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REMEMBER THESE

1. A conductor having zero resistance is called a superconductor and this


phenomenon is called as superconductivity.
2. The temperature below which superconductivity is exhibited is called as
critical transistor temperature (Tc).
3. Superconductivity vanishes if temperature magnetic field and current
density exceed the critical value. For superconduting
state
4. BCJtheory states that the superconductivity state is an ordered state of a
pair of conduction
electrons coupled through a phonon called a copper pair.
5. The expulsion of magnetic field flux from interior of superconductor, when
cooled below
critical temperature is called as Meissner effect.
6. Critical temperature for different isotopes varies with the mass

7. Variation of critical magnetic field with temperature is given by

Where H c(0) is critical magnetic field at 0K.


8. Persistent currents : When a current is induced in a superconducting ring
or loop held
below the critical temperature, it persists undiminished as long as the
temperature remains
below the critical temperature.
9. The effective depth to which the magnetic field. penetrates a
superconductor is known as

London penetration depth. Its dependence on the temperature is given by.

Where

= penetration depth at 0K

10 Superconductors are characterized by an energy gap whose width is


proportional to the critical temperature.
11 Type I superconductors are pure specimens which expels completely
magnetic field lines They exhibit perfect diamagnetism They are also called
soft superconductors.
12 Type II superconductors are characterized by two critical fields Between
the two critical fields, the magnetic field partially penetrates the material
Above the upper critical field flux, penetration is total They are also called as
hard superconductors

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

Q 1. Define the process of doping in semiconductors


Ans The process of adding impurities to a semiconductor material is called
doping Doping is done after the semiconductor material has been refined to
a high degree of purity
A doped semiconductor is called an extrinsic semiconductor

Q 2. Write down the relation of critical field with critical temperature


superconductors.
Ans Relation between critical field and critical temperature is given by eqn

Where be the critical magnetic field at absolute zero temperature and Hc(T)
critical magnetic field at any temperature
is the critical
temperature

Q 3. What do you mean by the term Field penetration in super


conductors.
Ans According to Meisner effect there is complete expulsion of the magnetic
flux out
body of superconductor at the transition The magnetic flux decays from
constant value surface to zero value in the interior somewhat gradually than
abruptly So, field penetration refers to persistence of flux through a small
volume along the surface of superconductor.
Q 4. Write the formula for variation of magnetic field intensity with
temperature.
Ans Intensity of magnetisation of a magnetic material is inversely
proportional temperature

Q 5. State Meissner effect of superconductivity OR What is Meissner


effect?
Ans. When the normal conductor is cooled below below critical temperature
T and
placed in magnetic field H, then flux is excluded from the bulk of specimen.
This explusion of magnetic flux during the transition from normal to
superconducting state is known as Meissner
effect.

Q 6. What are type-I and type-II superconductors?


Ans.

Q 7. What are cooper pairs?


Ans. According to BCS theory of superconductivity, at very low temperature
electrons with equal and opposite momentum and spin coupled together to
form pairs are known as cooper pairs which are responsible for existence of
superconductivity.

Q 8. What is the effect of magnetic field on superconductivity


Ans. Superconductivity can be destroyed using magnetic field The minimum
magnetic field below critical temperature which is required to change the
superconducting state to normal state is called critical magnetic field.

Q 12. Why good conductors are not good superconductors ?


Ans. Good conductors have small lattice vibrations at room temperature But
lattice vibrations are responsible for the formation of cooper pairs which in
turn are responsible for superconductivity So, at low temperature good
conductor may have negligible lattice vibrations So, good conductors are not
good superconductors.

Q 13. Why super conductors are perfectly diamagnetic in nature ?


Ans. Super conductor are the materials having zero resitivity According to
Meissner effect, when a superconducting material is placed in an external
magnetic field, magnetic line of force are explained out of the specimen, i e
no magnetic line of force will enter the super conductor.

Which show that super conductor are perfectly diamagnetic in nature.

Q 14. What is critical magnetic field? How it varies with


temperature?

