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  • 98 PART 1

Fundamental Prin c ipl es

In fluid statics , the governing equation is the hydrostatic equation:

dp = -gpdy

(1.52)

For a constant density medium, this integrates to

or

p + pgh Pt + pgh1

=

constant

= P2 + pgh 2

(1.54)

Such equations govern, among other things, the operation of a manometer, and also lead to Archimedes' principle that the buoyancy force on a body immersed in a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body.

1.16 PROBLEMS

  • 1.1 For most gases at standard or near standard conditions, the relationship among pressure, density, and temperature is given by the perfect gas equation of state: p = pRT, where R is the specific gas constant. For air at near standard conditions, R = 287 J/ (kg · K). (More details on the perfect gas equation of state are given in Chapter 7.) Using the above information, consider the following two cases:

    • a. At a given point on the wing of a Boeing 727, the pressure and temperature of the air are 1.9 x 10 4 N/m 2 and 203 K, respectively. Calculate th e density at thi s point.

    • b. At a point in the test section of a supersonic wind tunn e l, the pressure and dens ity of the air are 50.7 kPa and 0.63 kg/m 3 , re spec tiv ely. Calculate the temperature at this point.

  • 1.2 Starting with Equations (1.7), (1.8), and (1.11), derive in detail Equation s (1.15) , (1.16), and (1.17).

  • 1.3 Cons ider an infinitely thin flat plate of chord c at an angle of attack a in a s uperso nic flow. The pressures on the upper an d lower s urface s are different but con s tant over each s urface; that is, Pu (s) = Ct and p,(s) =

c2, where CJ and c2 are constants and c 2 > CJ. Ignoring the s hear

stress , calculate the loc atio n of the center

of pressure.

  • 1.4 Consider an infinitely thin flat plate with a 1 m chord at an angle of attack of 10° in a s upersonic flow. The press ure and s hear s tre ss distribution s on the upper and lower s urfaces are given by Pu = 4 x 104(x -

1) 2 +

5.4

x

104, Pt = 2 x

104(x -

1)2 + 1. 73 x

10 5 ,

i'u

=

288x- 0 · 2 , and

:1 = 73Ix- 0 · 2 , respectively, where xis the di s tance from the leading edge m meters and p and r are in newtons per square meter. Calculate the normal and axial forces, the lift and drag , moments about the leading

CHAPTER 1

Aerodynamics : Some Introductory Thoughts

edge, and moments about the quarter chord, all per unit span. Also,

1.s

1.6

calc ula te the location

of the center of pressure.

Consi der an airfoil at 12° angle of attack. The normal and axial force coeffi cie nts are 1.2 and 0.03, respectively. Calculate the lift and drag

 

coeffi cie nts.

C

onsider an NACA 2412 airfoil (the meaning of the number designations

fo r s ta ndard NACA airfoil shapes is discussed in Chapter 4). The fo llow ing is a tabulation of the lift, drag , and moment coefficients about the q uarter chord for this airfoil, as a function of angle of attack.

a (degrees)

c,

Cd

Cm,c / 4

- 2.0

0.05

0.006

- 0.042

0

0.25

0.006

- 0.040

2.0

0.44

0.006

- 0.038

  • 4.0 0.64

0.007

- 0.036

  • 6.0 0.85

0.0075

- 0.036

  • 8.0 -0.036

1.08

0.0092

10.0

1.26

0.0115

- 0.034

  • 12.0 1.43

0.0150

- 0.030

  • 14.0 1.56

0.0186

- 0.025

Fro m this table, plot on graph paper the variation of Xcp/ c as a function

ofa .

  • 1.7 The drag on the hull of a ship depends in part on the height of the water w av e s produced by the hull. The potential energy associated with these waves therefo re d ep e nd s on the acceleration of gravity g. Hence , we can state that the wave drag on th e hull is D

=

f(p 00 , V 00 , c , g) where c is a

le ngth scale associated with the hull , say, the maximum width of th e hull. De fine the drag coefficient as C O = D / q 00 c 2 . Also, define a si milarity

parameter called the Froude number, Fr= V / .Jgc. Using Buckingham's

pi theore m , prove that Co =

f (Fr).

