_{9}_{8} PART 1
Fundamental Prin c ipl es
In fluid statics , the governing equation is the hydrostatic equation:
dp = gpdy
_{(}_{1}_{.}_{5}_{2}_{)}
For a constant density medium, this integrates to
or
p + pgh Pt + pgh1
=
constant
= P2 + pgh 2
_{(}_{1}_{.}_{5}_{4}_{)}
Such equations govern, among other things, the operation of a manometer, and also lead to Archimedes' principle that the buoyancy force on a body immersed in a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body.
1.16 PROBLEMS
1.1 For most gases at standard or near standard conditions, the relationship among pressure, density, and temperature is given by the perfect gas equation of state: p = pRT, where R is the specific gas constant. For air at near standard conditions, R = 287 J/ (kg · K). (More details on the perfect gas equation of state are given in Chapter 7.) Using the above information, consider the following two cases:
a. At a given point on the wing of a Boeing 727, the pressure and temperature of the air are 1.9 x 10 ^{4} N/m ^{2} and 203 K, respectively. Calculate th e density at thi s point.
b. At a point in the test section of a supersonic wind tunn e l, the pressure and dens ity of the air are 50.7 kPa and 0.63 kg/m ^{3} , re spec tiv ely. Calculate the temperature at this point.
1.2 Starting with Equations (1.7), (1.8), and (1.11), derive in detail Equation s (1.15) , (1.16), and (1.17).
1.3 Cons ider an infinitely thin flat plate of chord c at an angle of attack a in a s uperso nic flow. The pressures on the upper an d lower s urface s are different but con s tant over each s urface; that is, Pu _{(}_{s}_{)} = _{C}_{t} and p,(s) =
c2, where CJ and c2 are constants and c _{2} > CJ. Ignoring the s hear
stress , calculate the loc atio n of the center
of pressure.
1.4 Consider an infinitely thin flat plate with a 1 m chord at an angle of attack of 10° in a s upersonic flow. The press ure and s hear s tre ss distribution s on the upper and lower s urfaces are given by Pu = 4 x _{1}_{0}_{4}_{(}_{x} _{}
1) ^{2} _{+}
5.4
x
104, Pt = 2 x
104(x 
1)2 + 1. 73 x
10 ^{5} ,
i'u
=
288x ^{0} _{·} ^{2} _{,} and
:1 = 73Ix ^{0} · ^{2} , respectively, where xis the di s tance from the leading edge m meters and p and r are in newtons per square meter. Calculate the normal and axial forces, the lift and drag , moments about the leading
CHAPTER 1
Aerodynamics : Some Introductory Thoughts
edge, and moments about the quarter chord, all per unit span. Also,
1.s
1.6
calc ula te the location
of the center of pressure.
Consi der an airfoil at 12° angle of attack. The normal and axial force coeffi cie nts are 1.2 and 0.03, respectively. Calculate the lift and drag
coeffi cie nts. 

C 
onsider an NACA 2412 airfoil (the meaning of the number designations 
fo r s ta ndard NACA airfoil shapes is discussed in Chapter 4). The fo llow ing is a tabulation of the lift, drag , and moment coefficients about the q uarter chord for this airfoil, as a function of angle of attack.
a (degrees) 
c, 
_{C}_{d} 
_{C}_{m}_{,}_{c} _{/} _{4} 
 2.0 
0.05 
0.006 
 0.042 
_{0} 
_{0}_{.}_{2}_{5} 
_{0}_{.}_{0}_{0}_{6} 
 0.040 
_{2}_{.}_{0} 
0.44 
0.006 
 0.038 

_{0}_{.}_{0}_{0}_{7} 
 0.036 


0.0075 
 0.036 

1.08 0.0092 

10.0 
1.26 
0.0115 
 0.034 

0.0150 
 0.030 


0.0186 
 0.025 
Fro m this table, plot on graph paper the variation of Xcp/ c as a function
ofa .
1.7 The drag on the hull of a ship depends in part on the height of the water w av e s produced by the hull. The potential energy associated with these waves therefo re d ep e nd s on the acceleration of gravity g. Hence , we can state that the wave drag on th e hull is D
=
f(p _{0}_{0} , V _{0}_{0} , c , g) where c is a
le ngth scale associated with the hull , say, the maximum width of th e hull. De fine the drag coefficient as C _{O} = D / q _{0}_{0} c ^{2} . Also, define a si milarity
parameter called the Froude number, Fr= V / .Jgc. Using Buckingham's
pi theore m , prove that Co =
f (Fr).
1.8 T he shock waves on a vehicle in supersonic flight cause a component of drag called s uperso nic wave drag D w. Define the wavedrag coefficient as C o ,w = D w/q _{0}_{0} S, where Sis a s uitable refere nc e area for the body. In supersonic flight, th e flow is governed in part by its thermodynamic
pro perties, g iv e n by the specific heats at cons tant pressure _{c} _{P} a nd at 

c 
ons tant volume Cv. Define th e ratio cp/cv = y. Using Buckingham's 

p 
i theorem , s how that Co , w = f(M _{0}_{0} , y). Neglect the influ e nc e of friction. 

