer arm for better readability (and therefore higher

precision).

Problem 3:

Solution A multi-fluid container is connected to a U-tube. For the given specific

gravities and fluid column heights, the gage pressure at A and the height of a mercury

column that would create the same pressure at A are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 All the liquids are incompressible. 2 The multi-fluid container is open to

the atmosphere.

Properties The specific gravities are given to be 1.26 for glycerin and 0.90 for oil. We

take the standard density of water to be w =1000 kg/m3, and the specific gravity of

mercury to be 13.6.

Analysis

Starting with the atmospheric

pressure on the top surface of the container and

moving along the tube by adding (as we go

down) or subtracting (as we go up) the gh

terms until we reach point A, and setting the

result equal to PA give

Patm oil ghoil w ghw gly ghgly PA

70 cm

Oil

SG=0.9

0

30 cm

Water

90 cm

Glyceri

n

SG=1.2

6

15 cm

20 cm

PA Patm SG oil w ghoil SG w w ghw SG gly w ghgly

or

PA,gage g w SG oil hoil SG w hw SG gly hgly

Substituting,

1 kN

PA, gage (9.81 m/s 2 )(1000 kg/m 3 )[0.90(0.70 m) 1(0.3 m) 1.26(0.70 m)]

2

1000 kg m/s

0.471 kN/m

0.471 kPa

h Hg

PA, gage

Hg g

1000 kg m/s 2

1 kN

(13.6)(1000 kg/m 3 )(9.81 m/s 2 )

0.471 kN/m 2

0.00353 m 0.353 cm

Discussion Note that the high density of mercury makes it a very suitable fluid for

measuring high pressures in manometers.

Problem 4

Solution A glass filled with water and covered with a thin paper is inverted. The

pressure at the bottom of the glass is to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Water is an incompressible substance. 2 The weight of the paper is

negligible. 3 The atmospheric pressure is 100 kPa.

Pbottom

3

Properties We take the density of water to be =1000 kg/m .

Analysis

The paper is in equilibrium, and thus the

net force acting on the paper must be zero. A vertical

force balance on the paper involves the pressure forces

on both sides, and yields

P1 Aglass Patm Aglass

P1 Patm

P1

That is, the pressures on both sides of the paper must be the same.

The pressure at the bottom of the glass is determined from the hydrostatic

pressure relation to be

Patm Pbottom ghglass

Substituting,

1N

1kg m/s 2

P1

atmkPa

1000 N/m 2

Discussion Note that there is a vacuum of 1 kPa at the bottom of the glass, and thus

there is an upward pressure force acting on the water body, which balanced by the weight

of water. As a result, the net downward force on water is zero, and thus water does not

flow down.

99.0

Problem 5

Solution A retaining wall against mud slide is to be constructed by rectangular

concrete blocks. The mud height at which the blocks will start sliding, and the blocks will

tip over are to be determined.

Assumptions Atmospheric pressure acts on both sides of the wall, and thus it can be

ignored in calculations for convenience.

Properties The density is given to be 1800 kg/m3 for the mud, and 2700 kg/m3 for

concrete blocks.

Analysis

(a) The weight of the concrete wall per unit length (L = 1 m) and the friction

force between the wall and the ground are

1N

W block gV ( 2700 kg/m 3 )(9.81 m/s 2 )[0.2 0.8 1 m 3 )

2

1 kg m/s

Ffriction W block 0.3( 4238 N ) 1271 N

4238 N

t =0.2 m

FH Fx Pavg A ghC A g h / 2 A

1N

2

1 kg m/s

0.8 m

8829h 2 N

Setting the hydrostatic and friction forces equal to each other gives

FH Ffriction

8829 h

1271

h 0.38 m

Ffriction

A

(b) The line of action of the hydrostatic force passes through the pressure center, which is

2h/3 from the free surface. The line of action of the weight of the wall passes through the

midplane of the wall. Taking the moment about point A and setting it equal to zero gives

W block (t / 2) FH ( h / 3)

W block (t / 2) 8829h 3 / 3

Solving for h and substituting, the mud height for tip over is determined to be

3W block t

2 8829

1/ 3

3 4238 0.2

2 8829

1/ 3

0.52 m

Discussion The concrete wall will slide before tipping. Therefore, sliding is more

critical than tipping in this case.

FH

Problem 6

Solution Two parts of a water trough of semi-circular cross-section are held together

by cables placed along the length of the trough. The tension T in each cable when the

trough is full is to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Atmospheric pressure acts on both sides of the trough wall, and thus it

can be ignored in calculations for convenience. 2 The weight of the trough is negligible.

We take the density of water to be 1000 kg/m3 throughout.

Properties

Analysis

To expose the cable tension, we consider half of the trough whose crosssection is quarter-circle. The hydrostatic forces acting on the vertical and horizontal plane

surfaces as well as the weight of the liquid block are:

Horizontal force on vertical surface:

FH Fx Pavg A ghC A g( R / 2 )A

1N

2

1 kg m/s

3679 N

coincides with the free surface of water. The weight of fluid

block per 3-m length is

FR

FV W gV g [ w R 2 / 4]

1N

(1000 kg/m 3 )(9.81 m/s 2 )[(3 m) (0.5 m) 2 /4]

2

1 kg m/s

5779 N

R = 0.5 m

FH

Then the magnitude and direction of the hydrostatic force acting on the surface of the 3m long section of the trough become

FR

tan

FV

5779 N

1.571

FH

3679 N

57.5

Therefore, the line of action passes through the center of the curvature of the trough, making 57.5

downwards from the horizontal. Taking the moment about point A where the two parts are hinged and

setting it equal to zero gives

FR Rsin( 90 57.5 ) TR

T FR sin 90 57.5 6851 N sin 90 57.5 3681 N 3680 N

Discussion This problem can also be solved without finding FR by finding the lines of

action of the horizontal hydrostatic force and the weight.

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