  • 1.8 T he shock waves on a vehicle in supersonic flight cause a component of drag called s uperso nic wave drag D w. Define the wave-drag coefficient as C o ,w = D w/q 00 S, where Sis a s uitable refere nc e area for the body. In supersonic flight, th e flow is governed in part by its thermodynamic

 

pro perties, g iv e n

by the specific heats at cons tant pressure c P a nd at

c

ons tant volume Cv.

Define th e ratio cp/cv = y. Using Buckingham's

p

i theorem , s how that Co , w

= f(M 00 , y). Neglect the influ e nc e of friction.

1.9

C

onsider two different flow

s over geometrically similar airfoil s hape s, one

airfoil being twice the s ize of the other. The flow over the s maller airfoil has freestream properti es given by T 00 = 200 K, p 00 = 1.23 kg/m 3 , and

V 00

= 100 mis. The flow over the larger airfoil is described by

T 00 = 800 K, p 00 = 1.739 kg/m 3 , and V 00 = 200 mis. Assume that bothµ, and a are proportion al to T 1 1 2 Are the two flow s dynamically similar?

99

  • 100 PART

1

Fun d amental Principles

  • 1.10 Consider a Lear jet flying at a velocity of 250 mis at an altitude of 10 km , where the density and temperature are 0.414 kg/m 3 and 223 K, respectively. Consider also a one-fifth scale model of the Lear jet being tested in a wind tunnel in the laboratory. The pressure in the test section of the wind tunnel is 1 atm = 1.01 x 10 5 N/m 2 . Calculate the necessary velocity, temperature, and density of the airflow in the wind-tunnel test section such that the lift and drag coefficients are the s ame for the wind-tunnel model and the actual airplane in flight. Note: The relation among pressure, density, and temperature is given by the equation of state described in Problem 1. 1.

  • 1.11 AU-tube mercury manometer is used to measure the pressure at a point on the wing of a wind-tunnel model. One side of the manometer i s connected to the model, and the other side is open to the atmosphere. Atmo s pheric pressure and the density of liquid mercury are 1.01 x 10 5 N/m 2 and 1.36 x 10 4 kg/m 3 , respectively. When the displacement of the two columns of mercury is 20 cm, with the high column on the model side, what is the pressure on the wing?

  • 1.12 The German Zeppelins of World War I were dirigibles with the following typical characteri stic s : volume= 15 , 000 m 3 and maximum

diameter=

14.0 m. Consider a Zeppelin flying at a velocity of 30 mis at a standard altitude of 1000 m (look up the corresponding density in Appendix D). The Zeppelin is at a small angle of attack such that its lift coefficient is 0.05 (based on the maximum cross-sectional area). The Zeppelin is flying in straight-and-level flight with no acceleration. Calculate the total weight of the Zeppelin.

  • 1.13 Consider a circular cylinder in a hypersonic flow, with its axis perpendicular to the flow. Let <P be the angle measured between radii drawn to the leading edge (the stagnation point) and to any arbitrary point on the cylinder. The pressure coefficient distribution along the cylindrical

surface

is given by C P =

2 cos 2 <P for O ::: <P ::: 1r / 2 and 3n / 2 ::: ¢

::: 2n

and C P =

0 for 1r / 2 ::: ¢

::: 3n / 2 . Calculate the drag coefficient for the

cylinder, based on projected frontal area of the cylinder.

  • 1.14 Derive Archimedes' principle using a body of general shape.

  • 1.15 Consider a light, single-engine , propeller-driven airplane similar to a Ces sna Skylane. The airplane weight is 13000 N and the wing reference area is 16.533 m 2 . The drag coefficient of the airplane CD is a function of the lift coefficient CL for reasons that are given in Chapter 5; this function for the given airplane is Cv = 0.025 + 0.054Cz.

    • a. For steady, level flight at sea level, where the ambient atmospheric density is 1.225 kg/m 3, plot on a graph the variation of CL, CD, and the lift-to-drag ratio L / D with flight velocity ranging between 21 mis and 75 mis.

    • b. Make some observations about the variation of these quantities with velocity.