1.9 
C 
onsider two different flow s over geometrically similar airfoil s hape s, one 
airfoil being twice the s ize of the other. The flow over the s maller airfoil has freestream properti es given by T _{0}_{0} = 200 K, _{p} _{0}_{0} = 1.23 kg/m ^{3} _{,} and
V _{0}_{0}
= 100 mis. The flow over the larger airfoil is described by
T _{0}_{0} = 800 K, p _{0}_{0} = 1.739 kg/m ^{3} , and V _{0}_{0} = 200 mis. Assume that bothµ, and a are proportion al to T ^{1} 1 ^{2} _{•} Are the two flow s dynamically similar?
99
_{1}_{0}_{0} PART
1
Fun d amental Principles
1.10 Consider a Lear jet flying at a velocity of 250 mis at an altitude of 10 km , where the density and temperature are 0.414 kg/m ^{3} and 223 _{K}_{,} respectively. Consider also a onefifth scale model of the Lear jet being tested in a wind tunnel in the laboratory. The pressure in the test section of the wind tunnel is 1 atm = 1.01 x 10 ^{5} N/m ^{2} . Calculate the necessary velocity, temperature, and density of the airflow in the windtunnel test section such that the lift and drag coefficients are the s ame for the windtunnel model and the actual airplane in flight. Note: The relation among pressure, density, and temperature is given by the equation of state described in Problem 1. 1.
1.11 AUtube mercury manometer is used to measure the pressure at a point on the wing of a windtunnel model. One side of the manometer i s connected to the model, and the other side is open to the atmosphere. Atmo s pheric pressure and the density of liquid mercury are 1.01 x 10 ^{5} N/m ^{2} and 1.36 x 10 ^{4} kg/m ^{3} , respectively. When the displacement of the two columns of mercury is 20 cm, with the high column on the model side, what is the pressure on the wing?
1.12 The German Zeppelins of World War I were dirigibles with the following typical characteri stic s : volume= 15 , 000 m ^{3} and maximum
diameter=
14.0 m. Consider a Zeppelin flying at a velocity of 30 mis at a standard altitude of 1000 m (look up the corresponding density in Appendix D). The Zeppelin is at a small angle of attack such that its lift coefficient is 0.05 (based on the maximum crosssectional area). The Zeppelin is flying in straightandlevel flight with no acceleration. Calculate the total weight of the Zeppelin.
1.13 Consider a circular cylinder in a hypersonic flow, with its axis perpendicular to the flow. Let <P be the angle measured between radii drawn to the leading edge (the stagnation point) and to any arbitrary point on the cylinder. The pressure coefficient distribution along the cylindrical
surface is given by C P = 
2 cos ^{2} <P for O ::: <P ::: 1r / 2 and 3n / 2 ::: ¢ 
::: 2n 

