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THE DUBAI MALL EXPANSION FASHION AVENUE

Fire Protection and Life Safety Strategy


Tender Addendum Issue
19th October 2013

Quality Management

Dubai Mall Fashion Avenue Expansion


Tender Issue

Issue/revision

Issue 1

Revision 1

Remarks

Tender

Tender Addendum

Date

24 September 2013

19 October 2013

Prepared by

Alex Castellanos

Alex Castellanos

Revision 2

Revision 3

24/09/2013

Signature

Client
Emaar Properties PJSC

Checked by

Adam Olomon

James Evans

Signature

Authorised by

Consultant
Eugene Olivier

Eugene Olivier

Project number

37441950

37441950

Report number

051

051

File reference

37441950-051-AC-RA

37441950-051-AC-IR

WSP Middle East


P.O. Box 1924
Sharjah
United Arab Emirates

Signature

Tel: 00971 6 598 1777


Fax: 00971 6 598 1666
www.wspgroup.ae

WSP Contacts
Eugene Olivier Project Manager
Eugene.Olivier@wspgroup.ae
Alexander Castellanos
Alexander.castellanos@wspgroup.ae

Project number: 37441950


Dated: 24/09/2013
Revised: 19/10/2013

5.7
Retail Scenario 1 Unit spill with Smoke Extraction from
Mall. 32
5.8
Retail Scenario 2 Unit Fire with Smoke with In Unit
Extraction. .......................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

Table of Contents
1
1.1
1.1.1
1.1.2
1.1.3
1.1.4
1.1.5
1.1.6
1.1.7
1.1.8
1.1.9
1.1.10
1.1.11
1.1.12

Specialists Engineering Services ...........................................4


Fire and Life Safety ................................................................4
Introduction.............................................................................4
Fire Rating and Construction ..................................................5
Means of Egress.....................................................................7
Evacuation Cause and Effect Strategy .................................12
Fire Protection Systems .......................................................15
Smoke Control ......................................................................17
Mall Building Smoke Control Strategy ..................................17
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Analysis ....................20
Car Park Smoke Control.......................................................20
Mall Kiosks ...........................................................................20
Stand-by Power Supplies .....................................................21
Fire Fighting Provisions ........................................................21

Appendix A - CFD Report .................................................................23


2
2.1
2.2
2.3

Introduction...........................................................................23
Scope ...................................................................................23
Objectives .............................................................................23
Acceptance Criteria ..............................................................23

3
3.1
3.1.1
3.1.2
3.1.3
3.1.4
3.2

Smoke Control Strategy .......................................................23


Mechanical Smoke Extraction ..............................................23
Inlet Air .................................................................................24
Mall Expansion Single Smoke Zone .....................................24
Unit Exhaust .........................................................................24
Interface to Existing Mall ......................................................24
Suppression .........................................................................24

4
4.1
4.1.1
4.1.2
4.1.3
4.1.4
4.1.5
4.2
4.2.1
4.3
4.3.1
4.3.2

Modelling Methodology.........................................................24
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) ..................................24
Hydrodynamic Model ............................................................24
Combustion Model................................................................24
Radiation Model ...................................................................24
Turbulence Model .................................................................24
Verification & Validation Studies ...........................................24
FDS Model ...........................................................................25
Computational Domain .........................................................25
Modelled Scenarios ..............................................................25
Mall Smoke Extraction Scenarios .........................................25
Retail Tenancy Smoke Extraction Scenarios ........................26

5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6

Results .................................................................................26
Mall Scenarios ......................................................................26
Retail Unit Scenarios ............................................................26
Mall Scenario 1 10MW Boulevard Kiosk Fire ....................27
Mall Scenario 2 10MW Mall Kiosk Fire ..............................28
Mall Scenario 3 1.5MW Mall level Caf FireError! Bookmark not defined.
Mall Scenario 4 1.5MW Third Floor Food Court Fire .........30

Project number: 37441950


Dated: 24/09/2013
Revised: 19/10/2013

1.1.1.3 Basis for Design

Specialists Engineering Services

1.1

Fire and Life Safety

1.1.1

DCD enforces the 2011 Edition of the UAE Fire and Life Safety Code of Practice [UFC], supported by the
National Fire Protection Association [NFPA] suite of documents. At present neither the UFC nor NFPA are
applied in their entirety by DCD.
Where guidance is missing, unclear, or contradictory, the NFPA suite of codes is to be referred to. Such case is
the design of the mall smoke control system.
In addition to the above mentioned codes, local requirements not supported by the aforementioned codes are
often requested verbally during meetings. In view of this, the contents of this report is based on the UFC, NFPA
requirements and verbal DCD comments known to WSP from our experience of operating in Dubai..

Introduction

It should be noted that whilst the contents of the Fire Strategy Report is based upon our previous DCD design
experience, meetings held with DCD with respect to the mall expansion, the contents of this report is subject to
change until such time as the design is formally approved by DCD.

1.1.1.1 Scope
WSP Middle East has been commissioned by EMAAR to provide Fire and Life Safety consultancy services for
the Dubai Mall Expansion project located in Dubai.
This report addresses the following key fire and life safety issues associated with the Dubai Mall Expansion.

Furthermore, in coordination with DCD and the design team and in accordance with the Existing Mall Fire and
Life Safety Strategy a number of alternative design solutions are being proposed which are not in accordance
with prescriptive codes, these are summarised as follows:

Fire resistance ratings

Omission of sprinklers from the mall ceiling.

Means of egress

Fire Rating of Glazed Mall Roof Structure.

Fire protection systems

Smoke reservoir plan area in excess of the UAE Fire Code permitted 2,600m .

Fire services access

Interior stair discharge.

The strategy for the Dubai Mall Expansion is developed to ensure compliance with the prescriptive
requirements in accordance with the applicable codes and standards. It is also intended to follow the principles
developed for the existing mall fire strategy and regulatory requirements in support of the formal approval
process as defined by Dubai Civil Defence (DCD).

The aforementioned alternative solutions has been justified using Performance Based Design (PBD) and/ or
equivalence analysis. The strategy was presented during consultation meetings with DCD during the early
stages of the DD phase in which they have not raised objections to the above proposals. Codes and Standards
Below is a list of the primary reference documents for the Dubai Mall Expansion. These are the most recent
editions of these codes and standards unless otherwise stated. The list is not exhaustive:

This strategy must be read in conjunction with the Fire and Life Safety Drawings.
DCD have full mandate to interpret the requirements detailed in the fire and life safety design codes and
standards; the approval of the fire and life safety design provisions outlined in this report remains at the sole
discretion of DCD.
This report is for the sole use of the client, design team, and contractor for the Dubai Mall Expansion. It should
not be used in full or in part to support any other scheme. Changes in the design of the building may invalidate
the proposals for the scheme as stated herein and / or necessitate a revisit to the design.

1.1.1.2 Stakeholders
This document is to be discussed with the relevant project stakeholders for an in principle acceptance of the
proposed design. Input and feedback from stakeholders is an essential part of the design process. The relevant
stakeholders for the project are identified as follows:
Table 1: Project Stakeholders

UAE Fire and Life Safety Code of Practice, 2011 Edition [UFC]

NFPA 1, Fire Code

NFPA 10, Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers

NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems

NFPA 14, Standard for the Installation of Standpipe and Hose Systems

NFPA 20, Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection

NFPA 22, Standard for Water Tanks for Private Fire Protection

NFPA 24, Standard for the Installation of Private Fire Service Mains and Their Appurtenances

NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code

NFPA 70, National Electric Code

Discipline

Organisation

NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm and Signaling Code

Client

EMAAR

NFPA 80, Standard for Fire Doors and Other Opening Protectives

Design Architect

DP Architects

NFPA 90A, Standard for the Installation of Air-conditioning and Ventilating Systems

Architect of Record

WSP Middle East

NFPA 92, Standard for Smoke-Control Systems

MEP Consultant

WSP Middle East

NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, 2012 Edition

Structural Consultant

WSP Middle East

Fire and Life Safety Consultant

WSP Middle East

NFPA 105, Standard for Smoke Door Assemblies and Other Opening Protectives

Security Consultant

SKM

NFPA 110, Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems

Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ)

Dubai Civil Defence [DCD]

NFPA 220, Standards on Types of Building Construction

NFPA 241, Standard for Safeguarding Construction, Alteration, and Demolition Operations

Project number: 37441950


Dated: 24/09/2013
Revised: 19/10/2013

NFPA 255, Standard Method of Test of Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials

NFPA 2001, Standard on Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems

NFPA 5000, Building Construction and Safety Code, 2012 Edition

ASME A17.1, Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators

ICC/ANSI A117.1, American National Standards for Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities

The use, height, and area of the project form the basis for classifying the building into its construction type and
hence its structural fire performance requirements.
The table below summarizes the height and area characteristics of the building and the associated
requirements for structural fire resistance for the Mall Expansion as set out in UFC Table 1.6:
Table 3: Structural Fire Resistance
Structural Fire Resistance
Building Area

Occupancy
Classification

Height of
Building

Max Floor
Area (m2)

Construction Type

Type B
Permitted Area

Type B
Maximum
Permitted
Height

Mall Building

Mercantile

~26m

~21,000

Type B

Unlimited

55m

1.1.1.4 Occupancy Classification


The project will be classified as a Mall Building where individual spaces or portions of the building are classified
based on their use, with the primary use being Mercantile. Occupancies and their classification are summarized
below:
Table 2: Occupancy Classification

Type B construction requires fire resistance ratings as follows:

Space/Area

Occupancy Classification

Mall Building

Mercantile

Parking Structure

Storage

Food and Beverage (F&B) outlets, food court

Assembly

Exterior and interior load bearing walls, columns, beams girders trusses, arches, and floors 120 minutes
fire resistance

Roof 60 minutes (allowing for Type B reduction of 1 hour for roof).

1.1.2.1 Glass Roof Skylight Structure


The UFC requires all portions of the roof to be designed to have a fire resistance rating of 1 hour which poses
significant technical challenges for incorporating a glass roof into the mall expansion. In addition, the UFC does
not address special conditions such as skylights. Therefore, the strategy discussed with DCD, to which there
was no objection, proposes fire rating to be omitted based on the following approach:

1.1.1.5 Mall Classification


NFPA 101 Section 36.4.4.1 provides a comprehensive fire and life safety approach for Mall Buildings which
addresses aspects additional to the requirements of the UAE Fire Code. Therefore, NFPA 101 Section 36 has
been adopted to address mall specific requirements inclusive of:

Retail unit classification

Mall pedestrian way

Smoke control

Travel distances

Occupant load calculations

Exit capacity requirements

Use of exit passageways

Glass roof will not be occupied or utilized for fire fighting purposes.

The glazed portion of the roof can be classified as a skylight which is exempt from requirements of fire
resistance per NFPA 5000, Section 8.2.2.3.3.1. This is inclusive of the frame structure that supports the
glazed elements.