CHAPTER

1

A e rodyna mi c s : Some Introductory Th ou g ht s

1 .16 C onsider a flat plate at zero angle of attack in a hypersonic flow at Mach 10 at standard sea level conditions. At a point 0.5 m downstream from the

leading edge, the local shear stress at the wall

is 282 N/m 2 . The gas

·

temperature at the wall is equal to standard sea level temperature. At this point, calculate the velocity gradient at the wall normal to the wall.

1 . 17 Consider the Space Shuttle during its atmospheric entry at the end of a mission in space. At the altitude where the Shuttle has slowed to Mach 9,

the local heat transfer at a given point on the lower surface of the wing is

  • 0.03 MW/m 2 . Calculate the

normal temperature gradient in the air at thi s

p oint on the wall, assuming the gas temperature at the wall is equal to the

standard sea-level temperature. t. 18 T he purpose of this problem is to give you a feel for the magnitude of

R eynolds number appropriate to real airplanes in

actual flight.

a .

Consider

the DC-3 shown in Figure 1.1. The wing root chord length

( di stance from the front to the back of the wing where the wing joins

the fuselage) is 4.3 m. Con sider the

DC-3 flying at 320 kilometers per

hour at sea level. Calculate the Reynolds number for the flow over the wing root chord. (This is an important number, because as we will see later, it governs the skin-friction drag over that portion of the wing.)

  • b. Consider the F-22 shown in Figure 1.5, and also gracing the cover of this book. The chord length where the wing joins the center body is

    • 6.5 m. Consider the

airplane making a

high - speed pas s at a velocity of

396 mis at sea level (Mach 1.2). Calculate the Reynolds number at the

wing root.

  • 1.19 Fo r the design of their gliders in 1900 and 1901, the Wright brothers used the Lilienthal Table given in Figure 1 .65 for their aerodynamic data. Bas ed o n these data , they cho se a design angle of attack of 3 degrees, and made all their calculations of size, weight, etc., based on this design angle of attack. Why do you think they chose three degrees?

H int: F rom the table, calculate the ratio of lift to drag, UD, at 3 degrees angle of att ack, and compare this with the lift-to-drag ratio at other angle s of attack. You migh t want to review the design box at the end of Section 1.8, especially Figure 1. 36, for the importance of UD .

-=

101

  • 198 PART

    • 1 Fundamental Principles

The velocity p otential

<I>

is defined for irrotational flows only, s uc h that

(2. 154)

In cartes i a n coordinates

a<1>

u= -

ax

v =

a<1>

-

ay

a<1>

w= -

az

In

cy lindri cal coordi nates,

V,

a<1>

=-

ar

1

a<1>

Ve=--

r

ae

In

s pheri ca l coordi nates,

a<1>

V,=-

ar

Ve=

1

a<1>

-

r

-

ae

V<1>

1

a<1>

=---

rsin ()

act>

(2.156)

(2. 15 7)

(2. 15 8)

An irrotational fl ow is call e d a p o tenti a l fl ow.

A line of co n stant

<I>

is a n e quip ote nti a l

line.

Eq u ipotential li n es are pe rp en-

dicular to s treamline s (for two-dimen s io nal irrota ti o n a l flow s).

2.19

PROBLEMS

2.1

2.2

Con sid er a b o dy of arbitrary s

h a p e .

If

the press ure di s tribution o ve r the

s urface o f the bod y is co n stan t, pro ve th at the re s u ltant pressure

force on

t h e b ody is

zero.

[Reca ll th at thi s fact was u se d in Eq u ati on (2.77).

]

Co n s der an a irfoil in a wind tunne l ( i.e. , a wing that spans the e n tire te st

i

sec ti o n ). Prove th at th e lift p e r unit s pan ca n be o b tai ned from the pre ss ure

di s tribution s o n the top and bottom wall s of th e wi n d t unne l (i .e. , from the

press ure di s tributio n s o n th e walls a b ove and below th e airfoil).

2.3

2.4

2.5

2 .6

Cons id e r a ve loc ity

give n b y

u

=

ex/

(x

fie ld w h e re th e

x

a nd

y

2

+

y

2

)

a nd

u

=

ey / (x

2

co mp o n e nts of ve l ocity are

+

y2)

w h ere

e

is a constan t.

O btai n the eq uation s of the streamlin

es .