and C P = 
0 for 1r / 2 ::: ¢ 
::: 3n / 2 . Calculate the drag coefficient for the 
cylinder, based on projected frontal area of the cylinder.
1.14 Derive Archimedes' principle using a body of general shape.
1.15 Consider a light, singleengine , propellerdriven airplane similar to a Ces sna Skylane. The airplane weight is 13000 N and the wing reference area is 16.533 m ^{2} . The drag coefficient of the airplane CD is a function of the lift coefficient CL for reasons that are given in Chapter 5; this function for the given airplane is Cv = 0.025 + 0.054Cz.
a. For steady, level flight at sea level, where the ambient atmospheric density is 1.225 kg/m 3, plot on a graph the variation of CL, CD, and the lifttodrag ratio L / D with flight velocity ranging between 21 mis and 75 mis.
b. Make some observations about the variation of these quantities with velocity.
CHAPTER
1
A e rodyna mi c s : Some Introductory Th ou g ht s
1 .16 C onsider a flat plate at zero angle of attack in a hypersonic flow at Mach 10 at standard sea level conditions. At a point 0.5 m downstream from the
leading edge, the local shear stress at the wall
is 282 N/m ^{2} . The gas
·
temperature at the wall is equal to standard sea level temperature. At this point, calculate the velocity gradient at the wall normal to the wall.
1 . 17 Consider the Space Shuttle during its atmospheric entry at the end of a mission in space. At the altitude where the Shuttle has slowed to Mach 9,
the local heat transfer at a given point on the lower surface of the wing is
0.03 MW/m ^{2} _{.} Calculate the
normal temperature gradient in the air at thi s
p oint on the wall, assuming the gas temperature at the wall is equal to the
standard sealevel temperature. t. 18 T he purpose of this problem is to give you a feel for the magnitude of
R eynolds number appropriate to real airplanes in
actual flight.
a .
Consider
the DC3 shown in Figure 1.1. The wing root chord length
( di stance from the front to the back of the wing where the wing joins
the fuselage) is 4.3 m. Con sider the
DC3 flying at 320 kilometers per
hour at sea level. Calculate the Reynolds number for the flow over the wing root chord. (This is an important number, because as we will see later, it governs the skinfriction drag over that portion of the wing.)
b. Consider the F22 shown in Figure 1.5, and also gracing the cover of this book. The chord length where the wing joins the center body is
6.5 m. Consider the
airplane making a
high  speed pas s at a velocity of
396 mis at sea level (Mach 1.2). Calculate the Reynolds number at the
wing root.
1.19 Fo r the design of their gliders in 1900 and 1901, the Wright brothers used the Lilienthal Table given in Figure 1 .65 for their aerodynamic data. Bas ed o n these data , they cho se a design angle of attack of 3 degrees, and made all their calculations of size, weight, etc., based on this design angle of attack. Why do you think they chose three degrees?
H int: F rom the table, calculate the ratio of lift to drag, UD, at 3 degrees angle of att ack, and compare this with the lifttodrag ratio at other angle s of attack. You migh t want to review the design box at the end of Section 1.8, especially Figure 1. 36, for the importance of UD .
101
198 PART
1 Fundamental Principles
The velocity p otential
<I>
is defined for irrotational flows only, s uc h that
(2. 154)
In cartes i a n coordinates
a<1>
u= 
v =
a<1>

ay
a<1>
w= 
In
cy lindri cal coordi nates,
V,
a<1>
=
1
a<1>
Ve=
r
ae
In
s pheri ca l coordi nates,
a<1>
V,=
Ve=
1
a<1>