All other structural and non-glazed portions of the roof that do not form part of the skylight will meet the fire
resistance rating requirements of the UFC.

The circulation area of the mall building, exclusive of retail units, will be classified as the Mall Pedestrian Way,
which per NFPA 101, Section 36.4.4.2.2 requires a minimum dimension of 6100mm at its narrowest point, with
each side of the pedestrian way providing exit access of at least 3050mm in width. Exit access must lead to an
exit width of no less than 1675mm.
Retail units are sub classified by NFPA 101, Section 36.1.2.2.1 as follows:
2

Class A Retail unit with an area greater than 2,800m or occupying more than 3 stories for sales
purposes.

Class B Retail unit with an area ranging between 280m and 2,800m and occupying not more than 3
2
stories for sales purposes or an area greater than 280m and occupying 2 or 3 stories.

Class C Retail unit with an area less than 280m and occupying only a single storey for sales purposes.

1.1.2

Roof skylight and supporting


frame exempt from fire
resistance rating protection

Fire Rating and Construction

Structural elements, floors, and bearing walls will have a fire resistance rating not less than the fire resistance
rating required for the structural element, bearing or non-bearing wall, floor, or roof they support. UFC C1 4.1

Project number: 37441950


Dated: 24/09/2013
Revised: 19/10/2013

Figure 1: Glazed roof exempt from fire rating

1.1.2.4 Separation between Mall and Car Park

In addition it should be noted that the proposal is in accordance with the existing mall strategy in which glazed
roofing structures are not provided with a fire resistance rating.

The mall and car park will be separated by 2 hour fire rated construction throughout, with the exception of
welcome courts.

1.1.2.2 External Fire Spread

The welcome courts serve as access from the car park into the mall, NFPA 101 recognizes this condition in
Section 36.1.3.2.2(1) by allowing up to 25% of openings to be unprotected in the 2 hour fire rated wall
separating the mall from car park on the basis that the following conditions are met:-

To mitigate the risk of external fire spread between buildings in close proximity, the UFC prescribes
requirements for fire rating of external walls and limits on the amount of openings based on the physical
separation distances between buildings (UFC C1 5.1).
The UFC states that any faade that is closer than 6m from any faade of an adjacent building must be rated
with 1 hour fire rated construction.
The separation distance between The Mall Expansion and the adjacent office annex building will be a minimum
of 7.5m. Therefore, the facades of the buildings are not required to be fire rated and the number of unprotected
openings in the faade can be unlimited.

Maximum unprotected opening of 25% of the fire barrier area

Openings used for public entrance;

Mercantile building protected by a sprinkler system;

Drainage is provided to preven fuel spill accumulation

Car not permitted to park within 3050mm from the opening

Openings serve as a smoke partition.

The following locations will adopt this strategy:


1.1.2.3 Internal Fire Spread
The mall expansion will be classified as mall building and as such separation between occupancies is not
required. However, various sections of the UFC, NFPA 101, and reference standards require additional fire
separation based on the use of spaces.
The following are additional fire resistance requirements (compartmentation), and their corresponding opening
protectives, to those of structural elements (UFC C1 Table 1.9, Table 1.10, unless otherwise noted).

Lower Ground Floor car park entrance to mall near At The Top

Boulevard level car park entrance to mall near the Concierge Area

Level 01, Level 1M, Level 2, Level 2M, level 3 car park entrance adjacent to Welcome Court

1.1.2.5 Fire and Smoke Dampers


Fire dampers will be required to be installed to protect ducts and air-transfer openings that penetrate fire
barriers, required by other sections of this report, in accordance with UFC C1 22.1.4 as follows:

Table 4: Summary of fire resistance rating to mitigate internal fire spread


Item

Minimum Fire Rating

Opening Protective Rating

Exit Enclosures (stairs and exit


passageways) (UFC C3 5.2.6.3)

2 Hours

Vertical Shafts (UFC C1 26.4)

Ducts and air-transfer openings in walls or partitions with a fire resistance rating of 2 hour or more.

90 min

Ducts and air transfer openings in shafts rated for 1 hour or more

2 Hours

90 min

Ducts and air transfer openings in floor penetrations which are not enclosed in a shaft

Elevator Shafts (UFC C1 26.4)

2 Hours

90 min

Air transfer openings in walls rated for 30 minutes or more

Emergency Command Centre

1 Hour

60 min

Electrical Rooms (LV room, HT room,


Transformer room ) with automatic fire
protection

1 hour

60 min

Fire dampers will be required to comply with the requirements of UL 555, Standard for Fire Dampers, and will
be required to have the minimum fire protection rating of not less than 90 minutes for any fire separation that
has a fire-resistance rating of less than 3-hours, and 3 hour for barriers rated 3 hours or more as specified in
Table 1.11 of UFC C1.

Non sprinklered electrical rooms and


telecommunication rooms (NFPA 13
8.15.10.3)

2 Hours

90 min

Fire dampers will not be required in the following locations:

Fire Pump Room

1 hour

60 min

Generator room

2 Hours

90 min

Elevator Machine room

2 Hours

90 min

Storage Room > 9.3m2

1 Hour

60 min

Kitchens

1 Hour*

60 min

Separation Between Tenants

1 Hour**

60 min

Separation between mall and car park

2 hours

90 min

Horizontal Exit

2 Hours***

90 min

Elevator Lobbies

1 hour and smoke barrier****

60 min

* Separation required for kitchens per client requirements


**NFPA 101, Section 36.4.4.2.2(5)
***Subject to DCD approval if provided in the design,
****In lieu of 1 hour lobbies, provide pressurized hoist way shaft (UFC C3 5.2.23.1)

Project number: 37441950


Dated: 24/09/2013
Revised: 19/10/2013

In floors that do not require protected floor openings.

In a duct system serving only one floor and used only for exhaust of air to the outside and not penetrating a
wall or partition having a required fire resistance rating of 2 hours or more or passing entirely through the
system and contained within its own dedicated shaft.

Where branch ducts connect to enclosed exhaust risers, and in which the airflow is upward and steel subducts at least 560 mm in length are carried up inside the riser at each inlet.

Smoke dampers will be provided where required as part of the smoke control system and for penetrations
through smoke barriers.

1.1.2.6 Mall Pedestrian Way- Atrium


The mall pedestrian way connects all levels of the mall expansion project and will therefore be treated as an
atrium (UFC C1 28 and NFPA 101 Section 36.4.4):

All levels that form part of the atrium connection will be considered a single volume.

Smoke control will be provided as required by code to maintain tenable conditions for all levels during a
potential fire scenario as determined by an engineering analysis. Tenable conditions will be assessed at a

minimum of1830mm above the highest occupied level of exit access open to the atrium for a minimum
period of 20 minutes.

Occupancy

Exits

Exit Access Corridor

Other Spaces

Mercantile

A or B

A or B

A or B

The base engineering analysis for the mall pedestrian way and associated retail units are in accordance
with the methodology of UFC C10 29.8 for smoke control.

Assembly < 300

A or B

A, B, or C

Assembly > 300

A or B

A or B

A performance based design analysis utilizing computational fluid dynamics will be utilized for finalizing the
smoke control design. This has been discussed in principle with DCD.
The classifications shall be interpreted as follows:
Table 6: Finish Classifications

1.1.2.7 Service Openings


Escalators and stairs utilized for access or circulation within multi-story units (such as flagship units), or where
specified as part of the fire strategy will be provided with the following as an alternative to enclosing in fire
resistance rating (UFC C1 30.3):

Escalators or stairs are not utilized as exits

A draft curtain/downstand, protected with sprinklers, measuring a minimum 455mm in depth is provided
around the opening

Sprinklers protecting the draft curtain are installed a maximum 1830mm on centre around the draft curtain
and spaced between 150mm and 305mm from the draft curtain.

Finish

Flame spread index

Smoke development index

Critical radiant flux (W/cm2)

Class A

0-25

0-450

N/A

Class B

26-75

0-450

N/A

Class C

76-200

0-450

N/A

All internal linings require test evidence or certification that demonstrates that they comply with the above
tables.
Wherever the use of Class C interior wall and ceiling is required Class A or Class B shall be permitted. Where
Class B interior wall and ceiling finish is required Class A shall be permitted.

This strategy accounts for the building being protected by a fire sprinkler system throughout, in conjunction with
the exclusion of sprinkler protection for the glass roof.
Where the service opening is within the mall atrium volume, the service opening protection is not required.

1.1.3

Means of Egress

Means of egress for the mall expansion will be in accordance with the following section. The strategy also
addresses areas where the mall expansion interfaces with the existing mall and the impact on the existing
malls means of egress.

1.1.3.1 Occupant Load


The design occupant load is the code required total number of occupants that may occupy the building or
portions thereof for which means of egress must be provided. It is calculated based upon:

Gross Leasable Area (GLA) for the Mall Building

Net occupiable area for assembly spaces, gross area for all other spaces.

Occupant Load Factors outlined in UFC C3 Table 3.6A

Occupant load factors are selected based on the characteristic use of the space, and not the occupancy
classification of the space. The occupant load factors are summarised in the table below which reflects the
uses of the mall expansion.
For the purpose of determining the occupant load of the mall and associate required exit capacity, NFPA 101
2
Figure 7.3.1.2(b) has been utilized. An occupant load factor of 5.1m /person is applicable based on the total
2
Gross Leasable Area (GLA) being approximately 61,000m
Table 7: Summary of occupant load factors
Usage

Factor (m2/person)

Prayer rooms

0.65 (net)

At The Top (ATT) Holding area

0.65 (net)

1.1.2.8 Interior Finish

Assembly, meeting room, terrace, and F&B outlets

1.4 (net)

The interior finishes provided within the building will have a minimum classification as identifies in the following
locations:

ATT Retail, Retail Ground Floor

2.8

Table 5: Interior finish requirements based on occupancy

Retail above ground

5.6

Figure 2: Sprinkler and downstand method for protecting circulation stairs and escalators.

Project number: 37441950


Dated: 24/09/2013
Revised: 19/10/2013

Usage

Factor (m2/person)

Mall Building

5.1

Office areas, Kitchens, MEP Rooms

9.3

Storage, Parking

27.9

1.1.3.2 Egress Capacity


The egress will be designed to provide adequate capacity for the calculated design occupant load with all areas
being simultaneously occupied on a floor-per-floor basis.
The egress capacity for the mall building will be calculated based upon the GLA of each floor. Egress for the
assembly areas within the mall, such as food courts that do not forming part of the GLA, are calculated
independently.
The egress capacity from each tenant unit within the mall will be calculated based on its use and the calculated
occupant load in accordance with Table 7.
The width for each egress element will be calculated based on the following factors:

Horizontal components doors, ramps, corridors = 5mm/person

Vertical components stairs = 7.6mm/person

Detailed calculations of available capacity and occupant load will be provided as part of the Fire Strategy
Drawings.
Figure 3: Existing mall lower ground floor exit relocation to mall expansion.