Ans. The minimum value of magnetic field at given temperature which is


required to change the superconducting state of a given sample to normal
conducting state of sample at thattemperature is called critical magnetic
field. The variation of critical magnetic field w.r.t temperature is given by

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

Q 1. Derive and explain the London equations and calculate the


expression for
penetration depth.
Ans. (a) London Equation : London equations can be derived by using two
filled model. According to this theory, super conductors can be thought be
composed of both normal and superfluid electrons.
Let
Nn = no. of normal electrons per unit volume
Ns = no. of superfluid es per unit volume
Vn= velocity of normal electrons
Vs= velocity of super fluid electrons If no is total electron density, then

This is Londons first equation

Take curl of eqn (5) on both sides


.(6)

.(7)

(8)

..(9)

.
(10)

.(11)

Q. 2. Define Levitation effect and explain the various factors that can
destroy
superconductivity.
Ans. Levitation Effect: It is based upon Meisner effect that if a long
superconductor is cooled in a magnetic field to below the value of critical
temperature, then magnetic field lines are pushed out of that material.
The factors that can destroy superconductivity are following
1. Magnetic field can destroy superconductivity. The minimum value of
magnetic field at a given temperature which is required to change the
superconductivity state of a given sample to normal conducting state of the
sample at that temperature is called critical magnetic field.
2. The normal conductors get converted to superconductors at temperature
below critical temperature. If we increase the temperature above critical
temperature, the superconductors gets converted to normal conductor.

Q 3 Explain the BCS theory of superconductivity.


Ans. BCS Theory of Superconductivity: BCS theory was given by Bardeen,
Cooper
and Schrieffer in 1957. The formation of BCS theory is based on the
electron-phonon interaction. Considering it as a possible source for the
formation of the superconducting state:
i.

Copper pair : Consider an electron passes near, an iron core. There is


mutual interaction between electron and ion core because of Coulomb
interaction and the ion core is set into mbtion. Next consider another
electron passes nearby. It is abxiores that the electron must feel the
effect of motion of ion core or the ion motion has provided a mean for
two

electrons to interact. This pair of electron-electron through


lattice vibration is called copper pair. The first electron which have
vector K emits a virtual phonon q which is absorbed by second
electron with wave vector 1<2 and two electrons are scattered with
wave K1 q and K2 + q.

1
Consider a fermi gas having probability of occurence 0 and 1 with
electron spins

1
and
It isalso clear that one form an excited state here by taking an
electron from the
fermi surface and raising it just above the fermi surface.
in BCS theory, there is interaction (attractive) between the
electrons. So sufficient energy
has to be supplied to. exceed the force of attraction between
electrons. This implies that BCS ground state is separated by a finit
energy gap, Eg from its lowest excited state
(iii) Features of BCS state:
(a) Total energy of BCS state is lower w.r.t fermi state.
(b) If a state with vector K and spin up is occupied then the state
with wave vector K and spin down is also occupied. Similarly, if Kt is
vacant, then K is also vacant..

Q 4 What is Critical Field? Write down the expression for


Hc and differentiate between Type-I and Type-Il
Superconductors.
Ans. Critical Field The minimum value of the magnetic field at a
given temperature (below critical temperature) which is required to
change the super conducting state of a given sample to the normal
conducting state of the sample at that temperature is called critical
magnetic field It is denoted by Hc (T)
Let Hc (0) be the critical magnetic field at absolute zero
temperature and Hc (T) the critical magnetic field at any
temperature T (such that T <Tc)
Corresponding to each value of temperature below critical
temperature there is a value of magnetic field which when applied
to the sample can change it into the normal conductor
Difference between TypeI and TypeIl super conductors

Q 5. Derive First London Equation and give its physical


significance.

Ans. We can derive the London equations using Two fluid model
According to this theory a superconductor can be thought to be
composed of both normal and superfluid electrons.

But from Maxwells equation

Significance of London 1st equation It show that even if the electric


field is zero for

perconductors, they have current density . Which is constant i.e.,


along with zero resistivity
per conductiors have current density.