r

ae
V<1>
1
a<1>
=
rsin ()
act>
(2.156)
(2. 15 7)
(2. 15 8)
An irrotational fl ow is call e d a p o tenti a l fl ow.
_{A} _{l}_{i}_{n}_{e} of co n stant
<I>
is a n e quip ote nti a l
line.
Eq u ipotential li n es are pe _{r}_{p} _{e}_{n}_{}
dicular to s treamline s (for twodimen s io nal irrota ti o n a l flow s).
2.19
PROBLEMS
2.1
2.2
Con sid er a b o dy of arbitrary s
h a p e .
If
the press ure di s tribution o ve r the
s urface o f the bod y is co n stan t, pro ve th at the re s u ltant pressure
force on
t h e b ody is
zero.
[Reca ll th at thi s fact was u se d in Eq u ati on (2.77).
]
Co n s der an a irfoil in a wind tunne l ( i.e. , a wing _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{s}_{p}_{a}_{n}_{s} the e n tire te st
i
sec ti o n ). Prove th at th e lift p e r unit s pan ca n be o b tai ned from the pre ss ure
di s tribution s o n the top and bottom wall s of th e wi n d t unne l (i .e. , from the
press ure di s tributio n s o n th e walls a b ove and below th e airfoil).
2.3
2.4
2.5
2 .6
Cons id e r a ve loc ity
give n b y
u
=
ex/
(x
fie ld w h e re th e
x
a nd
y
2
y
2
)
a nd
u
=
ey / (x
2
co mp o n e nts of ve l ocity are
y2)
w h ere
e
is a constan t.
O btai n the eq uation s of the streamlin
es .
Co n s id er a _{v}_{e} _{l}_{o}_{c}_{i}_{t}_{y} fie ld where th e
g i ve n b y
u
=
cy / (x
2
y
2
)
and
v
=
x
a nd
y
i
compo n e nt s of veloc ty are
e x / (x
2
y
2
),
where
c
is a co n stant.
Obtain the equat ion s of th e s tream lines .
Co n sider a ve loci t y fi e d where th e radial
l
a nd tangential componen ts of
i
vel oc ty are
V,
0 a nd
Ve
er ,
r espec ti ve ly, w h ere
c
is a
co n s a nt.
t
Ob ain the eq uation s of th e s treaml ines.
t
Con s id e r a ve loc ity field
g ive n by
u
=
ex
a nd
v
=
o f th e s treamlines.
wh e r e the
x
and
y
co mponents of velocity are
ey,
where
c
is a co n s _{t}_{a}_{n}_{t}_{.} _{O}_{b}_{t}_{a}_{i}_{n} th e eq u ations
CHAPTER
2 Aerodynamics : Some Fundamental Princ iples a nd Equat io ns
2.7 The ve l ocity field g i ve n in Probl e m 2.3 is call ed
source flow,
w hi ch will b e
_{d}_{i}_{s} _{c}_{u}_{s}_{s} ed in Chapter 3. For sourc e fl ow, calculate:
a. The time rate of chan ge of the volume v olume .
of a fluid elemen t per unit
2. 8
b.
The _{v}_{o} _{r}_{t}_{i}_{c} i ty.
Hin t:
It is simpler to co nve rt the velocity
an d dea l wi th a polar coo rdi n ate _{s}_{y}_{s} _{t}_{e}_{m}_{.}
components to polar coordinates
Th e vel oci ty field given in Probl em
2.4
is called
vortex flow,
_{d}_{i}_{s}_{c} _{u}_{s}_{s}_{e}_{d} _{i} _{n} _{C} _{h} apter 3. For vortex
flow, calculate:
which w ill be
a.