1.1.3.3 Egress Capacity Existing Mall Interface

The existing Level 01 exit from the Fashion Avenue Atrium currently discharges to the exterior at the Fashion
Avenue drop-off, following completion of the expansion this exit to the exterior will no longer be available, as
illustrated in Figure 4 below. Consequently, the egress requirements from the Mall Expansion have been
designed to cater for the occupants from the existing mall who were originally served by this exit (3600mm is
the total width of the exits per the original as built drawings of the existing mall) in addition to the occupant load
calculated for the expansion.

Three key locations of the mall expansion interface with the means of egress of the existing mall. These
locations are as follows:

Lower Ground Floor exit, adjacent to current More Caf, to the promenade of existing mall to be converted
to new retail unit.

Fashion avenue atrium exit that currently discharges to the exterior

Stairs 36 and 37 serving the car park/medical centre that currently discharge to the exterior.

The existing Lower Ground Floor egress route, highlighted in Figure 3, has been replaced by a retail unit, and
as a consequence the egress requirements from the mall expansion will cater for occupants from the mall
expansion in addition to occupants from the existing mall who were originally served by this exit.
The exact number of occupants utilizing those doors could not be determined based on the current fire
strategy. Therefore, the mall expansion will cater for the exit width provided in the original mall as built
drawings, which are a total 2400mm of door exit width. The exit width has been distributed throughout the mall
expansion exits.

Project number: 37441950


Dated: 24/09/2013
Revised: 19/10/2013

At the narrowest point in the door opening

For swinging doors, between the face of the door and the stop

Figure 5: Door clear width measurement

Side-hinged or pivoted-swinging type doors shall swing in the direction of egress travel in the following cases:

Figure 4: Fashion avenue atrium interface with mall expansion

Where serving a room or an area with an occupant load of 50 or more (UFC C3 3.7.3)

Where the door assembly is used in an exit enclosure (UFC C3 3.7.4.i)

Revolving doors are not permitted as a component in the means of egress (UFC C3 3.12.1)

Stairs 36 and 37 that currently serve the car park areas and the medical centre will not be accounted for
capacity since the mall expansion has been provided with its own capacity. However, the existing stairs will be
accounted for to meet travel distance requirements. The stairs will discharge to a separate compartment at
Ground Level and such compartment will serve as an exit passageway and lead to the exterior.

Doors will be designed to meet the limits of encroachment/projection into the required exit width within stairs as
follows:

1.1.3.4 Doors
Minimum door dimensions will be provided as follows:
Table 8: Door dimensional criteria
Feature
Minimum Door Width
Maximum Required Door Width Capacity

Dimensional Criteria
915mm
5mm per person

Maximum Threshold Height

13mm

Maximum Floor Elevation on Either Side of Door

13mm

Minimum Two leaf door

915mm

Max door projection into required width

180mm

Figure 6: Encroachment / Projection Detail

Every door and every principal entrance that is required to serve as an exit shall be designed and constructed
so that the path of egress travel is obvious and direct.
A doors clear width shall be measured as follows:

Project number: 37441950


Dated: 24/09/2013
Revised: 19/10/2013

1.1.3.5 Stairs
Minimum stair dimension will be provided as follows:
Table 9: Stair dimensional criteria
Feature

Dimensional Criteria

Minimum Stair and landing width < 2000

1200mm

Maximum Required Stair Width Capacity

7.6mm per person (sized using largest floor occupancy)

Height Between Landings

3660mm

Riser height

100mm and 180mm

Tread Depth

280mm

Headroom

2030mm

Minimum Stair and landing width < 2000

Figure 8: Separation requirement for scissor stairs

1.1.3.7 Corridors
Exit access corridors are sized to accommodate the largest calculated occupant load when applying 5mm per
person or a minimum width as follows:

1200mm

General - 1200mm

Mall exit access doors and corridors- 1675mm.

The required capacity of a corridor shall be the occupant load that utilises the corridor for exit access divided by
the number of exits to which the corridor connects. However, the corridor capacity shall not be less than the
required capacity of the exit to which the corridor leads.

Handrails are provided on each side of stairs and ramps in accordance with the dimensional criteria shown in
Figure 7

1.1.3.8 Exit Passageways


The special mall provisions of exit passageways of NFPA 101 Section 36.4.4.6.2 will be adopted for the design
as follows:

Rooms with service equipment, janitor closets, and service elevators are permitted to open into the exit
passageway

In addition, where multiple stairs converge into an exit passageway to discharge to the exterior, the exit
passageway will be sized to accommodate the aggregate occupant load of all stairs discharging into it.
Furthermore, where the exit passageway serves a stair that has occupant flow from both below and above the
discharge level, the passageway is to be sized to serve the converging number of occupants from both
directions (UFC C3 11.6.3.1).

1.1.3.9 Ramps
Minimum stair dimensions will be provided in accordance with the table below:

Figure 7: Stair / handrail Detail

Table 10: Ramp dimensional criteria

1.1.3.6 Stair Separation

Feature

Where stairs serve above grade and basement levels, a fire rated separation is required at the level of exit
discharge where the flows from above and below converge, Figure 9 refers

Minimum unobstructed width

1200mm

Scissor or interlocking stairs count as a single exit and shall be separated from each other by a 2 hour fire
resistance rating. Openings or penetrations between the stairs will be required to be provided to achieve the
stair pressurization requirements.

Minimum projections at or below handrail height on each


side

114mm

Maximum Ramp Slope

1 in 12

Project number: 37441950


Dated: 24/09/2013
Revised: 19/10/2013

10

Dimensional Criteria

Feature

Dimensional Criteria

Maximum Cross Ramp Slope

Occupancy

Dead End (m)

Travel Distance (m)

1 in 48

Maximum Rise for Single Ramp Run

760mm

Minimum with of landing in direction of travel

1220mm

1.1.3.13

1.1.3.10

Common Path of
Travel (m)

The number of exits required is dependent on the design occupant load. The mall pedestrian way provides the
required number of exits based on occupants. In addition, each tenant unit will meet the following requirements:

Storey: Minimum number of separate exits accessible from every part of


every story

91

Storage (Ordinary hazard)

30

30

122

Exit Discharge

Stairs that continue more than one-half story beyond the level of exit discharge shall be interrupted at the level
of exit discharge by partitions, doors, or other effective means (UFC C3 6.5.2) to help prevent occupants
escaping from floors above the level of exit discharge continuing down into the basement levels and vice versa.
Figure 9 illustrates the acceptable separation method to meet this requirement.

Number of Exits
1

15

This option of interior stair discharge is being considered for Stair 36 or Stair 37 if the exit passageway to the
exterior is unfeasible.

Table 11: Number of exits required

Class C units where distance to exit or mall not in excess of 30m and
occupant load not exceeding 100

30

Stair discharge to the interior (such as mall exits into Lower Ground) of the building is not permitted per the
UFC due to the pressurization of stairs and the requirement for pressurized stairs to discharge directly to the
exterior (UFC C3 5.2.19.3). NFPA 101 allows up to 50% of stairs to discharge to the interior of the building,
which must be noted to be a fundamental strategy of the existing mall fire strategy.

Number of Exits

Feature

Business

Room or Area: Where the maximum permissible common path of travel is


exceeded and the occupant load is less than 500 people

Occupant load more than 500 but not more than 1000

Occupant load exceeding 1000

1.1.3.11

Exit Separation

Where two exits or exit access doors are required, they shall be located at a distance from one another not less
than one-third of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the building or area to be served, measured in a
straight line between the nearest edge of the exit doors or exit access doors (UFC C3 7.4.1).
Figure 9: Stair separation at exit discharge level

Where more than two exits or exit access doors are required, at least two of the required exits or exit access
doors shall be arranged to comply with the minimum separation distance requirement.

1.1.3.14
1.1.3.12

Means of Egress Illumination

Illumination of means of egress should be provided in accordance with the requirements contained in NFPA
101 section 7.8.

Travel Distance

The maximum allowable travel distance limit from any point of the building to an exit is as follows:
Table 12: Travel distance requirements per occupancy
Occupancy

Common Path of
Travel (m)

Dead End (m)

Emergency Lighting

Emergency lighting systems will be designed and installed in accordance with Chapter 6 of the UFC.

Assembly 50 People

23

15

76

Assembly 50 People

6.1

6.1

76

ATT area, inclusive of tunnel link

6.1

6.1

76

Mercantile (Within Unit)

30

15

76

Mercantile (Mall Pedestrian Way)

30

15

61

Project number: 37441950


Dated: 24/09/2013
Revised: 19/10/2013

1.1.3.15

Travel Distance (m)

The emergency lighting facilities will be required to be arranged to provide initial illumination that is not less
than an average of 10.8 lux and at any point not less than 1.1 lux, measured along the path of egress at floor
level. Illumination levels will be permitted to decline to not less than an average of 6.5 lux and at any point not
less than 0.65 lux at the end of the 90 minutes. A maximum-to-minimum illumination uniformity ratio of 40 to 1
will not be required to be exceeded (UFC C6 4).

11

The fire alarm will broadcast an alert signal throughout the unit of fire origin. No alarm will sound in the mall
or adjacent units;

Nominated staff within the tenancy will begin to investigate the alarm. A grace period of 3 minutes (subject
to confirmation by the management of the tenancy) will be allocated to determine whether or not the fire
alarm is false;

An alert signal will be sent to the ECC to alert the building management that an incident has occurred;

Means of egress for limited mobility occupants will be provided in accordance with the UFC which directly
references NFPA 101 as the applicable code (UFC C14)

Building management will respond to the incident by instigating a staff investigation;

If the management of the tenancy confirm a false alarm, then the signal can be cancelled in the unit;

As per Appendix note A3.3.22 of NFPA 101, the American National Standard for Accessible and Usable
Buildings and Facilities any floor in a building protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic
sprinkler system can be considered as an area of refuge. This recognition acknowledges the ability of a
properly designed and functioning automatic sprinkler system to control a fire at its point of origin and to limit
the production of toxic products to a level that is not life threatening.

If the building management confirm a false alarm, then the alarm can be cancelled by them at the main fire
alarm control panel (MFAP) located in the ECC Smoke control system to be reset;

Should any additional detector activate in the unit, alarm will sound for unit to evacuate. This will also
happen if the management investigation period expires;

Based on the above, areas of refuge within stairs will not be provided.

The in unit smoke control systems will activate

Adjacent evacuation zones will be put into an alert status;

If two means of smoke detection activate in the mall evacuation zone then the smoke control systems will
activate in the zone, including the opening of entrance doors for the supply of inlet air, as required.

Elevators will return to discharge level where the doors will open, unless a fire is detected at discharge
level in the evacuation zone in which the elevator is located, under this scenario the elevator will home to
the level above and the doors will open;

1.1.3.16

Exit Signage

Means of Egress shall be provided with signs in accordance with UFC Chapter 5. Exits other than main exterior
exits clearly identifiable as exits, shall be marked by an approved sign that is readily visible from any direction
of exit access.

