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ARAMCO STANDARDS

SAUDI ARAMCO ENGINEERING STANDARDS


SAES-L-108

SELECTION OF VALVES

SAES-L-109

SELECTION OF FLANGES,STUD BOLTS AND GASKETS

SAES-L-110

LIMITATIONS ON PIPING JOINTS

SAES-L-150

PRESSURE TESTING OF PIPING SYSTEM

SAES-L-105

PIPING MATERIAL SPECTIFICATION

SAES-L-410

DESIGN OF PIPE LINES

SAES-L-350

CONSTRUCTION OF PLANT PIPING SYSTEM

SAES-W-011

WELDING REQUIREMENT FOR ON PLOT PIPING

SAES-W-012

WELDING REQUIREMENT FOR PIPE LINES

SAES-L-450

CONSTRUCTION OF OMLAND AND NEARSHORE PIPE LINES

SAES-A-004

GENERAL REQUIREMENT FOR PRESSURE TESTING

SAES-A-007

HYDROSTATIC TESTING FLUID AND LAYUP PROCEDURE

SAES-L-310

DESIGN OF PLANT PIPING

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Generally more expensive than ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals are used because of
desirable properties such as low weight (e.g. aluminium), higher conductivity (e.g. copper),
non-magnetic property or resistance to corrosion (e.g. zinc). Some non-ferrous materials are
also used in the iron and steel industries.

What are ferrous and nonferrous metals?


All ferrous metals are magnetic and give little resistance to corrosion. Non-Ferrous
Metals. These are metals which do not contain any iron. They are not magnetic and are
usually more resistant to corrosion than ferrous metals. Examples are aluminium,
copper, lead.
Is stainless steel considered a non ferrous metal?
Ferrous metals include mild steel, carbon steel, stainless steel, cast iron, and
wrought iron. These metals are primarily used for their tensile strength and durability,
especially mild steel which helps hold up the tallest skyscrapers and the longest bridges
in the world.
What type of metal is not magnetic?
Magnetic metals include iron, nickel, cobalt and most of their alloys. Some forms of
steel are magnetic, while others are not. Non magnetic metals include aluminium,
copper, lead, tin, titanium and zinc, and alloys such as brass and bronze. Precious
metals such as gold, silver and platinum are also not magnetic.
What does it mean when a metal is ferrous?
The term non-ferrous applies to a metal or alloy in which the major constituent is an
element other than iron. Thus, the definition non-ferrous excludes irons and steels.
Examples of non-ferrous systems include copper alloys, nickel alloys, aluminium alloys,
titanium alloys, magnesium alloys and refractory metals.

The differences between ferrous and


non-ferrous scrap metal
Its one of the most frequently asked questions we get in the
scrap industry: So whats the difference between ferrous and
non-ferrous materials, anyway? The answer is actually pretty
simple. What those differences mean when it comes to the
buying and selling of scrap material, however, takes a bit more
explaining.

The short answer


Ferrous metals and alloys contain iron; non-ferrous materials do not. If the
question happens to come up during a trivia night or your appearance on a game
show, youre pretty much covered. But its not so easy to tell when just looking at
a random piece of metal. Luckily, there are several other factors that differentiate
the two.

The characteristics of ferrous metals


Ferrous metals include mild steel, carbon steel, stainless steel, cast iron, and
wrought iron. These metals are primarily used for their tensile strength and
durability, especially mild steel which helps hold up the tallest skyscrapers and
the longest bridges in the world. You can also find ferrous metals in housing
construction, industrial containers, large-scale piping, automobiles, rails for
railroad and transportation, most of tools and hardware you use around the
house, and the knives you cook with at home.
Due to the high amounts of carbon used when creating them, most ferrous
metals and alloys are vulnerable to rust when exposed to the elements. While
this isnt true of wrought iron, which is so iron pure that it resists oxidization, or
stainless steel, which is protected thanks to its high chromium content, its a good
rule of thumb that if you see rust, its a ferrous metal.
Most ferrous metals also have magnetic properties, which makes them very
useful in the creation of large motors and electrical appliances. The reason you
can tack your childs artwork to the refrigerator with that magnet with the local
pizza places phone number on it? Ferrous metal.

Most importantly, ferrous metals make up the most recycled materials in the
world. In 2008 alone, 1.3 billion tons of steel were produced, and 500 million tons
of that was made from scrap materials. But well get to why thats important a
little later.