T h e time rate of c h a n ge of th e vo lume of a fl uid ele m e n t p e r unit
vo lume .
2.9
b.
T h e vo rticity.
Hi nt:
A gain, for co n venien ce u s e p olar c oordinates.
Is _{t}_{h}_{e} _{f}_{l}_{o}_{w} _{f}_{i}_{e} ld given in Probl _{e} _{m} _{2} _{.}_{5} _{i}_{r}_{r}_{o}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{i} _{o} _{n}_{a}_{l} _{?} _{P} _{r}_{o}_{v}_{e} _{y}
ou r answer.
2.10 Co nsider a fl _{o}_{w} _{f}_{i}_{e} ld in polar coordi nates, where the stream function is give n as
,fr
=
,fr(r, ()) .
Startin g wi th th e concept of mass fl ow between
two s treamline s, d e ri ve Eq u ation s (2. 148a a nd
b) .
2.11 Ass u min g the velocity field given in Problem 2.6 pertains to an inc o mpre ss _{i}_{b}_{l}_{e} _{f}_{l}_{o}_{w}_{,} calc _{u}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{s} _{t}_{r}_{e}_{a}_{m} _{f}_{u}_{n}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}
and veloc i _{t}_{y} _{p}_{o}_{t}_{e}_{n} tial .
Us ng your results, s h ow that lin es of constant
i
<I>
are perpendicu ar _{t} _{o} _{l}_{i}_{n} _{e}_{s}
l
of con sta n t
,fr .
2.12 _{C}_{o} _{n}_{s}_{i}_{d}_{e}_{r} a len gth o f pipe bent into a Us h ape. T he in si d e di a me er of the
t
pi pe is
0 .5
m
. Air en ters o _{n}_{e} _{l}_{e}_{g} _{o} _{f} the pipe at a m e an velocity
of
100
mis
a nd ex i ts th e oth er leg at t he same
magnitu de of v eloci ty, but mo ving in
the oppos ite directio n . The press ure o f the flow at the inlet a nd ex it is the
2.1 3
2.14
am bien t pressure of _{t}_{h}_{e} _{s} _{u}_{r}_{r}_{~}_{m}_{n} _{d}_{i}_{n} gs. Calculate
the magnitude and
d irec ti o n of the force exerte
d
on the p i _{p} _{e} _{b}_{y} the airflow.
The _{a}_{i}_{r} _{d}_{e}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{y}
_{i}_{s} _{1}_{.}_{2}_{3} _{k} g/m
^{3} •
C
o n s ider the su b _{s}_{o} _{n}_{i}_{c} compr
ess ibl e flow over the wavy w _{a}_{l}_{l} _{t}_{r}_{e}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{d}
in
E xample 2. 1. D erive t h e eq uati o n for _{t}_{h}_{e} _{v}_{e} _{l}_{o}_{c}_{i}_{t}_{y} potential fo r this flow
_{a} _{f}_{u} _{n} _{c} _{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} of
x
and
y.
as
In
Ex ample 2. 1, the stateme nt is made that the streamline
d
is t a n ce above _{t}_{h} _{e} _{w}_{a}_{l}_{l} _{i}_{s} straig h t. P
rove this stat ement.
an infinite
199
_{3}_{0}_{8}
PART 2
Inviscid, Incompressible Flow
Elementary flows
(a)
Uniform flow:
(b)
Source flow:
(c)
Doublet flow:
(d)
Vortex flow:
<P =
V _{0}_{0} x
=
V _{0}_{0} r cose
1/f =
VooY = V _{0}_{0} rsine
A </) = lnr
2Jt
1/f =
A
21t e
A
V, =
21tr
Ve=O
<P =
K Cose
21t _r_
K
1/f =  21t
sine