1.1.3.17

1.1.4

Accessible Means of Egress

Evacuation Cause and Effect Strategy

The mall expansion is segregated into the following smoke zones which will coincide with the evacuation
strategy:

Each car park level (B1 to P11) considered an individual zone

Lower Ground Floor Food Court Zone

Plant shutdown will occur; and

Lower Ground Floor Mall Zone

Lower Ground Floor At The Top Zone

Activation of an additional detector in any mall zone/tenant unit or parking zone will result in simultaneous
evacuation of the entire mall and parking structure.

Mall Pedestrian Way (Boulevard to L03) Zone

Individual retail Units (Boulevard to L03) Zone

(b)
Sprinkler activation in a tenancy and mall: The fire alarm will broadcast an evacuation signal throughout the evacuation zone [mall and units
connected to the evacuation zone];

An alert signal will be sent to the ECC to alert building management that an incident has occurred;

A confirmed fire for the mall expansion and parking structure is defined as follows:-

Adjacent evacuation zones will be put into an alert status;

Mall Building

Mall smoke control systems will activate, including the opening of entrance doors for the supply of inlet air,
as required, unless a tenant unit fire has activated first.

Elevators will return to ground floor level where the doors will open, unless a fire is detected at ground floor
level in the evacuation zone in which the elevator is located, under this scenario the elevator will home to
the level above and the doors will open;

Plant shutdown will occur; and

Activation of an additional sprinkler zone in any mall zone/tenant unit or parking zone will result in
simultaneous evacuation of the entire mall and parking structure.

1.1.4.1 Confirmed Alarm

A confirmed fire in the mall building will be instigated by the following:

Activation of two smoke detection methods

Activation of a single detector without acknowledgement

Activation of a sprinkler

Activation of manual call point

Expiration of the management investigation period


(c)
Manual call point activation in a tenancy: The fire alarm will broadcast an evacuation signal throughout the unit;

Parking Structure
A confirmed fire in the parking structure will be instigated by the following:

Activation of a sprinkler

Activation of manual call point

Expiration of the management investigation period

An alert signal will be sent to the ECC to alert building management that an incident has occurred;

Adjacent evacuation zones will be put into an alert status;

The in unit smoke control systems will activate

Elevators will return to exit discharge level where the doors will open, unless a fire is detected at the
discharge level in the evacuation zone in which the elevator is located, under this scenario the elevator will
home to the level above and the doors will open;

Plant shutdown will occur; and

1.1.4.2 Detection Cause and Effect Logic


(a)

Smoke detector activation in a tenancy (addressable fire alarm panel):-

Project number: 37441950


Dated: 24/09/2013
Revised: 19/10/2013

12

Activation of an additional manual call point in any mall zone/tenant unit or parking zone will result in
simultaneous evacuation of the entire mall and parking structure.

(d)
Smoke detection activation in the mall: A supervisory signal will be sent to the ECC to alert the building management that an incident has
occurred. No alarm will sound in the evacuation zone;

A management investigation period of up to 3 minutes will be instigated;

Building management will respond to the incident by instigating a staff investigation;

If the building management confirm a false alarm, then the signal can be cancelled by them at the MFAP
located in the ECC;

Should any additional detector activate in the evacuation zone then the mall and all units connected to the
evacuation zone will evacuate. This will also happen if the management investigation period runs out;

Adjacent evacuation zones will be put into an alert status;

Smoke control systems will activate in the relevant zone, including the opening of entrance doors for the
supply of inlet air.

Elevators will return to exit discharge level where the doors will open, unless a fire is detected at exit
discharge level in the evacuation zone in which the elevator is located, under this scenario the elevator will
home to the level above and the doors will open;

Plant shutdown will occur

Activation of an additional smoke detector in another mall zone/tenant unit or parking zone will result in
simultaneous evacuation of the entire mall and parking structure.

(e)
Manual Alarm Call Point activation in the mall: The fire alarm will broadcast an evacuation signal throughout the evacuation zone, including the units and
mall area;

An alert signal will be sent to the ECC to warn the building management that an incident has occurred;

Adjacent evacuation zones will be put into an alert status;

Smoke control systems will activate in the relevant zone, including the opening of entrance doors for the
supply of inlet air.

Elevators will return to exit discharge level where the doors will open, unless a fire is detected at exit
discharge level in the evacuation zone in which the elevator is located, under this scenario the elevator will
home to the level above and the doors will open;

Plant shutdown will occur; and

Activation of an additional manual call point in any mall zone/tenant unit or parking zone will result in
simultaneous evacuation of the entire mall and parking structure.

1.1.4.3 Evacuation Matrix


The following is the proposed evacuation matrix based on confirmed alarm for a specific zone.

Project number: 37441950


Dated: 24/09/2013
Revised: 19/10/2013

13

LGF

At The Top

Zone 3

Zone 4

BV-L03

Mall Pedestrian Way

Zone 4

Zone 5

BV

BV Individual Units

Zone 5

Zone 6

GF

GF Individual Units

Zone 6

Zone 7

L01

L01 Individual Units

Zone 7

Zone 8

L02

L02Individual Units

Zone 8

Zone 9

L03

L03 Individual Units

Zone 9

Carpark Zone 1

P1

Carpark

Mall Carpark Zone 1

Carpark Zone 2

P2

Carpark

Mall Carpark Zone 2

Carpark Zone 3

P3

Carpark

Mall Carpark Zone 3

Carpark Zone 4

P4

Carpark

Mall Carpark Zone 4

Carpark Zone 5

P5

Carpark

Mall Carpark Zone 5

Carpark Zone 6

P6

Carpark

Mall Carpark Zone 6

Carpark Zone 7

P7

Carpark

Mall Carpark Zone 7

Carpark Zone 8

P8

Carpark

Mall Carpark Zone 8

Carpark Zone 9

P9

Carpark

Mall Carpark Zone 9

Carpark Zone 10

P10

Carpark

Mall Carpark Zone 10

Carpark Zone 11

P11

Carpark

Mall Carpark Zone 11

Existing Mall Zone 1

LGF

Adjacent Property

Existing Mall

Existing Mall Zone 2

BV-L02

Adjacent Property

Existing Mall

Metro Link

P7

Adjacent Property

Metro Link

O
O

O
O

O
O
O
O
O
O
O

O
O
O

O
O

O
O

14

Figure 10: Evacuation matrix based on confirmed fire, where X is a confirmed alarm and O denotes alert

Project number: 37441950


Dated: 24/09/2013
Revised: 19/10/2013

Metro Link

Zone 3

Existing Mall Zone 2

Existing Mall Zone 1

Carpark Zone 11

Carpark Zone 10

Zone 2

Carpark Zone 9

Mall

Carpark Zone 8

LGF

Carpark Zone 7

Carpark Zone 6

Zone 2

Carpark Zone 5

Zone 5
O

Carpark Zone 4

Zone 4
O

Carpark Zone 3

Zone 3
X

Carpark Zone 2

Zone 2
X

Carpark Zone 1

Zone 1
X

Zone 9

FAZ

Zone 1

Zone 8

Reference Name
Food Court

Zone 7

Floors Connected
LGF

Zone 6

Levels The Zone Connects


1

Zone of Confirmed Fire


Zone 1

X
X

1.1.5

pressure according to the hydraulic calculation to supply fire water demand of the system as detailed in section
6.1.4.3 above.

Fire Protection Systems

1.1.5.1 Fire Detection and Alarm

The fire pumps shall be of Centrifugal type and will be dedicated and reliable as described in NFPA 20. The fire
pumps shall be located in dedicated sprinkler protected rooms enclosed with 1 hour fire rated barriers.

A fire alarm system will be provided for the project which includes smoke detection and manual call points
throughout (UFC C8 1.1).

The fire pumps and their associated piping and electrical systems shall be in accordance with the UFC, NFPA
20, NFPA 70 and NFPA 72.

Heat detection will be provided in kitchens.

The design criteria for the fire pumps shall be as follows:

Activation of the mall pedestrian way smoke control system will be achieved by a combination of beam
detection and aspiration smoke detection system.
The area of the project classifies it as Category 5 with respect to alarm monitoring and notification. Civil
Defence provides a remote monitoring service (RMS) in which they are notified in the event of an alarm. This
will require a special Civil Defence Alarm Panel to be installed for the mall and dedicated panel for each
tenancy unit.

Common

Design Criteria/Parameters

Reference

Located in fire pump room

Shut off Head shall range from 101% to 140% of


Rated Head

NFPA 20: A.6.2

At 150% Rated Capacity, Head will range from a


Minimum 65% to a maximum of just below the
Rated Head

Elevator lobbies, hoist ways, and elevator machine rooms will be provided with smoke or heat detection to
initiate fire fighter elevator recall (UFC C8 28). Recall is to follow procedures of UFC Chapter 2 Section 15.

UAE Fire and Life Safety


Code of Practice

Fire pump room enclosing fire pump drivers shall be


protected with an automatic sprinkler system.

1.1.5.2 Fire Hydrants

1.1.5.5 Standpipe and Hose Reel System

Fire hydrants shall comply with the UFC requirements as outlined below.

A Class III Standpipe/Wet Riser System, installed in accordance with NFPA14, is required for the mall
expansion (UFC C9 4.9.1). The hose stations for the Class III system include a 65 mm hose landing valve and
25mm fire hose rack, which are to be located within exit stair shafts near the entrance to each storey and roof
areas or inside a 2-hour rated protected shaft. NFPA recommends that landing valves are provided at the midlanding inside the exit staircases.

The existing public fire hydrant provision has been determined to provide for the required coverage; however
some minor relocation is required.
Spacing between the public fire hydrants shall be maintained at a maximum of 120m after relocations have
been completed (UFC C2 5.2(i))

The hose stations will be required to be installed such that all portions of each floor level will be within 30
meters of a hose connection (UFC C9 4.9.2). Additional hose reels will be required to be provided by the tenant
in cases where the 30m coverage of the provided hose reels is exceeded due to the retail unit fit out.

Every part of the fire engine access road shall be within an unobstructed distance of 60m away from a fire
hydrant (UFC C2 6.4(iv)).

The Fire Hose Cabinets shall contain the following:


1.1.5.3 Fire Water Storage

2 (65mm ) landing valve / hose connection with 30m length of hose.

The fire water storage will be located at the lowest level (Basement) in a combined potable and fire water
storage tank. The design will be in accordance with NFPA 22 and will be constructed from RCC complete with
two (2) equal compartments and supplied with appropriate isolation facilities and segregation to allow periodic
cleaning and maintenance works. The suction connections shall be arranged as such that the minimum fire
water reserve shall always be available for use irrespective of the potable water demand.