Co n s id er a ve locity fie ld where th e

g i ve n b y

u

=

cy / (x

2

+

y

2

)

and

v

=

x

a nd

y

i

compo n e nt s of veloc ty are

-e x / (x

2

+

y

2

),

where

c

is a co n stant.

Obtain the equat ion s of th e s tream lines .

Co n sider a ve loci t y fi e d where th e radial

l

a nd tangential componen ts of

i

vel oc ty are

V,

=

0 a nd

Ve

=

er ,

r espec ti ve ly, w h ere

c

is a

co n s a nt.

t

Ob ain the eq uation s of th e s treaml ines.

t

Con s id e r a ve loc ity field

g ive n by

u

=

ex

a nd

v

=

o f th e s treamlines.

wh e r e the

x

and

y

co mponents of velocity are

-ey,

where

c

is a co n s tant. Obtain th e eq u ations

CHAPTER

  • 2 Aerodynamics : Some Fundamental Princ iples a nd Equat io ns

  • 2.7 The ve l ocity field g i ve n in Probl e m 2.3 is call ed

source flow,

w hi ch will b e

dis cuss ed in Chapter 3. For sourc e fl ow, calculate:

  • a. The time rate of chan ge of the volume v olume .

of a fluid elemen t per unit

2. 8

b.

The vo rtic i ty.

Hin t:

It is simpler to co nve rt the velocity

an d dea l wi th a polar coo rdi n ate sys tem.

components to polar coordinates

Th e vel oci ty field given in Probl em

2.4

is called

vortex flow,

disc ussed i n C h apter 3. For vortex

flow, calculate:

which w ill be

a.

T h e time rate of c h a n ge of th e vo lume of a fl uid ele m e n t p e r unit

vo lume .

2.9

b.

T h e vo rticity.

Hi nt:

A gain, for co n venien ce u s e p olar c oordinates.

Is the flow fie ld given in Probl e m 2 .5 irrotati o nal ? P rove y

ou r answer.

  • 2.10 Co nsider a fl ow fie ld in polar coordi nates, where the stream function is give n as

,fr

=

,fr(r, ()) .

Startin g wi th th e concept of mass fl ow between

two s treamline s, d e ri ve Eq u ation s (2. 148a a nd

b) .

  • 2.11 Ass u min g the velocity field given in Problem 2.6 pertains to an inc o mpre ss ible flow, calc ulate the s tream function

and veloc i ty poten tial .

Us ng your results, s h ow that lin es of constant

i

<I>

are perpendicu ar t o lin es

l

of con sta n t

,fr .

  • 2.12 Co nsider a len gth o f pipe bent into a U-s h ape. T he in si d e di a me er of the

t

pi pe is

0 .5

m

. Air en ters o ne leg o f the pipe at a m e an velocity

of

100

mis

a nd ex i ts th e oth er leg at t he same

magnitu de of v eloci ty, but mo ving in

the oppos ite directio n . The press ure o f the flow at the inlet a nd ex it is the

2.1 3

2.14

am bien t pressure of the s urr~mn din gs. Calculate

the magnitude and

d irec ti o n of the force exerte

d

on the p i p e by the airflow.

The air density

is 1.23 k g/m

3

C

o n s ider the su b so nic compr

ess ibl e flow over the wavy w all treated

in

E xample 2. 1. D erive t h e eq uati o n for the ve locity potential fo r this flow

a fu n c tion of

x

and

y.

as

In

Ex ample 2. 1, the stateme nt is made that the streamline

d

is t a n ce above th e wall is straig h t. P

rove this stat ement.

an infinite

199

308

PART 2

Inviscid, Incompressible Flow

Elementary flows

(a)

Uniform flow:

(b)

Source flow:

(c)

Doublet flow:

(d)

Vortex flow:

<P =

V 00 x

=

V 00 r cose

1/f =

VooY = V 00 rsine

A </) = -lnr

2Jt

1/f =

A

21t e

A

V, =-

21tr

Ve=O

<P =

K Cose

21t _r_

K

1/f = - 21t

sine

-

r -

</J

=

-

r

21t e

1/f = -

r

2Jt

lnr

r

Ve =--

21tr

V, =0

(3.53)