r 
</J
=

21t e
1/f = 
2Jt
lnr
Ve =
21tr
V, =0
(3.53)
(3.55)
(3.67)
(3.72)
(3.62)
(3 .88)
(3 .87)
(3.112)
(3.114)
(3.105)
Inviscid flow over a cylinder
(a)
Nonlifting (uniform flow and doublet)
1/f = (Voor
s ine)
(
1 
;:)
where R = radius of cylinder=
K / 21t V _{0}_{0} •
Surface
velocity:
v _{0}_{0} = 2V _{0}_{0} sine
Surface
press ure
coefficient:
C P
=
1 
4 s in ^{2} e
(3.92)
(3.100)
(3.101)
(b)
Lifting (uniform flow+ doublet+ vortex)
1/f =
(V _{0}_{0} r sine) (1  R:) + r
_!::_ In ..
21t
c_
R
(3.118)
(continued)
CHAPTER 3
Fundamentals of Inviscid , Incompressible Flow
S u rface velocity:
Ve = 2V _{0}_{0} sine 

21t R
D=O
(lift per unit s pan)
(3.125)
(3.140)
Kutta J o ukowski theorem for a cl osed twodimensional body of arbitrary shape, the lift per unit s pan is
L ' = Poo Voo f.
Source
p anel method
This is a numerical method for calculating the nonlifting flow over bodies of
arbitrary shape. Governing equations:
A. ·
1
11
2Jt
(j ,'1 )
( lnr;j) ds j + V _{0}_{0} cos,B; = 0
j
an;
(i
= 1, 2,
...
, n)
(3.152)
3.22
P R OBLEMS
Note: All the following problems ass ume an invi sc id, incompressible stand ard sea level density and pressure are 1.23 kg/m ^{3} and 1.01 x respe ctive l y.
flow. Also , 10 ^{5} N/m ^{2}
,
3.1
3.2
3.3
For an irrotational flow, show that Bernoulli 's equation holds between any poi nts in the flow, not just along a s treamline.
Co ns ider a venturi with a throattoinlet area ratio of 0 .8, mounted on the sid e of an airplane fuselage. The airplane is in flight at standard sea level. If t he static pre ss ure at the throat is 1.006 x 10 ^{5} N/m ^{2} , calculate the velo city of the airplane.
Co nsider a venturi with a small hole drilled in the s ide of the throat. This ho le is connected via a tube to a closed reservoir. The purpose of the ve n turi is to create a vacuum in the reservoir when the venturi is placed in an airstream. (The vac uum is defined as the pres s ure difference below the ou tside ambient pressure .) The venturi ha s a throattoinlet area ratio of 0. 85. Calculate the maximum vacuum obtainable in the reservoir when the ve nturi is placed in an airstream of 90 mis at standard sea level conditions.
3.4 C o nsider a low s peed opencircuit s ubsonic wind tunnel with an i nlettothroat area ratio of 12. The tunnel is turned on, and the pressure
309
_{3}_{1}_{0} PART 2
Invisc id , Incompressible Flow
difference between the inlet (the settling chamber) and the test section is read as a height difference of 10 cm on a Utube mercury manometer. (The density of liquid mercury is 1.36 x 10 ^{4} kg/m ^{3} .) Calculate the velocity of the air in the test section.
3.5 Assume that a Pi tot tube is inserted into the testsection flow of the wind tunnel in Problem 3.4. The tunnel test s ection is completely sealed from the outside ambient pre ss ure. Calculate the press ure mea s ured by the Pitot tube , assuming the static pressure at the tunnel inlet is atmospheric.
3 .6 A Pitot tube on an airplane flying at standard sea level read s 1.07 x
10 ^{5} N/m ^{2} _{.} What
is the velocity of the airplane?
3. 7 At a given point on the surface of the wing of the airplane in Probl em 3.6, the flow velocity is 130 mi s. Calculate the pressure coefficient at thi s point.
3.8 Consider a uniform flow with velocity V _{0}_{0} • Show that this flow is a physically pos sible incompressible flow and that it is irrotational.
3.9 Show that a source flow is a physically possible incompressible flow everywhere except at the origin. Also show that it is irrotational
3 . 10
everywhere.
Prove that the velocity potential and the stream function for a uniform flow, Equations (3 .53) and (3.55), respectively , satisfy Laplace's equation.
3.11 Prove that the velocity potential and the stream function for a source flow Equations (3.67) and (3.72), respectively, sa tisfy Laplace's equation.
'
3.12 Consider the flow over a semiinfinite body as di scu sse d in Section 3.11. If V _{0}_{0} i s the velocity of the uniform stream, and the stagnation point is 1 m upstream of the source: a . Draw the re s ulting se miinfinite body to scale on graph paper.
b. Plot the pressure coefficient distribution over the body; that is , plot Cp versus distance along the centerline of the body.
3.13 Derive Equation (3.81). Hint: Make use of the symmetry of the flow field shown in Figure 3.18; that is , start with the knowledge that the stagnation points must lie on the axis aligned with the direction of V _{0}_{0} •
3.14 Derive the velocity potential for a doublet; that is, derive Equation (3.88). Hint: The easiest method is to start with Equation (3.87) for the stream function and extract the velocity potential.
3.15 Consider the nonlifting flow over a circular cylinder. Derive an expression for the pressure coefficient at an arbitrary point (r , 8) in this flow, and show that it reduces to Equation (3.101) on the s urface of the cylinder.
3.16 Consider the nonlifting flow over a circular cylinder of a given radiu s, where V _{0}_{0} =
6 mis. If V'° is doubled, that is, V _{0}_{0} =
of the streamlines change? Explain.
12 mis, does the s hape
3.17 Consider the lifting flow over a circular cylinder of a given radiu s and with a given circulation. If V _{0}_{0} is doubled, keeping the circulation the same, does the shape of the streamjjnes change? Explain .
CHAPTER 3
Fu ndamental s of Inviscid, Incompressible Flow