1 (25mm ) with 30m length Hose Reel

Portable Fire Extinguishers 1x DCP and 1x CO2 types each with 4.5 kg capacity

A 2 (65mm ) landing valve / hose connection (standpipe) shall also be provided at full landing level
inside each exit stair enclosure for fire department use. A separate system riser, connected from the fire pump
manifold (with control/alarm check valve assembly) shall be provided to supply thewet standpipe system.

The following fire water supplies will be provided to serve all the fire fighting systems within the Dubai Mall
Expansion:
Building/Area

Fire Pump Capacity

Dubai Mall Expansion

1 set X 1,000 gpm

Minimum Storage Duration

Minimum Fire Water


Storage/Reserve

60 minutes

228m3 (60,000 Gallons)

The design criteria for the standpipe and hose reel system shall be as follows:
Type of Standpipe

Reference
NFPA 14

All areas

Class III
UFC C9 4.9.1

Note: Above figures are subject to Local Authority approval.

1.1.5.4 Fire Pumps


The fire pump room shall be located alongside the fire water storage at the lowest level (Basement 1) with
protected dedicated access from the fire engine access level (UFC C1 17.2.1). The fire pumps will be
dedicated to fire systems serving the demise of expansion areas.
The UFC requires one duty electric motor driven pump, one standby diesel engine driven pump and one
electric jockey pump to be provided as part of the pump set. Since venting of the diesel pump will be difficult
due to its location at Basement Level 1, it is proposed that the fire pump set comprise of one duty electric motor
driven pump, one standby electric motor driven pump and one electric jockey pump. The standby electric motor
driven pump shall be powered from the emergency generator power using fire resistant cables. This will need
to be to be approved in the official DCD submittal. The duty/standby pumps shall have minimum flow and

Project number: 37441950


Dated: 24/09/2013
Revised: 19/10/2013

15

Minimum Residual Pressure: 6.9 Bar (100 psi) Landing Valve

NFPA 14: 7.8.1

Minimum Flow rate: 500 gpm (1892 lpm) Remotest Standpipe

NFPA 14: 7.10.1.1.1

Where the static pressure at a hose connection exceeds 12.1 bar, an approved
pressure regulating device will be provided to limit static and residual pressures
at the outlet of the hose connection to 12.1 bar (175 psi)

NFPA 14: 7..2.3.1

For building protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system,


the system demand established by standpipe system shall be permitted to serve
the sprinkler system.

NFPA 14: 7.10.1.3.1

Rooms /
Refuse

1.1.5.6 Sprinkler Protection


All portions of the Mall expansion building are required to be provided with an automatic fire sprinkler system.
Per the UFC, where water suppression is not an appropriate suppression agent, such as electrical rooms,
alternative fire suppression systems will be proposed. The sprinkler system will be designed in accordance with
NFPA 13.

Group 1

79C

Sprinkler system zone control valve (AZCV) provision: On each zone (and each floor within zone)

NFPA 13: C8

Sprinkler system components will be rated for the maximum system working pressure to

NFPA 13: C6

which they are exposed but will not be rated at less than 12.1 bar for aboveground components

The sprinkler pipe network is to be designed and zoned such that the tenant supply can be maintained, tested,
and interrupted without interrupting the supply to the rest of the mall.
The main sprinkler system will be a wet pipe system wherein a dedicated sprinkler riser (with control/alarm
check valve assembly) will be provided to cover each individual fire zone in the building (ten zones in total). All
control valves and system risers will be supplied and connected from a common manifold within the fire pump
room. In addition, fire zones on all levels will be provided with an Automatic Zone Control Valve assembly
(AZCV) that comprises of a supervised control valve, water flow alarm switch, pressure gauges and test/drain
valve connection.

1.1.5.7 Mall Pedestrian Way Sprinkler Protection

The type of sprinklers to be used is as follows:

The roof skylight of the mall pedestrian way is not exempt from sprinkler protection per neither UFC nor NFPA.
However, sprinkler protection from the skylight has been omitted based on the following:

Undetermined sprinkler activation time and efficiency due to the height of the skylight,

Consistency with the existing mall fire strategy and design,

WSP in conjunction with the design team discussed with DCD adopting a performance based design
approach
Normal glass failure is expected between 150 and 200 degrees Celsius, of which computer model show a
maximum exposure of approximately 75 degrees Celsius due to smoke control exhausting hot gases

Concealed Pendent Sprinkler installed in areas where false ceiling is available (i.e. Mall front of house
areas, corridor, lobby, other light hazard occupancy areas).

Upright Sprinkler installed in areas where false ceiling is not available (i.e. car parks, storage and
mechanical plant rooms).

DCD have no objected to the approach based on pre-consultation meetings.

Sidewall Sprinkler installed in areas where piping across the ceiling is not desirable due to aesthetics or
building construction considerations (i.e. elevator shafts)
1.1.5.8 Manual Suppression

The sprinkler system including system valves/gauges should have access provision (i.e. removable / access
panels, doors, etc.) for operation, inspection, test and maintenance activities in accordance with NFPA 13:
8.1.2. The tenant is required to provide a visible sign indication the location of the unit sprinkler valve.

Hand held / portable fire extinguishers shall be provided throughout the Mall Expansion area in accordance
with UFC Chapter 4 and NFPA 10. Portable fire extinguishers, complete with monthly inspection tags, shall be
kept in a fully charged condition.

A pre-action sprinkler system will be provided to serve the lift machine rooms (UFC C9 Table 9.2). From the
fire pump system manifold, a separate connection will be provided to supply the pre-action sprinkler system

The types of fire extinguishers to be provided are as follows:

The design criteria for the sprinkler system shall be as follows:

Occupancy
Classification

Design
Density
(lpm/m2)

Area of
Operati
on (m2)

Max.
Sprinkler
Coverage

Sprinkler Types

Standards Reference

DCP and CO2 types, each with a capacity of 4.5 kg Installed in retail units, back of house areas, plant
rooms, light and ordinary hazard occupancy areas.

Wet chemical type, each with a capacity of 6.0 L - Installed in kitchen areas

The design criteria for the fire extinguishers shall be as follows:

(m2)

Common

Design Criteria/Parameters

Reference

Throughout all buildings

Occupancy Classification: Light, and Ordinary


Hazard Occupancy.

NFPA 10.6.2

Mall
Pedestrian
Way

Ordinary Hazard
Group 1

Entrance
Lobbies

Light Hazard

4.1

139

20.9

Pendent, Quick Response, 68C

Shop Units

Ordinary Hazard
Group 2

8.1

139

12.1

Pendent, Quick Response, 68C

Offices

Light Hazard

4.1

139

20.9

Pendent, Quick Response, 68C

1.1.5.9

Carpark /
Loading
Docks

Ordinary Hazard
Group 1

6.1

139

12.1

Upright, Standard Response,


79C

In areas where water based suppression is considered undesirable by the UFC due to potential of damage to
equipment, i.e. main electrical rooms and telecom rooms, a clean agent gas suppression system shall be
provided. The system shall be an engineered total flooding system; the design and installation shall be in
accordance with the UFC and NFPA 2001.

Server
Room

Ordinary Hazard
Group 1

6.1

139

12.1

Upright, Standard Response,


79C

Storage

Ordinary Hazard
Group 2

8.1

139

12.1

Upright / Pendent Standard


Response, 79C

Prayer
Rooms

Light Hazard

4.1

139

20.9

Pendent, Quick Response, 68C

Toilets

Light Hazard

4.1

139

20.9

Pendent, Quick Response, 68C

Plant / MEP

Ordinary Hazard

6.1

139

12.1

Upright, Standard Response,

6.1

139

12.1

Pendent, Quick Response, 68C

NFPA 13: C11


NFPA 13 C8
NFPA 13 C6
UFC C9

Common

Project number: 37441950


Dated: 24/09/2013
Revised: 19/10/2013

UFC C4 Table 4.3

Maximum travel distance to extinguisher: 75 Ft.


(22.5m)-criteria for Light, Ordinary and Extra
Hazard Occupancy

Clean Agent Gas Suppression System

All rooms with un-closable openings, louvers, etc. shall be provided with listed and approved fire dampers and
shutters to ensure the integrity of the system.

NFPA 13: C11


NFPA 13 C8

The rooms to be served by the clean agent fire suppression system have been identified as part of the fire
protection drawings and the system will be designed by a specialist contractor.

UFC C9

16

1.1.5.10 Foam-Water Suppression System

The proposed strategy is a performance based design approach that has been discussed with DCD and in
principle they have no objection to.

A foam-water suppression system shall be provided in generator rooms and where large quantities of diesel
fuel are to be stored. The system shall be designed in accordance with the UFC, NFPA 11, 11A, 15 and NFPA
16.
From the fire pump system manifold, a separate connection will be provided to supply the foam-water
suppression system. Dedicated control valves (Electric Actuation type) including foam equipment and
accessories (i.e. foam bladder tank, foam proportioner, etc.) shall be provided and shall be located within the
fire pump room.

1.1.6

Smoke Control

Various smoke control systems will be provided as required by the UAE Fire Code, Civil Defence
Requirements, and NFPA 101. A summary of the required systems is provided below:
Table 13: Smoke Control Requirements
Area

Smoke Control Requirement

Requirement Reference
3

Mall pedestrian way

Smoke control system at 176m /s

NFPA 101 C36/NFPA 92

Retail units Ground L02

Dedicated smoke control based on CFD


results 15m3/s

NFPA 101/NFPA 92

Lower Ground Food Court Zone

Smoke control system to mitigate spread into


adjacent zones - 21m3/s

NFPA 101 C36/NFPA 92

Lower Ground Floor Zone

Smoke control system to mitigate spread into


adjacent zones - 21m3/s

NFPA 101 C36/NFPA 92

Stairs

Pressurisation

UAE Fie Code C10

Basement Car Park

9 Air changes per hour

UAE Fire Code C10 Section 31

Corridors

Manual purge of 6 Air Changes Per Hour

UFC C10

9 Air Changes Per Hour

UFC C10

Basement storage, office, and workshops


MEP rooms >250m

At The Top Holding area and Tunnel

1.1.7

9 Air Changes Per Hour

UFC C10
3

Dedicated Smoke Control System 21m /s

UFC C10

Mall Building Smoke Control Strategy

The UFC provides specific requirements with respect to smoke control for large volume and atria which is not
specific to malls. However, NFPA 101 provides a comprehensive set of requirements for malls which includes
smoke control. Therefore, a strategy has been developed for the design of the mall smoke control in
accordance with NFPA 101 36.4.4 in addition to the minimum atrium requirements of the UFC. In addition, the
strategy is per the 19 September 2013 smoke control strategy presentation to Emaar.
The system will provide:

A mechanical smoke control system will be designed with the intent to maintain tenable conditions 1.83m
above the highest occupied floor served by the specific smoke control system.

Figure 11: Smoke layer interface height

Base exhaust rates calculated in accordance with the methodology of NFPA 92 and further developed by a
computer fire and smoke model analysis.

1.1.7.1 Mall Pedestrian Way Zone

Independence from the existing mall smoke control system.