All

four specifications were produced to provide guidelines for design storage tanks; ho
API 650:

API-650 is a general specification for designing welded steel storage tank for
oil storage

Large size storage tank

Temperature: -40F to 500F

Pressure: up to 2.5 psig

API 620:

Design and Construction of large welded low pressure storage tank

Large size storage tank

Temperature: -325F to 250F

Pressure: up to 15 psig

API 12D:

API 12D is field fabricated tank of production liquids

Smaller in size compared to API 650/620

Temperature: Ambient

API 12F:

API 12F is shop fabricated tank of production liquids

Smaller in size compared to API 650/620

Temperature: Ambient

API 12F is intended to use for oilfield service mostly

The American Petroleum Industry (API) has established standards for the design,
fabrication and construction of welded steel storage tanks for storing oil. The most popular
tanks available on the market today are the 620 and 650 models, but which is right for you?
The answer depends on what you require out of the product.API 620 regulates the design
and manufacture of large steel low-pressure storage tanks, usually larger than 300 feet in
diameter. By contrast, API Standard 650 is typically used for carbon, stainless steel and
aluminium tanks located in terminals, refineries, pipelines and other process facilities. Both
have different pressure and temperature parameters as well. Your choice of model will
depend on you and/or your clients particular needs.

Actual Standards
If you require the complete API Standard 620, 10th Edition, February 2002, click here. For
the complete API Standard 650, 10th Edition, March 2007, click here.

API 620
The design configuration of API 620 requires that you have an elevated or flat bottom on
which to store it. The tank has a single, vertical, centered axis of revolution with a minimum
material thickness of 3/16 inch. Other attributes of API 620 include:

It is constructed from carbon steel, austenitic stainless steel and nickel alloys (low
temperature only).

A Welding Certification is stipulated by American Society of Mechanical Engineers


(ASME), Section 10.

There is a required inspection, no third party.

The inspection cost is the cost of the non-destructive inspection (NDE)

Benefits of API 620 are:


1.

It is used for products which have high internal pressure such as liquefied natural
gas (LNG) and cryogenic tanks.

2.

It can store contents at a higher pressure (maximum 15 pounds per square inch
(PSI) of gas or vapor storage) and lower temperature (-325 degrees F to 250 degrees F)
than API 650.

3.

It can store any liquid.

API 650

API 650 sets minimum requirements for the


design, material, construction, and testing for aboveground, open and closed-top, cylindrical
steel storage tanks in different capacities and sizes, roughly equating to the pressure of the
atmosphere (not greater than the weight of the roof plates). If additional requirements are
met, higher internal pressures are allowed. API 650 only covers tanks that support the
whole bottom evenly and tanks in non-refrigerated service that have a maximum design
temperature of 200 degrees F. It requires that you have a minimum material thickness of
3/16 inch. Other attributes of API 650 are:

It is constructed from carbon steel, austenitic duplex stainless steel, and aluminium

A Welding Certification is stipulated by American Society of Mechanical Engineers


(ASME), Section 10.

There is a required inspection, no third party.

The inspection cost is the cost of the NDE.

Benefits of API 650 include:

1.

It can store oil, gas, chemical, water and biofuel for some of the most common tanks
in the oil industry.

2.

It can store contents at a lower pressure (maximum of 2 PSI) but at much higher
temperature (-40 degrees F to 500 degrees F) than the standards of API 620.

3.

It can be any tank size.

Hopefully, this article provides some clarification for those of you in the metal fabrication
industry regarding the key differences between API Standards 620 and 650 for storage
tanks. To quickly summarize, API 620 can store contents at a lower temperature and higher
pressure whereas API 650 permits a lower amount of pressure at a higher temperature.
Given that, and knowing your specific pressure and temperature requirements, you can see
that choosing your standard carefully is critical. If you need help, contact the experts at
Swanton Welding today.

TUV's services
TUV India offers a wide range of services covering all aspects of inspection. Our services
include:

Vendor assessment and pre-qualification for project procurement

Engineering design review

Shop and site inspection involving stage and final inspection

Witnessing performance tests

Pre-shipment inspection

Qualification of welding procedures and welders

NDT personnel qualification

Certification of materials and welding consumables

Health assessment of the plant

Piping and machinery

Periodic inspection of lifting equipment

Process piping and inspection during plant turnaround

Assessment of corrosion and erosion of the