_{3} .1s The lift on a spinning circular cylinder in a freestream with a velocity of 30 mis and at standard sea level conditions is 6 Nim of span. Calculate the
circ ulation around the cylinder.
3.19 A ty pical World War I biplane fighter (such as the French SPAD shown in Figure 3.50) has a number of vertical interwing struts and diagonal brac ing wires. Assume for a given airplane that the total length for the
verti cal struts (summed together) is 7.5 m , and that the struts are
cylindrical with a diameter of 0.05 m. As s ume also that the total length of th e bracing wires is 24 m, with a cylindrical diameter of 0.0023 m. Calc ulate th e drag contributed by these struts and bracing wires when th e airp lane is flying at 192 km/h at standard sea level. Compare this c omponent of drag with the total zerolift drag for the airplane, for which the to tal wing area is 21.4 m ^{2} and the zerolift drag coefficient is 0.036.
3.20 The K uttaJoukowski theorem, Equation (3.140), was derived exactly for the case of the lifting cylinder. In Section 3.16 it is stated without proof that Equation (3.140) also applies in general to a twodimensional body of arbitrary shape. Although this general result can be proven mathematically, it also can be accepted by making a physical argument as we ll. Make this physical argument by drawing a closed curve around the body where the closed curve is very far away from the body, so far away th at in perspective the body becomes a very small speck in the middle of
the doma in enclosed by the closed curve.
3.21 Consider the streamlines over a circular cylinder as sketched at the right of Fi gure 3.26. Single out the first three streamline s flowing over the top of the cy linder.
Designate each streamline by its stream function, o/1, o/2, and
_{.} T he first streamline wets the surface of the cylinder ; designate ,jf 1 = 0.
,jl
3
The streamline above that is \11 _{2} _{,} and the next one above that is o/3· Ass ume the streamlines start out in the free stream equally spaced. Hence , the volume flow rates between the streamlines are the same. The streamline ,jJ _{2} passes through the point (l.2R,7t/2) directly above the top of the cylinder. Calculate the location of the point directly above the top of the c ylinder through which the streamjjne ,jJ _{3} flows. Comment on the sp ac ing between the streamlines directly above the top.
3.22 Consider the flow field over a circular cylinder mounted perpendicular to th e fl ow in the test section of a lowspeed subsonic wind tunnel. At standar d sealevel conditions, if the flow velocity at some region of the fl ow field exceeds about 400 km/h, compressibility begins to have an effe ct in that region. Calculate the velocity of the flow in the test section of the wind tunnel above which compressibility effects begin to become impo rtant, i.e., above which we can not accurately assume totally inco mpressible flow over the cylinder for the wind tunnel tests.
3.23 Prove
that the flow field specified in Example 2 . 1 is not incompressible;
i. e., it is a compressible flow as stated without proof in Example 2.1.
311
406 PART
2 _{I}_{n}_{v}_{i}_{s}_{c}_{i}_{d}_{,} _{I}_{n}_{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{i}_{b}_{l}_{e} _{F}_{l}_{o}_{w}
T_he Kutta condition is _{a}_{n} _{o}_{b}_{s}_{e}_{r}_{v}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}
th a t for a lifting airfoil of given s hape at a
give~ an~Je o~ a ttack , nature adop ts th at particular value
th~ ~1rfoil _{w}_{h}_{i}_{c}_{h} _{r}_{e}_{s}_{u}_{l}_{t}_{s} _{i}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{f}_{l}_{o}_{w} _{l}_{e}_{a}_{v}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{s}_{m}_{o}_{o}_{t}_{h}_{l}_{y} _{a}_{t}
of c irculation around
_{t}_{h}_{e} _{t}_{r}_{a}_{i}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{e}_{d}_{g}_{e}_{.}
If
the
tr a~ l~ngedg e _angle is finite, then _{t}_{h}_{e} _{t}_{r}_{a}_{i}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{e}_{d}_{g}_{e} _{i}_{s} _{a} s tagnation point.
If
the
trailing e??e 1s c usped , the_n the ve locities leaving the top and bottom surfaces
at the trrulmg edge are firute and equal in magnitude
case,
_{a}_{n}_{d} _{d}_{i}_{r}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{.}
In
either
y(TE)
0
(4. 10)
_{T}_{h}_{i}_{n} _{a}_{i}_{r}_{f}_{o}_{i}_{l} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{o}_{r}_{y} is predicated on the replacement
of _{t}_{h}_{e} _{a}_{i}_{r}_{f}_{o}_{i}_{l} _{b}_{y} the mean
ca~ber line.
_{A} _{v}_{o}_{r}_{t}_{e}_{x} _{s} heet is placed
a long the c _{h}_{o}_{r}_{d} _{l}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{,} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{i}_{t}_{s}
strength
~dJusted . _{s}_{u}_{c}_{h} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t}_{,}
in
conjunction
with
the _{u}_{n}_{i}_{f}_{o}_{r}_{m} _{f}_{r}_{e}_{e}_{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{a}_{m}_{,} _{t}_{h}_{e} camber
hne becom~ ~ a streamline of the _{f}_{l}_{o}_{w} _{w}_{h}_{i}_{l}_{e} at _{t}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{a}_{m}_{e} time satisfying the
Kutta
cond1t:Ion.
The
stre n g th
of suc h
a
vortex
s heet _{i}_{s} _{o}_{b}_{t}_{a}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{d}
from
the
fundamental e quation of _{t}_{h}_{i}_{n} _{a}_{i}_{r}_{f}_{o}_{i}_{l} theory:
_I
2rr
(
J o
y(~)
x