The following smoke control strategy has been developed for the Mall Pedestrian Way Smoke Zone:

A single dedicated zone for the mall pedestrian way from Boulevard Level to Level 03.

Goal is to control smoke for fires from Boulevard Level to Level 03.

In order to mitigate smoke spill from any of the individual retail units into the mall, a dedicated smoke
3
control system will be provided for each unit at a rate of 15m /s. Smoke spill into the mall from these units
would increase mall smoke exhaust volumes by a factor of 3.

The preliminary smoke control design calculations per NPA 92 and further developed with the aid of a
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study. 10,000 kilowatt fire within the mall pedestrian way

Single smoke zone with extract distributed over 20 locations at high level calculated at 176m /s

The smoke control strategy for Level 3 is based on permitting spill into the main mall pedestrian way smoke
control system.

Project number: 37441950


Dated: 24/09/2013
Revised: 19/10/2013

17

Make-up air will be provided passively via exit doors (4 x 3400mm door openings at Boulevard Level and 4
x 1800mm wide doors at LGF Lakeside) operating upon alarm. The remaining make-up air requirements
will be provided from the connections to the interior of the adjacent mall.

Pass/fail criteria based on visibility and exposure to heat measured 1.83m above highest occupied level for
20 minutes.

(b)
F&B and Retail Units
The following smoke control strategy has been developed for the Lower Ground Floor (LGF) Smoke Zone:

Goal is to mitigate smoke spill into adjacent existing mall, food court zone, and upper levels of the mall
expansion.

The design fire for the mall circulation area (code compliant value of 5,000 kilowatts) accounts for unit
design fires. Smoke from individual units will be controlled by the LGF zone smoke control system.

Dedicated in-unit smoke control will not be required

Unit frontage smoke or fire barrier is not required.

Units will be separated from each other by 1 hour fire rating to prevent fire and smoke spread between
units. Partition to extend full height of the unit from finished floor to underside of ceiling slab).

LGF Zone to be considered a single smoke zone with an exhaust rate of 21m /s accounting for F&B units.

(c)
At The Top
3
The At The Top space will also have a dedicated smoke control system capable of exhausting 21m /s.

1.1.7.3 Retail Units Boulevard Level, Ground, Level 01, and Level 02
All retail and F&B units located on Boulevard to Level 2, regardless of size or use, will be required to be
provided with dedicated mechanical exhaust. Smoke control requirements for the different units, based on:

Figure 12: Mall atrium model showing exhaust points at high level.

1.1.7.2 Lower Ground Floor Smoke Control Zone

Kitchens will be provided with the Mall Regulations required 1 hour fire rated enclosure and therefore
dedicated unit smoke control is not required.

The design fire for the Food court to calculate the required exhaust (code compliant value of 5,000
kilowatts) accounts for F&B unit design fires. Smoke from individual units will be controlled by the Lower
Food Court zone smoke control system.

F&B unit frontage will not require smoke downstand or separation for smoke control due to opening
frontage area.

F&B Units will be separated from each other by 1 hour fire rating to prevent fire and smoke spread between
units. Partition to extend full height of the unit from finished floor to underside of ceiling slab).

The 5.5m clear height from floor to finished ceiling interface between the Food Court Smoke Zone, mall
expansion, and existing mall will be provided with downstands to create the Food Court Smoke Zone
reservoir which separates it from adjacent zones. A non-rated partition will also be provided within the
ceiling void to prevent spread to adjacent zones via the void.

Food court to be considered a single smoke zone with an exhaust rate of 21m /s, which accounts F&B
units.

Project number: 37441950


Dated: 24/09/2013
Revised: 19/10/2013

1,200kW sprinkler controlled fire as determined by a CFD model analysis.

Exhaust air per unit of 15m /s, where a single fan will serve multiple units and activates in unit of fire origin
only

60% make up air is provided mechanically, via leakage from frontage, and from the normal frontage door
openings (if provided)

If unit to mall interface frontage is designed to be open, the following criteria must be met:

(a)
Food Court Zone
The following smoke control strategy has been developed for the Food Court Smoke Zone:
Goal is to mitigate smoke spill into adjacent existing mall and mall expansion

NFPA 92 calculation methodology

The openness of the frontage is flexible and dependant of the design intent of the tenant. However, in order for
the dedicated retail unit smoke control to function as intended.

The Lower Ground Floor will be divided into 3 smoke control zones; Food Court Smoke Zone, Retail Smoke
Zone, and At The Top Smoke Control Zone.

Where the unit has a total height of more than 5m, the maximum opening permitted is a height of 4m. Such
maximum opening can be achieved implementing fixed or descending smoke downstand from the finished
ceiling level for the remainder of the frontage in excess of 4m.

Where the unit has a total height of 5m or less, a fixed or descending smoke downstand with a minimum
1m depth will be required.

The maximum allowable opening width is 18m.

The frontage section above the downstands will be provided by the tenant with a non-combustible
separation to the mall in order to restrict smoke spread from the ceiling void.

The above specifications will be incorporated into the tenant manual.

18

Figure 13: Section of retail units depicting frontage design criteria for units with floor to ceiling heights 5m or
greater

Figure 14: Section of retail units depicting frontage design criteria for units with floor to ceiling heights less than
5m

Figure 15: Indicative strategy for separation between retail and F&B units

Project number: 37441950


Dated: 24/09/2013
Revised: 19/10/2013

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The downstands can be permanent architectural features of the frontage such as glass, incorporated into the
door frame, solid construction or alternatively, downstands can be temporary. Temporary solutions include
smoke curtains that activate on fire alarm only and are normally retracted.

units), it is anticipated to be evacuated before the visibility limit decreases below 10m, travel distances are
compliant with code,

Figure 16: Options for temporary (smoke curtain) and permanent (fixed glass) smoke downstands.

1.1.8

Figure 17: Visibility distance at 900 seconds

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Analysis

The following is a summary of the inputs and results of the CFD analysis.
1.1.8.4 Connection to the Existing Mall
The mall expansion is being designed as a separate smoke zone from the existing mall. The CFD analysis has
shown that smoke spread between the existing mall and the expansion will be mitigated by the resulting
opposing airflows to smoke caused by activating the mall smoke exhaust system.

1.1.8.1 Objectives
The goal of the smoke management is to maintain safe conditions a minimum of 1.83m above the highest
unprotected opening for a period of 1.5 x egress time or 20 minutes (whichever is greater). Safe conditions will
be evaluated as a Pass/fail tenability criteria of maintaining a minimum 10m visibility and maximum 60 degrees
Celsius exposure to heat.

1.1.9

Car Park Smoke Control

The enclosed car park will be provided with a smoke purge system, independent from other building smoke
control, capable of exhausting a minimum of 9 air changes per hour. System is to operate automatically upon
fire alarm activation and have the capability of manual override (UFC 10 28.7.1.i/ii and UFC 10 31.1).

1.1.8.2 CFD Inputs

Building geometry

Existing mall adjacent partial geometry

10,000kW design fire size, located at Boulevard Level and one at Ground Level

1,200kW design fire sizes for tenant units

186m /s smoke exhaust vent distribution locations per MEP and architecture proposed design

1.1.10 Mall Kiosks

4 sets of 1700mm doors at Boulevard Level for passive make up air

Temporary or permanent kiosks will not be considered tenant spaces and will meet the following:

4 sets of 1800mm doors at Lower Ground (promenade) Level for passive make up air

2 sets of 1200mm doors at Lower Ground (promenade) Level for passive make up air

Constructed of fire-retardant-treated wood, code compliant light transmitting plastics, UL 1975 rated
foamed plastic with a maximum heat release rate of 100kW, metal composite materials, or NFPA 701
compliant textiles and films.

Equipped with suppression and fire detection systems.

Separated from other kiosks by a minimum 6100mm.

Maximum area of 27.8m .

The new car park portions will be provided with a new ducted system.
Existing car park sections that are being refurbished and currently equipped with a jet or impulse fan system
will be provided with an upgraded replace in kind impulse fan system.

1.1.8.3 Mall Zone Tenability


The results of the fire model demonstrated that tenable conditions within the mall pedestrian way are met. It
must be noted that toward the Boulevard side there were small areas where transient levels of visibility below
10m were experienced which was further sustained after 900 seconds. This decrease in visibility is considered
to meet the intent of the code since the area affects a small percentage of the mall (approximately 6 retail

Project number: 37441950


Dated: 24/09/2013
Revised: 19/10/2013

20

1.1.11 Stand-by Power Supplies


Emergency back-up power supplies will be provided in accordance with NFPA 110 for the followings systems:

Emergency egress lighting

Elevators(at least one in addition to fire fighting elevator)

Fire pump

Fire alarm system

Smoke control systems, inclusive of all equipment such as fan motors and motorized dampers.

1.1.12

Fire Fighting Provisions

1.1.12.1

Breeching Inlets

Breeching inlets shall be located on the external wall above ground level nearest to the vertical run of the
standpipe and should be visible and recognisable from the nearest point of fire department access.
The breeching inlets shall not be sited more than 18m away from the fire engine access road (UFC C2 4.1)
The breeching inlets shall be located not more than 100 ft (30.5 m) from the nearest fire hydrant connected to
an approved water supply. (NFPA 14 6.4.5.4)
2 sets of breeching inlets have been provided for the mall expansion. One set of breeching inlets is provided at
the Boulevard side at the Northeast corner of the building and the other set of inlets is provided at the
promenade side at the Southeast side of the building (UFC C9 4.19.2 and 4.19.3).

Figure 18 Fire Service Access Turning Provisions

The Figures above outline the turning provisions required for the fire vehicle access road around the Dubai
Expansion Mall. These shall be implemented for existing or potentially new roads in order for the fire vehicle to
have sufficient turning spaces in the event of a fire scenario.

Each set of breeching inlets will consist of two (2). four-way (4) type complete with listed non return/check
valves. One breeching inlet in each set will connect to the sprinkler / standpipe manifold (marked
SPRINKLER/STANDPIPE), with the other feeding into the fire water tank (marked FIRE TANK) (UFC C9
Figure 9.6 & NFPA 13 8.6.1.1)

1.1.12.3
1.1.12.2

Fire Department vehicular access roads are required to extend a certain distance around the perimeter of the
building so the necessary access required for Civil Defence is achievable by making use of the existing and
approved access paths. Any proposed changes to the access has been coordinated with DCD.

Site Access Features

Fire vehicle access roads shall be designed in accordance with UFC 2.


Each access road should be designed in accordance with the following:

For Midrise to Highrise buildings for mercantile occupancies exceeding the habitable height of 15 m, an
accessway shall be provided. Accessway shall be provided based on the gross floor area (including toilets,
stores, circulation areas, etc.) of the largest floor in the building as shown in UFC C2 13.6

Access Road Width

All fire vehicle access roads shall have a minimum unobstructed width between curbs of 6m.