(3.55)

(3.67)

(3.72)

(3.62)

(3 .88)

(3 .87)

(3.112)

(3.114)

(3.105)

Inviscid flow over a cylinder

(a)

Nonlifting (uniform flow and doublet)

1/f = (Voor

s ine)

(

1 -

;:)

where R = radius of cylinder=

K / 21t V 00

Surface

velocity:

v 00 = -2V 00 sine

Surface

press ure

coefficient:

C P

=

1 -

4 s in 2 e

(3.92)

(3.100)

(3.101)

(b)

Lifting (uniform flow+ doublet+ vortex)

1/f =

(V 00 r sine) (1 - R:) + r

_!::_ In ..

21t

c_

R

(3.118)

(continued)

CHAPTER 3

Fundamentals of Inviscid , Incompressible Flow

S u rface velocity:

Ve = -2V 00 sine -

r

--

21t R

D=O

(lift per unit s pan)

(3.125)

(3.140)

Kutta- J o ukowski theorem for a cl osed two-dimensional body of arbitrary shape, the lift per unit s pan is

L ' = Poo Voo f.

Source

p anel method

This is a numerical method for calculating the nonlifting flow over bodies of

arbitrary shape. Governing equations:

A. ·

:.

_.
2

n)

+ I: -

1

..

1-1

2Jt

(j ,'1 )

Ja

-( lnr;j) ds j + V 00 cos,B; = 0

j

an;

(i

= 1, 2,

...

, n)

(3.152)

3.22

P R OBLEMS

Note: All the following problems ass ume an invi sc id, incompressible stand ard sea level density and pressure are 1.23 kg/m 3 and 1.01 x respe ctive l y.

flow. Also , 10 5 N/m 2

,

3.1

3.2

3.3

For an irrotational flow, show that Bernoulli 's equation holds between any poi nts in the flow, not just along a s treamline.

Co ns ider a venturi with a throat-to-inlet area ratio of 0 .8, mounted on the sid e of an airplane fuselage. The airplane is in flight at standard sea level. If t he static pre ss ure at the throat is 1.006 x 10 5 N/m 2 , calculate the velo city of the airplane.

Co nsider a venturi with a small hole drilled in the s ide of the throat. This ho le is connected via a tube to a closed reservoir. The purpose of the ve n turi is to create a vacuum in the reservoir when the venturi is placed in an airstream. (The vac uum is defined as the pres s ure difference below the ou tside ambient pressure .) The venturi ha s a throat-to-inlet area ratio of 0. 85. Calculate the maximum vacuum obtainable in the reservoir when the ve nturi is placed in an airstream of 90 mis at standard sea level conditions.

  • 3.4 C o nsider a low -s peed open-circuit s ubsonic wind tunnel with an i nlet-to-throat area ratio of 12. The tunnel is turned on, and the pressure

309

  • 310 PART 2

Invisc id , Incompressible Flow

difference between the inlet (the settling chamber) and the test section is read as a height difference of 10 cm on a U-tube mercury manometer. (The density of liquid mercury is 1.36 x 10 4 kg/m 3 .) Calculate the velocity of the air in the test section.

  • 3.5 Assume that a Pi tot tube is inserted into the test-section flow of the wind tunnel in Problem 3.4. The tunnel test s ection is completely sealed from the outside ambient pre ss ure. Calculate the press ure mea s ured by the Pitot tube , assuming the static pressure at the tunnel inlet is atmospheric.

3 .6 A Pitot tube on an airplane flying at standard sea level read s 1.07 x

10 5 N/m 2 . What

is the velocity of the airplane?

3. 7 At a given point on the surface of the wing of the airplane in Probl em 3.6, the flow velocity is 130 mi s. Calculate the pressure coefficient at thi s point.

  • 3.8 Consider a uniform flow with velocity V 00 Show that this flow is a physically pos sible incompressible flow and that it is irrotational.

  • 3.9 Show that a source flow is a physically possible incompressible flow everywhere except at the origin. Also show that it is irrotational

  • 3 . 10

everywhere.

Prove that the velocity potential and the stream function for a uniform flow, Equations (3 .53) and (3.55), respectively , satisfy Laplace's equation.