~
Voo
dx
(4. 18)
Re s ults of thin airfoil th eory:
Symmetric airfoil
c 1 = 

_{L}_{i}_{f}_{t} _{s}_{l}_{o}_{p}_{e}
dc 

da 
= 
2rr. 
3. The center of pressure and _{t}_{h}_{e} _{a}_{e}_{r}_{o}_{d}_{y}_{n}_{a}_{m}_{i}_{c} quarterchord point.
center are both at the
4.
Cm, c/4
=
Cm , ac
=
0.
Cambered airfoil
1.
c,
2rr
[
a +
l

rr
o
_{}
dx
_{(}_{c}_{o}_{s}_{e}_{o} _{}
l )deo
2.
Lift slope
dc /da
1
=
2rr.
_{3}_{.} aerodynamic center is at the qu arterc hord point.
_{T}_{h}_{e}
(4.57)
4. The center of press ure varies with the lift coefficient.
c
HA PT EA
4
Incompressible Flow over Airfoil s
The vortex _{p}_{a}_{n}_{e}_{l} _{m}_{e}_{t}_{h}_{o}_{d} _{i}_{s} _{a}_{n} _{i}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{r}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{t} _{n}_{u}_{m}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l} _{t}_{e}_{c}_{h}_{n}_{i}_{q}_{u}_{e} _{f}_{o}_{r}
_{t}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{o}_{l}_{u}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}
of the i nvisc id , incompressible flow _{o}_{v}_{e}_{r} _{b}_{o}_{d}_{i}_{e}_{s} of arbitrary s hape , thickne ss,
and angl e of attack. _{F}_{o}_{r} _{p}_{a}_{n}_{e}_{l}_{s} of constant strength ,
_{t}_{h}_{e} _{g}_{o}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{n}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{e}_{q}_{u} _{a} _{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{s}
are
vCX)
cos
/3; 
n
y ·
j =
I
2Jr
;;
oO··
j
~
on;
ds
j
o
(i
1
,2,
. ..
, n)
and
Y;
Yi  I
whic h is o ne way of expressing th e Kutta co ndition for the panel s immediately
abov e a nd below the trailing edge.
4.17
PR OBLEMS
4.1
Cons ider th e data for the NACA _{2}_{4}_{1}_{2} _{a}_{i}_{r}_{f}_{o}_{i}_{l} _{g}_{i}_{v}_{e}_{n}
_{i}_{n} _{F}_{i}_{g}_{u}_{r}_{e} _{4}_{.}_{1}_{0} _{.}
_{C}_{a}_{l}_{c} _{u}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{e} the lift _{a}_{n}_{d} _{m}_{o}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t} a bout _{t}_{h}_{e} _{q}_{u}_{a}_{r}_{t}_{e}_{r}
c hord (per unit spa n)
for _{t}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{a}_{i}_{r}_{f}_{o}_{i}_{l} _{w}_{h}_{e}_{n} the angle of attack is 4 ° and the fre estream is at
4.2
stan dard _{s}_{e}_{a} _{l}_{e}_{v}_{e}_{l} condition s with a velocity of 15
mis.
_{T}_{h}_{e} _{c}_{h}_{o}_{r}_{d} of the
airfo il is 0.6 m.
Co n sider an NACA 2412 airfoil
with a 2m chord in _{a}_{n} _{a}_{i}_{r}_{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{a}_{m} _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} _{a}
velo c ity of 50
mis
at stan dard sea _{l}_{e}_{v}_{e}_{l} _{c}_{o}_{n}_{d}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{.}
is 1353 N , what is th e angle of attack ?
If
_{t}_{h}_{e} _{l}_{i}_{f}_{t} per unit span
4.3 Starting with _{t}_{h}_{e} _{d}_{e}_{f}_{i}_{n}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} of circ ulation , _{d}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{v}_{e} _{K}_{e}_{l}_{v}_{i}_{n}_{'} _{s} _{c}_{i}_{r}_{c}_{u}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} theo rem , Equation (4 .1 1).
4.4 Starting with Equation (4.35), _{d}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{v}_{e} _{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} (4.36).
4.5
Co ns ider a
thin,
symmetric airfoil at _{1}_{.}_{5}_{°} _{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e} of attack. From _{t}_{h}_{e} _{r}_{e}_{s}_{u}_{l}_{t}_{s}
of thi n airfoil theory, calc ulate _{t}_{h}_{e} _{l}_{i}_{f}_{t} _{c}_{o}_{e} _{f}_{f}_{i}_{c}_{i}_{e}_{n}_{t} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{m}_{o}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t}
coe fficie _{n}_{t} _{a}_{b}_{o}_{u}_{t} _{t}_{h}_{e} leading edge.
4.6 Th e NACA 4412 airfoil has a _{m}_{e}_{a}_{n} _{c}_{a}_{m}_{b}_{e}_{r} _{l}_{i}_{n}_{e} _{g}_{i}_{v}_{e}_{n} _{b}_{y}
4.7
4.8
U sing _{t}_{h}_{i}_{n} _{a}_{i}_{r}_{f}_{o}_{i}_{l} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{o}_{r}_{y}_{,} calculate
(a ) aL=O
(b)
c1
when
a
=
3°
Fo r _{t}_{h}_{e} _{a}_{i}_{r}_{f}_{o}_{i}_{l} _{g}_{i}_{v}_{e}_{n} _{i}_{n} _{P}_{r}_{o}_{b}_{l}_{e}_{m} _{4}_{.}_{6}_{,} _{c}_{a}_{l}_{c} _{u}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{e}
a =
3° .
Cm