For buildings with a gross area greater than 32,000m , the UAE fire code requires full perimeter access.
Therefore, the fire service access road will be designed such that it provides full perimeter access to the entire
building, inclusive of the existing and expansion portions of the mall.

Vertical Clearance

Access roads shall have an unobstructed vertical clearance of not less than 4.5m.

The service road adjacent to the office annex will form part of the full perimeter fire service access road which
will be linked to the promenade perimeter access. Figure 19 shows the proposed access route. The route will
be further developed as necessary based on the landscape architectural requirements.

Distance from building

Maximum 15m

Grade

The angle of approach and departure for any fire vehicle access road shall not exceed 10%

Dead End Distance

Dead-end fire vehicle access roads in excess of 45m in length shall be provided with turning provisions.

Turning Radius

The inner radius of a turning facility on the fire vehicle access road shall be minimum of 7m as illustrated in
Figure 18

Stationery Load

The fire vehicle access road shall be designed to sustain the stationary load of a 41-ton standard fire appliance
and 81 tons for a high reach appliance.

Project number: 37441950


Dated: 24/09/2013
Revised: 19/10/2013

Site Access Extent

21

Area connecting promenade access to


service road

Figure 19: Service road which will function as service access road with connection to the promenade

1.1.12.4

Figure 20: Sample fire fighting core arrangement

Emergency Command Centre

An Emergency Command Centre is provided within the existing mall and will be provided with communication
to a new command centre in the expansion. The mall expansion fire command centre will be located adjacent
to the fire fighting core (Stair 6) on the Boulevard Level and will be in accordance with UFC C2 15.7
2

A minimum area of 20m will be provided with no dimension measuring less than 2440mm.
The Emergency Command Centre shall include the following:

Fire alarm control panel

Voice alarm control

Smoke control switches.

Communication system to fire fighting lobby, elevator machine room, areas of refuge, and air-handling
control rooms.

Building plans with egress and fire protection strategies

Control for unlocking access control or electromagnetic locks

Emergency standby power indicators

1.1.12.5

Fire Fighting Core

The mall is classified as a high rise building in accordance with the UFC, therefore, a fighting core will be
required consisting of a fire fighting elevator and protected stair which are connected via a common fire fighting
lobby per UFC C2 15.1.
2

The fire fighting lobby shall have a clear floor area of not less than 5 m .

Project number: 37441950


Dated: 24/09/2013
Revised: 19/10/2013

The clear floor area should not exceed 20 m for spaces serving up to four lifts or 5 m per lift for spaces
serving more than four lifts per UFC C2 15.5. The core on the Boulevard end which contains Elevator SE-05
and Stair 06 will serve as the fire fighting core.

Service road to function as fire vehicle


access road

22

3
Appendix A - CFD Report
2

The UAE fire code limits smoke zones to a maximum plan area of 2600m2. However, it was discussed with
Dubai Civil Defence on a meeting held 7 July 2013 that the intent of the expansion was to follow the strategy of
the current mall in which zones depend on architecture and feasibility of smoke management. Civil Defence
had no objection to the proposed strategy.

Introduction

2.1

The proposed smoke control strategy discussed is summarised as follows:-

Scope

WSP UK have been appointed to provide computer modelling support to WSP Middle East on the Dubai Mall
Expansion project in Dubai, UAE. WSP UK have undertaken a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis
to support the WSP Fire Strategy and demonstrate adequate performance of the proposed smoke control
solution.
The project is an expansion to the existing Dubai Mall designed and built in accordance with NFPA 101, 2002
Edition for Performance Based Design. The Dubai Mall Expansion is designed in accordance with the existing
mall fire strategy with reference to NFPA 101 2012 edition and the UAE Fire & Life Safety Code of Practice
2011.

A single smoke control zone and smoke extract system will be provided to manage smoke from fires in
the mall pedestrian way (ie. Kiosk fires);

Dedicated smoke control for tenant units to mitigate spill into the mall;

Interface to the existing mall (Fashion Avenue Atrium) to mitigate smoke spread via opposed air flow to
smoke induced as a source for make up air when smoke control system activates;

Mechanical Smoke Extraction

High level smoke extraction is distributed evenly at roof level around the perimeter of the expansion zone
across 22 smoke exhaust points.
3

176 m /s at high level within the mall expansion smoke zone

15 m /s within tenant retail units.

Objectives

The objectives of the proposed CFD modelling study are:

Further develop the proposed NFPA 92 based smoke control strategy,

Demonstrate the required volumetric smoke exhaust rate to maintain tenable conditions at a minimum of
2m above the highest occupied floor (Level 3),

Demonstrate the performance of proposed in unit smoke extraction solution,

Determine the impact of smoke conditions to the existing mall at the interface locations.

2.3

3.1

As required by NFPA 101 Section 36.4.4.9, smoke control will be provided for the mall since it connects more
than 2 floors, the objective of the CFD analysis is to demonstrate the required volumetric exhaust rates
required to maintain tenability in the mall pedestrian way.

2.2

Smoke Control Strategy

8 m /s at each vent

Acceptance Criteria

The design is based on standard performance criteria for human tenability, the design is deemed acceptable
provided tenable conditions are maintained at least 1.83m (2.0m maintained for this analysis) above the
highest occupied level open to the mall for occupant escape. Tenability criteria for visibility distance and
temperature will be used to assess performance.
The following tenability criteria will be applied:

Temperatures no greater than 60C in occupied zone (due to vapour from sprinkler suppression systems)

Visibility distance no lower than 10m (based on reflective signage)

These values are common to IFEG, SFPE and British Standards and can be used to define the smoke layer
tenability limits for occupant escape. CFD results will assess the tenability criteria at 2m above each storey
level as an effective head height.

Figure 21 Smoke extract distribution at high level.

Radiation and smoke layer temperature will not be considered as due to the presence of a sprinkler system to
cool the smoke, the heat radiation is not considered as significant criteria when compared to the spread of cool,
visibility obscuring smoke as a predictor of untenable conditions within a zone.
Results will be presented as a visual timeline as well as graphed for the full simulation period of 20 minutes.

Project number: 37441950


Dated: 24/09/2013
Revised: 19/10/2013

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3.1.1 Inlet Air

4.1.1 Hydrodynamic Model

Replacement air is to be provided from exits to external air on the boulevard and lake side, and from the
adjacent existing Fashion Atrium mall. No mechanical supply air is to be specified. All replacement air is
supplied from below the smoke layer.

FDS solves numerically a form of the Navier-Stokes equations appropriate for low-speed, thermally-driven ow
with an emphasis on smoke and heat transport from res. The core algorithm is an explicit predictor-corrector
scheme that is second order accurate in space and time.

3.1.2 Mall Expansion Single Smoke Zone

4.1.2 Combustion Model


FDS uses a combustion model based on the mixture fraction concept. The mixture fraction is a conserved
scalar quantity that is dened as the fraction of gas at a given point in the ow eld that originates as fuel. The
reaction of fuel and oxygen is not necessarily instantaneous and complete, and there are several optional
schemes that are designed to predict the extent of combustion in under-ventilated spaces. The mass fractions
of all of the major reactants and products can be derived from the mixture fraction by means of state relations,
expressions arrived at by a combination of simplied analysis and measurement.

4.1.3 Radiation Model


Radiative heat transfer is included in the model via the solution of the radiation transport equation for a gray
gas. In a limited number of cases, a wide band model can be used in place of the gray gas model to provide a
better spectral accuracy. The radiation equation is solved using a technique similar to a nite volume method
for convective transport, thus the name given to it is the Finite Volume Method (FVM). Using approximately 100
discrete angles, the nite volume solver requires about 20 % of the total CPU time of a calculation, a modest
cost given the complexity of radiation heat transfer. Water droplets can absorb and scatter thermal radiation.
This is important in cases involving mist sprinklers, but also plays a role in all sprinkler cases. The absorption
and scattering coefcients are based on Mie theory. The scattering from the gaseous species and soot is not
included in the model.

Figure 22 Single smoke zone strategy

3.1.3 Unit Exhaust

4.1.4 Turbulence Model

All units in Ground Level, Level 01, and Level 02 will be provided with dedicated in unit smoke control.

Turbulence is treated by means of the Smagorinsky form of Large Eddy Simulation (LES).

3.1.4 Interface to Existing Mall

4.1.5 Verification & Validation Studies

The mall expansion smoke zone will be connected to the existing fashion avenue atrium by walkways. Smoke
spread from a fire in the mall expansion is mitigated during the mall expansion smoke control system activation
by mean of the induced airflow by the make-up air.

Two referenced documents are available from the NIST website which detail all relevant verification and
validation studies for FDS.
The latest version of the software has been used in this study, version 5.5.3.

3.2

Suppression

Retail units are equipped with sprinkler suppression. Sprinklers are designed to activate at a temperature of
0.5
68C with an RTI of 50(m/s) . Sprinklers will be in accordance with NFPA 13.

Modelling Methodology

4.1

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

The Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) is used for this modelling study. FDS is a Computational Fluid Dynamics
(CFD) model of re-driven uid ow. The model solves numerically a form of the Navier-Stokes equations
appropriate for low-speed, thermally-driven ow with an emphasis on smoke and heat transport from res. The
partial derivatives of the conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy are approximated as nite
differences, and the solution is updated in time on a three-dimensional, rectilinear grid. Thermal radiation is
computed using a nite volume technique on the same grid as the ow solver. Lagrangian particles are used to
simulate smoke movement, sprinkler discharge, and fuel sprays.

Project number: 37441950


Dated: 24/09/2013
Revised: 19/10/2013

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4.2

4.2.1 Computational Domain

FDS Model

Computational mesh is constructed of 17 synchronised meshes based on a minimum size of 0.25m x 0.25m x
0.25m with a total count of 7,186,046 cells.
All solutions are simulated until stable conditions are demonstrated, with a maximum simulation time of 1200 s.

4.3

Modelled Scenarios

Multiple fire scenarios have been investigated to ensure a robust analysis. The modelled scenarios are all
based on credible severe case design fires, accounting for the mall architecture, use, and UAE Fire Code
requirements.
The design fires to be tested within the mall pedestrian way will be a minimum 10 MW which allows for
flexibility of the use of the space, aligns with the strategy of the current mall, and encompasses the minimum
5MW design fire required by the UAE Fire code. Additional locations and fire sizes are tested as part of a
sensitivity analysis.
All fire scenarios based sprinkler controlled fire growth. The fire size simulated represents the peak steady
state fire size with sprinkler suppression; ie. a shielded, sustained fire. A fuel load based on a plastic / wood
mix is assumed with a 5% soot yield.

4.3.1 Mall Smoke Extraction Scenarios

Boulevard Level mall: Pedestrian way fire scenario for which smoke plume traverses all mall levels with
maximum height of rise for smoke plume

Ground Level: Kiosk fire which has the potential of spilling from under two bridges on different levels
within the mall (maximum smoke entrainment)

Third level: Food court area fire close to existing Fashion Atrium entrance

Core fire scenarios are summarised below:


Boulevard & mall level

st

1 floor level

Design
Scenarios

Fire location

2 floor level

rd

3 floor level

Figure 23 FDS model of Fashion Atrium and Mall expansion area.