  • 3.11 Prove that the velocity potential and the stream function for a source flow Equations (3.67) and (3.72), respectively, sa tisfy Laplace's equation.

'

  • 3.12 Consider the flow over a semi-infinite body as di scu sse d in Section 3.11. If V 00 i s the velocity of the uniform stream, and the stagnation point is 1 m upstream of the source: a . Draw the re s ulting se mi-infinite body to scale on graph paper.

    • b. Plot the pressure coefficient distribution over the body; that is , plot Cp versus distance along the centerline of the body.

  • 3.13 Derive Equation (3.81). Hint: Make use of the symmetry of the flow field shown in Figure 3.18; that is , start with the knowledge that the stagnation points must lie on the axis aligned with the direction of V 00

  • 3.14 Derive the velocity potential for a doublet; that is, derive Equation (3.88). Hint: The easiest method is to start with Equation (3.87) for the stream function and extract the velocity potential.

  • 3.15 Consider the nonlifting flow over a circular cylinder. Derive an expression for the pressure coefficient at an arbitrary point (r , 8) in this flow, and show that it reduces to Equation (3.101) on the s urface of the cylinder.

  • 3.16 Consider the nonlifting flow over a circular cylinder of a given radiu s, where V 00 =

6 mis. If Vis doubled, that is, V 00 =

of the streamlines change? Explain.

12 mis, does the s hape

  • 3.17 Consider the lifting flow over a circular cylinder of a given radiu s and with a given circulation. If V 00 is doubled, keeping the circulation the same, does the shape of the streamjjnes change? Explain .

CHAPTER 3

Fu ndamental s of Inviscid, Incompressible Flow

3 .1s The lift on a spinning circular cylinder in a freestream with a velocity of 30 mis and at standard sea level conditions is 6 Nim of span. Calculate the

circ ulation around the cylinder.

3.19 A ty pical World War I biplane fighter (such as the French SPAD shown in Figure 3.50) has a number of vertical interwing struts and diagonal brac ing wires. Assume for a given airplane that the total length for the

verti cal struts (summed together) is 7.5 m , and that the struts are

cylindrical with a diameter of 0.05 m. As s ume also that the total length of th e bracing wires is 24 m, with a cylindrical diameter of 0.0023 m. Calc ulate th e drag contributed by these struts and bracing wires when th e airp lane is flying at 192 km/h at standard sea level. Compare this c omponent of drag with the total zero-lift drag for the airplane, for which the to tal wing area is 21.4 m 2 and the zero-lift drag coefficient is 0.036.

3.20 The K utta-Joukowski theorem, Equation (3.140), was derived exactly for the case of the lifting cylinder. In Section 3.16 it is stated without proof that Equation (3.140) also applies in general to a two-dimensional body of arbitrary shape. Although this general result can be proven mathematically, it also can be accepted by making a physical argument as we ll. Make this physical argument by drawing a closed curve around the body where the closed curve is very far away from the body, so far away th at in perspective the body becomes a very small speck in the middle of

the doma in enclosed by the closed curve.

  • 3.21 Consider the streamlines over a circular cylinder as sketched at the right of Fi gure 3.26. Single out the first three streamline s flowing over the top of the cy linder.

Designate each streamline by its stream function, o/1, o/2, and

. T he first streamline wets the surface of the cylinder ; designate ,jf 1 = 0.

,jl

3

The streamline above that is \11 2 , and the next one above that is o/3· Ass ume the streamlines start out in the free stream equally spaced. Hence , the volume flow rates between the streamlines are the same. The streamline ,jJ 2 passes through the point (l.2R,7t/2) directly above the top of the cylinder. Calculate the location of the point directly above the top of the c ylinder through which the streamjjne ,jJ 3 flows. Comment on the sp ac ing between the streamlines directly above the top.

  • 3.22 Consider the flow field over a circular cylinder mounted perpendicular to th e fl ow in the test section of a low-speed subsonic wind tunnel. At standar d sea-level conditions, if the flow velocity at some region of the fl ow field exceeds about 400 km/h, compressibility begins to have an effe ct in that region. Calculate the velocity of the flow in the test section of the wind tunnel above which compressibility effects begin to become impo rtant, i.e., above which we can not accurately assume totally inco mpressible flow over the cylinder for the wind tunnel tests.

