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ABSTRACT

Experiment 4, Plug Flow Reactor was conducted to determine the effect of residence time
on the reaction of sodium hydroxide, NaOH with ethyl acetate Et(Ac), in a plug flow reactor.
In this experiment, back titration method was used to determine the conversion and rate law
in order to obtain the concentration of reacted and unreacted NaOH. Two samples were
taken from the reactor, for each flowrate, and was quenched with HCl and back titrated with
NaOH to determine the conversion of NaOH for each respective flowrate pairs. To put it
simply, the two solutions Sodium Hydroxide, NaOH and Ethyl Acetate, Et(Ac) were reacted
in the PFR and the product is then analysed by the method of titration to determine how well
did the reaction go. After the result was obtained, calculations were made and graph of
conversion versus residence time was plotted. Based on the experiment, the residence time
gives effect on the reaction in terms on conversion X, rate constant k, and rate =rA. Further
details can be obtained in the results and discussion sections. The objectives initially set for
this experiment was all obtained successfully

INTRODUCTION
Type of chemical reactors remains a highly discussed subject in chemical process
industries worldwide.The reactor is of course, the place where chemical reactions take
place. Hence it is arguably the single most important part of any chemical process design.
The design of a reactor must be finely tuned so that its mechanisms suit the necesseties of
the process that is to be carried. Depends on the nature of the materials in both the feed and
of course the products, the reactors may take a wide range of forms. This is why full
comprehension of a reactor of a particular design as well as its working mechanisms is very
much vital to actually conduct a particular chemical process
A plug flow reactor is a reactor in which the flow inside the reactor is continuous and
usually flows in a steady-state condition. Continuous flow means that the reactants are
continually consumed as they enter and go through the reactor, and the products formed
from the reaction are continuously flowing out of the reactor (Fogler, 2014). It is one of the
simplest of all reactor designs (Parr Instrument Company, n.d.). The PFR consists of
cylindrical pipes inside its reactor (Fogler, 2014). This type of reactor is widely used in the
industry. Unlike the Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR), the PFR can be used for both
homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions. In other words, the PFR can be used for gasphase reactions as well as liquid-phase reactions. Another advantage of the PFR is that it

can give a high conversion rate per volume. Besides that, plug flow reactors are used for
chemical kinetic studies (Brown, n.d.).

AIMS

To carry out saponification reaction between NaOH and Et(Ac).

To determine the reaction rate constant.

To determine the effect of residence time on the conversion.

THEORY
The plug flow reactor is a continuous reactor, that is, the flow in and out of the reactor
is continuous throughout time. The feed enters the reactor, and at the same time, the
products leave the reactor. The plug flow reactor can be used for heterogeneous reactions
as well, for example, reactions in which the reactants are in gaseous phase.

Rate of Reaction and Rate Law


Simply put, rate of reaction can be roughly defined as the rate of disappearance of reactants
or the rate of formation of products. When a chemical reaction is said to occur, a
reactant (or several) diminishes and a product (or several) produced. This is what constitutes
a chemical reaction. For example:

aA+bB cC +dD

A and B represent reactants while C and D represent products. In this reaction, A and
B is being diminished and C and D is being produced. Rate of reaction, concerns it with how
fast the reactants diminish or how fast the product is formed. Rate of reaction of each
species corresponds respectively to their stoichiometric coefficient. As such:

r A r B r C r D
=
= =
a
b
c d
The negative sign indicates reactants.
A usual equation for rA is:

r A=k C A C B
Where:
k

rate constant

CA

concentration of A species

CB

concentration of B species

stoichiometric coefficient of A

stoichiometric coefficient of B

Conversion
Taking species A as the basis, the reaction expression can be divided through the
stoichiometric coefficient of species A, hence the reaction expression can be arranged as
follows:

b
c
d
A + B+ C + D
a
a
a
Conversion is an improved way of quantifying exactly how far has the reaction
moved, or how many moles of products are formed for every mole of A has consumed.
Conversion XA is the number of moles of A that have reacted per mole of A fed to the system.
As seen below:

X A=

moles of A reacted
moles of A fed

The general mole balance equation is given as :

out + generation=accumulation . Since flow is continuous, there is no accumulation.


Thus,

out + generation=0
When:
In=FA0, out=FA and

generation= r a dV

as the contents in the reactor are not

assumed to be perfectly and equally mixed, which is in the case for CSTR. Therefore, the
general equation becomes

F A 0F A + r a dV =0

In terms of conversion, X, where

F A =F A 0 (1 X ) , the equation then simplifies

into an integral form:


X

V =F A 0
0

dX
(Equation1)
r A

Where:
-

V is the volume of reactor

FA0 is the initial number of moles for reactant A

-rA is the rate law, where

r A=k (C A ) (C B ) ,

CA and CB is the concentrations of A and B respectively,

k is rate constant

and

are the rate orders, or the stoichiometric coefficients

in case of elementary reactions, for compound A and B respectively


In this experiment, the conversion of NaOH XA, the rate constant k and the rate law rA shall
be determined, by obtaining the concentration of reacted and unreacted NaOH from back
titration method. Also, the reaction is elementary, and the initial moles for both reactants are
assumed to be the same, thus