Q 6. What is London penetration depth? How does it vary


with temperature?
Ans. According to Ampere circuital law

Taking curl on both sides

Thus penetration depth is defined as the distance inside the sample at which
magnetic
flux density reduces to 1/e of its value at the surface.

Its variation with temperature is given by

Q 7. (a)Derive London equations of superconductivity and estimate


the magnitude of the penetration depth of an applied magnetic field.
Ans. According to him, a superconductor is made up of two types of
electrons namely
normal (nn) and super fluid electrons (ns)
i.e
n=nn+ns

Expression for penetration depth

(b) What is isotope effect in superconductors?


Ans. According to isotope effect, th critical temperature of a superconductor
varies
with isotopic mass. The critical temperature .is given by

Q 8. What is superconductivity What are the differences between


type-I and type-Il superconductor. A type-I superconductor with T c
= 7K has a slope
Estimate its critical field at 6K .
OR
What do you understand by Type I and Type II superconductors.

Ans. According to Meissner if a superconductor is placed in a magnetic field


then magnetic lines of force are not able to penetrate the body of
superconductor by means of superconducting state is perfectly diamagnetic
in nature
According to him, a superconductor is made up of two types of electrons
namely normal (no) and super fluid electrons (ns)
i.e.
n=nn+ns

Q9. Define Cooper pair. Calculate the wavelength of photon, which


will be required to break a cooper-pair in a superconductor like Zr
whose Tc is 0.56 K.
Ans. Cooper Pair: Cooper pair is a quasi-particle formed by the mutual
attraction of two es with opposite spins and opposite linear momentum
below a critical temperature Tc. Its charge is 2e and its has a mass of 2me

but its spin 0.


We know that energy gap is given by

Q 10. Explain the penetration depth in superconductors and its


behaviour with
temperature variation.
Ans. According to him, a superconductor is made up of two types of
electrons namely normal (nn) and super fluid electrons (ns)
i.e. n=nn+ns

Q 12. Discuss Londons theory of superconductivity


Ans. According to him, a superconductor is made up of two types of
electrons namely
normal (nn) and super fluid electrons (ns)
ie n=nn+ns

Q 13. What is Meissner effect? Show how London equations lead to


this effectS A type I superconductor with Tc= 7K has shape c.
Estimate its
critical field at 6K. Calculate the jump in specific heat at T c
Ans. According to Meissner, if a superconductor is placed in a magnetic field
then
magnetic lines of force are not able to penetrate the body of superconductor
by means of superconducting state is perfectly diamagnetic in nature.
According to him, a superconductor is made up of two types of electrons
namely normal (ne) and super fluid electrons (ns

Q 14. What are superconductors? Give some example. Explain


critical temperature and critical magnetic field in superconductor.
Ans. The temperature at which the resistance of a material suddenly falls to.
zero when the material is cooled to a sufficiently low temperature is called
superconductivity. The material is known as a superconductor. e.g. Many

metals, alloys and compounds.


The temperature at which tile resistance of a maferial suddenly falls to zero
is known as critical temperature (Tc). Critical magnetic field is defined as the
magnetic field where half the normal resistance has returned, using a small
measuring current. It is denoted by Hc.

Q 15. (a) Discuss various phenomena related to superconductor.


Ans. (i) When the current through a superconductor is increased beyond a
critical value, the superconductor becomes a normal conductor.
(ii) The transmition temperature, remains unaffected by the frequency and
at 0 K the resistance approaches a value which is less than 1 O of the
resistance in normal stage.
(iii) Critical temperature of a superconductor varies with isotopic mass.
(iv) Electron-phenon interaction may be a cause of superconductivity.
(v) If a superconductor is cooled in a magnetic field down to transition
temperature, then at transition temperature, the tines of induction are
pushed out i.e. Meissner effect.
(b) Discuss Londons theory of superconductivity. (PTU, Dec. 2003)
Ans. According to him, a superconductor is made Up of two types of
electrons namely normal (no) and super fluid electrons (n s)
i.e.