    • 3.23 Prove

that the flow field specified in Example 2 . 1 is not incompressible;

i. e., it is a compressible flow as stated without proof in Example 2.1.

311

  • 406 PART

    • 2 Inviscid, Incompressible Flow

T_he Kutta condition is an observation

th a t for a lifting airfoil of given s hape at a

give~ an~Je o~ a ttack , nature adop ts th at particular value

th~ ~1rfoil which results in the flow leaving smoothly at

of c irculation around

the trailing edge.

If

the

tr a~ l~ng-edg e _angle is finite, then the trailing edge is a s tagnation point.

If

the

trailing e??e 1s c usped , the_n the ve locities leaving the top and bottom surfaces

at the trrulmg edge are firute and equal in magnitude

case,

and direction.

In

either

y(TE)

=

0

(4. 10)

Thin airfoil theory is predicated on the replacement

of the airfoil by the mean

ca~ber line.

A vortex s heet is placed

a long the c hord line, and its

strength

~dJusted . such that,

in

conjunction

with

the uniform freestream, the camber

hne becom~ ~ a streamline of the flow while at the same time satisfying the

Kutta

cond1t:Ion.

The

stre n g th

of suc h

a

vortex

s heet is obtained

from

the

fundamental e quation of thin airfoil theory:

_I

2rr

(

J o

y(~)

x

-

d~

~

=

Voo

(a - dz)

dx

(4. 18)

Re s ults of thin airfoil th eory:

Symmetric airfoil

  • 1. 2rra.

c

1

=

Lift slope

  • 2. =

dc

  • 1 /

da

=

2rr.

  • 3. The center of pressure and the aerodynamic quarter-chord point.

center are both at the

4.

Cm, c/4

=

Cm , ac

=

0.

Cambered airfoil

1.

c,

=

2rr

[

a +

l

-

rr

11C

o

dz

-

dx

(coseo -

J

l )deo

2.

Lift slope

=

dc /da

1

=

2rr.

  • 3. aerodynamic center is at the qu arter-c hord point.

The

(4.57)

  • 4. The center of press ure varies with the lift coefficient.

c

HA PT EA

4

Incompressible Flow over Airfoil s

The vortex panel method is an important numerical technique for

the solution

of the i nvisc id , incompressible flow over bodies of arbitrary s hape , thickne ss,

and angl e of attack. For panels of constant strength ,

the governing equ a tion s

are

vCX)

cos

/3; -

I: - '

n

y ·

j =

I

2Jr

;;

oO··

j

~

on;

ds

j

=

o

(i

=

1

,2,

. ..

, n)

and

Y;

=

-Yi - I

whic h is o ne way of expressing th e Kutta co ndition for the panel s immediately

abov e a nd below the trailing edge.

4.17

PR OBLEMS

4.1

Cons ider th e data for the NACA 2412 airfoil given

in Figure 4.10 .

Calc ulate the lift and moment a bout the quarter

c hord (per unit spa n)

for this airfoil when the angle of attack is 4 ° and the fre estream is at

4.2

stan dard sea level condition s with a velocity of 15

mis.

The chord of the

airfo il is 0.6 m.

Co n sider an NACA 2412 airfoil

with a 2-m chord in an airstream with a

velo c ity of 50

mis

at stan dard sea level conditions.

is 1353 N , what is th e angle of attack ?

If

the lift per unit span

  • 4.3 Starting with the definition of circ ulation , derive Kelvin' s circulation theo rem , Equation (4 .1 1).

  • 4.4 Starting with Equation (4.35), derive Equation (4.36).

4.5

Co ns ider a

thin,

symmetric airfoil at 1.5° angle of attack. From the results

of thi n airfoil theory, calc ulate the lift coe fficient and the moment

coe fficie nt about the leading edge.

  • 4.6 Th e NACA 4412 airfoil has a mean camber line given by

4.7

4.8

U sing thin airfoil theory, calculate

(a ) aL=O

(b)

c1

when

a

=

3°

Fo r the airfoil given in Problem 4.6, calc ulate

a =

3° .

Cm