B =1 , simplifying the rate law to

r A=k C A 02 (1X )2( Equation2)


Substituting equation 2 into equation 1, and using a suitable integration method:

V=

F A0
k C A0

C v
v
X
X
X
= A 0 02
= 0
( Equation3)
( 1X ) k C A 0 (1X ) k C A 0 (1 X)

The reaction which takes place is:

APPARATUS
The following apparatus and equipment were used to conduct this experiment:
-

Plug Flow Reactor Unit (Figure 1a & 1b)

Burettes,conical flasks, measuring cylinders, and beakers for back titration


process

Control
Panel
Reactor
Tank

Flowrate
Adjusters for
P1 and P2

(Figure 1a: Plug Flow Reactor Unit, Front View)

Reactant Tanks

(Figure 1b: Plug Flow Reactor Unit, back view)

PROCEDURE
A : Back Titration Procedures for Manual Conversion Determination
1. The burette was filled up with 0.1 M NaOH solution.
2. 10 ml of 0.25 M HCl was measured in a flask.

3. A 50 ml sample from the experiment was obtained and added immediately the
sample to the HCl in the flask to quench the saponification reaction.
4. A few drops of pH indicator was added into the mixture.
5. The mixture was titrated with NaOH solution from the burette until the mixture is
neutralized.The amount of NaOH titrated was recorded.

B : Effect of Residence Time on the Reaction


1. The general start-up procedures are carried out before conducting the experiment.
2. Valves V9 and V11 were opened.
3. Both the NaOH and Et(Ac) solutions were allowed to enter the plug reactor R1 and
empty into waste tank B3.
4. P1 and P2 were adjusted to give a constant flowrate of 300 ml/min at flow meters FI01 and FI-02. Both flow rates had been sure were the same and the flow rates were
recorded.
5. The inlet (QI-01) and outlet (QI-02) conductivity values were started monitoring until
they do not change. This is to ensure that the reactor has reached steady state.
6. Both inlet and outlet steady state conductivity values were recorded. Both
concentration of NaOH exiting the reactor and extent of conversion from the
calibration curve were found.
7. Sampling valve V15 was opened and a 50 ml sample was collected. A back titration
procedure was carried out to manually determine the concentration of NaOH in the
reactor and extent of conversion.
8. The experiment (steps 4 to 7) was repeated for different residence times by reducing
the feed flow rates of NaOH and Et(Ac) to about 250, 200, 150, 100 and 50 ml/min.
Both flow rates had been sure were the same.

CALCULATION
Residence Time
1. For flow rates of 300 ml/min :

=
Residence Time,

Total flow rate, Vo

Reactor volume ( L ) ,V
L
Total flow rate
,v
min 0

( )

= Flow rate of NaOH + Flow rate of Et(Ac)


= 300 mL/min NaOH + 300 mL/min Et(Ac)
= 600 mL/min
= 0.6 L/min

Hence,
Residence Time,

4L
0.6 L/min

= 6.6667 min

2. For flow rates of 250 ml/min :


Total flow rate, Vo

= Flow rate of NaOH + Flow rate of Et(Ac)


= 250 mL/min NaOH + 250 mL/min Et(Ac)
= 500 mL/min
= 0.5 L/min

Hence,
Residence Time,

4L
0.5 L/min

= 8.000 min

3. For flow rates of 200 ml/min :


Total flow rate, Vo

= Flow rate of NaOH + Flow rate of Et(Ac)


= 200 mL/min NaOH + 200 mL/min Et(Ac)
= 400 mL/min

= 0.4 L/min
Hence,
Residence Time,

4L
0.4 L/min

= 10.000 min

4. For flow rates of 150 ml/min :


Total flow rate, Vo

= Flow rate of NaOH + Flow rate of Et(Ac)


= 150 mL/min NaOH + 150 mL/min Et(Ac)
= 300 mL/min
= 0.3 L/min

Hence,
Residence Time,

4L
0.3 L/min

= 13.333 min

5. For flow rates of 100 ml/min :


Total flow rate, Vo

= Flow rate of NaOH + Flow rate of Et(Ac)


= 100 mL/min NaOH + 100 mL/min Et(Ac)
= 200 mL/min
= 0.2 L/min

Hence,
Residence Time,

4L
0.2 L/min

= 20.000 min

6. For flow rates of 50 ml/min :


Total flow rate, Vo

= Flow rate of NaOH + Flow rate of Et(Ac)

= 50 mL/min NaOH + 50 mL/min Et(Ac)


= 100 mL/min
= 0.1 L/min
Hence,
Residence Time,

4L
0.1 L/min

= 40.000 min

Conversion
1. For flow rates of 300 ml/min :
Moles of reacted NaOH, n1
n1
= Concentration NaOH x Volume of NaOH titrated
= 0.1 M x 0.000279 L
= 0.0000279 mole
Moles of unreacted HCl
= Moles of reacted NaOH
n2
n2