Project number: 37441950


Dated: 24/09/2013
Revised: 19/10/2013

25

Extract
3
rate (m /s)

Extract design

Large kiosk Boulevard Level

10

176

High level mall extract


distributed over 22 vents

Large kiosk Mall Level (Ground


floor under bridge)

10

176

High level mall extract


distributed over 22 vents

Level 03 Food Court

1.5

176

High level mall extract


distributed over 22 vents

Table 14 Mall Fire Scenarios


nd

Fire size
(MW)

4.3.2 Retail Tenancy Smoke Extraction Scenarios

Design
Scenarios

Two scenarios are simulated to demonstrate the conditions within the mall from a fire within a retail unit served
2
by the mall. The retail units are modelled as approx. 530 m total floor are, with 4 extract points within the unit
distributed at ceiling level.

Mall 1

Based on the results of the mall fire scenarios, a fire in the boulevard entrance end of the mall represents the
worst case in terms of smoke logging at high level. Therefore retail unit locations simulated are all located in
this area.

Large kiosk
Boulevard Level

Fire size
(MW)

Extract rate
3
(m /s)

10

176

Mall 2

Large kiosk Mall


Level (Ground floor
under bridge)

10

176

Second floor level: demonstrates the performance of the proposed in unit smoke extract solution with no
reliance on smoke extraction within the mall space.

Fire location

Retail unit on Second Level

Fire size
(MW)
Sprinkler
controlled
peak HRR+
margin of
safety

Extract
3
rate (m /s)
15

Extract design

Mall 3

In Unit extract only

Food court fire (3rd


floor)

Retail 1

Retail unit on
Second Level

Mall Scenarios

Results demonstrate that no smoke spreads to the existing Fashion Atrium mall from fire scenarios within the
mall expansion. This is due to the high volumetric extract rate maintaining a high smoke layer and drawing
sufficient inlet air from the existing atrium to impede the ingress of smoke.
Conditions are tenable on levels Ground to Second for scenarios 1 3. Conditions are tenable on Third level
for scenarios 1 2 (as fire is located in only occupied area on Third floor in scenario 3)
Short regions of untenable smoke are observed in the mall expansion entrance area at the second floor level.
These regions are limited in extent and develop after 15 minutes of steady state fire development. The smoke
in these regions is not considered to affect safe means of escape from the second floor.
This is deemed acceptable based on the means of egress configuration and anticipated evacuation prior to
reaching untenable conditions.

5.2

Retail Unit Scenario

The intent of the in unit smoke extraction is to mitigate smoke spread into the mall and not to assess tenability
conditions within the retail unit as a function of the smoke control system activation.
When considering smoke from a retail unit fire spilling into the mall space, the mall extract system controls the
smoke and prevents the build up of untenable regions that may compromise escape.

Project number: 37441950


Dated: 24/09/2013
Revised: 19/10/2013

176

1.2 MW

Tenable visibility and temperature at


head height in all occupied mall regions
rd
except the food court on 3 floor.
No smoke spread to existing mall.

15 in unit

Some limited spillage of tenable smoke


from unit. No untenable smoke in mall.
No smoke spread to existing mall.

Table 16 Results summary

5.1

Sprinkler
controlled
peak HRR
@ 1.5MW

Table 15 Retail Fire Scenarios

Results

Tenable visibility and temperature at


st
head height on Ground and 1 levels.
Some small untenable regions observed
nd
near the entrance end on 2 level only.

No smoke spread to existing mall.

1.2 MW

Tenable visibility and temperature at


head height in occupied mall regions.

This is deemed acceptable based on the


means of egress configuration and
anticipated evacuation prior to reaching
untenable conditions.

The simulations are summarised below:


Design
Scenario

Results Summary

No smoke spread to existing mall.

To ensure a worst case scenario for a robust analysis, the retail unit scenario is modelled with a notional
maximum spill width. This is based on an 18m wide and 4m high shop front opening.

Fire location

26

5.3

Mall Scenario 1 10MW Boulevard Kiosk Fire

This scenario represents a worst case scenario in terms of smoke control within the mall. A sprinklered 10MW
kiosk fire located at Boulevard level ensures the highest height of rise within the smoke plume.
Existing Mall

Mall Expansion zone

Figure 24 Boulevard fire location


3

Based on 176 m /s of high level smoke extraction distributed across 22 smoke extract grilles at roof level; the
following is observed;

Tenable conditions can be maintained for escape on Ground, First and Second levels within the mall, as
well as the Third level food court area (although this does not exit via the mall).

No smoke spills into the exiting Fashion Atrium.

Figure 26 Visibility Distance at head height above the 2

nd

floor

5.3.1.1 Visibility Distance


Existing Mall
Existing Mall

Mall Expansion zone


Mall Expansion zone

rd

Figure 27 Visibility Distance at head height above the 3 floor (Food court level)

Figure 25 Visibility Distance section through interface between expansion and existing mall.

Project number: 37441950


Dated: 24/09/2013
Revised: 19/10/2013

27

5.3.1.2 Temperature Profile

5.4

Mall Scenario 2 10MW Mall Kiosk Fire

This scenario represents a worst case scenario in terms of smoke control within the mall. A sprinklered 10MW
kiosk fire located at First floor level underneath a mall bridge allows for the generation of multiple spill plumes,
increasing the overall air entrainment and thereby volume of smoke.

Figure 30 Mall level fire location


rd

Figure 28 Temperature profile at head height above the 3 floor (Food court level)

Based on 176 m /s of high level smoke extraction distributed across 22 smoke extract grilles at roof level; the
following is observed;

Temperatures are generally tenable throughout the mall due to the action of sprinklers to cool smoke outside of
the immediate plume region.

5.3.1.3 Velocity Profile


Existing Mall

Mall Expansion zone

Tenable conditions can be maintained for escape on Ground, First and Second levels within the mall, as
well as the Third level food court area (although this does not exit via the mall).

Some small regions in entrance area on Third floor are showing untenable conditions, however this is
isolated to a small region and will not affect means of escape in the area. This is related to the mall zone
shape in this region increasing in volume and the influence of deep beams at glass ceiling level.

No smoke spills into the exiting Fashion Atrium.

5.4.1.1 Visibility Distance


Existing Mall

Mall Expansion zone

Figure 29 Velocity Profile at Mall interface

The action of the extract fans draws sufficient volume of replacement air across all levels from the existing
fashion mall atrium to prevent the ingress of any smoke.

Project number: 37441950


Dated: 24/09/2013
Revised: 19/10/2013

Figure 31 Visibility Distance section through interface between expansion and existing mall.

28

5.4.1.2 Temperature Profile

Existing Mall

Mall Expansion zone

Figure 32 Visibility Distance at head height above the 2

nd

rd

floor

Figure 34 Temperature at head height above the 3 floor (Food court level)

Temperatures are generally tenable throughout the mall due to the action of sprinklers to cool smoke outside of
the immediate plume region.
Velocity Profile

Existing Mall

Mall Expansion zone

Figure 35 Velocity Profile at Mall interface

The action of the extract fans draws sufficient volume of replacement air across all levels from the existing
fashion mall atrium to prevent the ingress of any smoke.

rd

Figure 33 Visibility Distance at head height above the 3 floor (Food court level)

Project number: 37441950


Dated: 24/09/2013
Revised: 19/10/2013

29

5.5

Mall Scenario 3 1.5MW Third Floor Food Court Fire

This scenario demonstrates the impact of a sprinkler controlled fire size within food court, which is the only
occupied area open to the mall space at this level. An initial simulation determined a conservative fire size of
1.5 MW as suitable for this sprinkler controlled scenario.

Existing Mall

Mall Expansion zone

Figure 38 Visibility Distance at head height above the 2

nd

floor

Figure 36 Third floor caf fire adjacent to the fashion atrium interface
3

Based on 176 m /s of high level smoke extraction distributed across 22 smoke extract grilles at roof level; the
following is observed;

Tenable conditions can be maintained for escape on Ground, First and Second levels within the mall, the
only occupied area on the Third floor is the food court, which does become untenable.

No smoke spills into the exiting Fashion Atrium.

5.5.1.1 Visibility Distance


Existing Mall

Existing Mall

Mall Expansion zone

Mall Expansion zone

rd

Figure 39 Visibility Distance at head height above the 3 floor

Figure 37 Visibility Distance section through interface between expansion and existing mall.

Project number: 37441950


Dated: 24/09/2013
Revised: 19/10/2013

30

5.5.1.2 Temperature Profile

rd

Figure 40 Temperature at head height above the 3 floor (Food court level)

Temperatures are tenable throughout the mall due to the action of sprinklers to cool smoke outside of the
immediate plume region.

Velocity Profile

Figure 41 Velocity Profile at Mall interface

The action of the extract fans draws sufficient volume of replacement air across all levels from the existing
fashion mall atrium to prevent the ingress of any smoke.

Project number: 37441950


Dated: 24/09/2013
Revised: 19/10/2013

31

5.6

Retail Scenario 1 Unit spill with Smoke Extraction from Mall.

This scenario represents a worst case spill plume scenario from a unit served by the mall. The unit is modelled
with a frontage opening of 18m x 4m for its potential spill width. Its location on the Ground level ensures
maximum height of rise within the smoke plume to provide maximum entrainment to the plume.

Existing Mall

Based on 176 m /s of high level smoke extraction distributed across 22 smoke extract grilles at roof level; the
following is observed;

Tenable conditions can be maintained for escape on Ground, First and Second levels within the mall, as
well as the Third level food court area (although this does not exit via the mall).

No smoke spills into the exiting Fashion Atrium.

Mall Expansion zone

Visibility Distance

rd

Figure 43 Visibility Distance at head height above the 3 floor

Existing Mall
Figure 42 Visibility section through unit and mall

Mall Expansion zone

Figure 44 Visibility Distance at head height above the 2

Project number: 37441950


Dated: 24/09/2013
Revised: 19/10/2013

32

nd

floor

5.6.1.1 Temperature Profile

rd

Figure 45 Temperature at head height above the 3 floor (Food court level)

Temperatures are tenable throughout the mall due to the action of sprinklers to cool smoke outside of the
immediate plume region.
Velocity Profile
Existing Mall

Mall Expansion zone

Figure 46 Velocity Profile at Mall interface

The action of the extract fans draws sufficient volume of replacement air across all levels from the existing
fashion mall atrium to prevent the ingress of any smoke.

Project number: 37441950


Dated: 24/09/2013
Revised: 19/10/2013

33

WSP Middle East


P.O. Box 1924
Sharjah
United Arab Emirates
Tel: 00971 6 598 1777
Fax: 00971 6 598 1666
www.wspgroup.ae