= n1
= 0.0000279 mole

Volume of unreacted HCl, V1


V1

n2
concentration HCl quenc h

0.0000279
0.25

= 0.000112 L
Volume of HCl reacted, V2
V2

= Total volume HCl V1


= 0.01 0.000112
= 0.00988 L

Moles of reacted HCl, n3

n3

= Concentration HCl x V2
= 0.25 x 0.00989
= 0.00247 mole

Moles of unreacted NaOH, n4


n4

=
=

n3
0.00247 mole

Concentration of unreacted NaOH


CNaOH unreacted

n4
volume sample

0.00247
0.05

= 0.0494 M
Xunreacted =
=

Concentration of NaOH unreacted


concentration NaOH
0.0494
0.1

= 0.494
Xreacted

= 1 - Xunreacted
= 1 - 0.494
= 0.506

Conversion for flow rate 300mL/min


0.506 x 100% = 50.6 %
Hence, at flow rate 300mL/min of NaOH in the reactor, about 50.6% of NaOH is reacted with
Et(Ac).

\
2. For flow rates of 250 ml/min :
Moles of reacted NaOH, n1

n1

= Concentration NaOH x Volume of NaOH titrated


= 0.1 M x 0.000287 L
= 0.0000287 mole
Moles of unreacted HCl
= Moles of reacted NaOH
n2 = n1
n2 = 0.0000287 mole
Volume of unreacted HCl, V1
V1

n2
concentration HCl quenc h

0.0000287
0.25

= 0.0001148 L
Volume of HCl reacted, V2
V2

= Total volume HCl V1


= 0.01 0.0001148
= 0.009885 L

Moles of reacted HCl, n3


n3

= Concentration HCl x V2
= 0.25 x 0.009885
= 0.002471 mole

Moles of unreacted NaOH, n4


n4

= n3
= 0.002471 mole
Concentration of unreacted NaOH
CNaOH unreacted

n4
volume sample

0.002471
0.05

= 0.04942 M
Xunreacted =
=

Concentration of NaOH unreacted


concentration NaOH
0.04942
0.1

= 0.4942

Xreacted

= 1 - Xunreacted
= 1 - 0.4942
= 0.5058

Conversion for flow rate 250mL/min


0.5058 x 100% = 50.58 %
Hence, at flow rate 250mL/min of NaOH in the reactor, about 50.58% of NaOH is reacted with
Et(Ac).

3. For flow rates of 200 ml/min :


Moles of reacted NaOH, n1
n1
= Concentration NaOH x Volume of NaOH titrated
= 0.1 M x 0.000246 L
= 0.0000246 mole
Moles of unreacted HCl, n2
Moles of unreacted HCl

= Moles of reacted NaOH


n2 = n1
n2 = 0.0000246mole

Volume of unreacted HCl, V1


V1

n2
concentration HCl quenc h

0.0000246
0.25

= 0.0000984 L
Volume of HCl reacted, V2
V2

= Total volume HCl V1

= 0.01 0.0000984
= 0.009902 L
Moles of reacted HCl, n3
n3

= Concentration HCl x V2
= 0.25 x 0.009902
= 0.002476 mole

Moles of unreacted NaOH, n4


n4

= n3
= 0.002476 mole

Concentration of unreacted NaOH


CNaOH unreacted

n4
volume sample

0.002476
0.05

= 0.04952 M
Xunreacted =
=

Concentration of NaOH unreacted


concentration NaOH
0.04952
0.1

= 0.4952
Xreacted

= 1 - Xunreacted
= 1 - 0.4952
= 0.5048

Conversion for flow rate 200mL/min


0.505 x 100% = 50.48 %
Hence, at flow rate 200mL/min of NaOH in the reactor, about 50.48% of NaOH is reacted with
Et(Ac).
4. For flow rates of 150 ml/min :
Moles of reacted NaOH, n1
n1
= Concentration NaOH x Volume of NaOH titrated
= 0.1 M x 0.000265 L

= 0.0000265 mole
Moles of unreacted HCl, n2
Moles of unreacted HCl

= Moles of reacted NaOH


n2 = n1
n2 = 0.0000265 mole

Volume of unreacted HCl, V1


V1

n2
concentration HCl quenc h

0.0000265
0.25

= 0.000106 L
Volume of HCl reacted, V2
V2

= Total volume HCl V1


= 0.01 0.000106
= 0.009894 L

Moles of reacted HCl, n3


n3

= Concentration HCl x V2
= 0.25 x 0.009894
= 0.002474 mole

Moles of unreacted NaOH, n4


n4

= n3
= 0.002474 mole

Concentration of unreacted NaOH


CNaOH unreacted

n4
volume sample

0.002474
0.05

= 0.04948 M
Xunreacted =
=

Concentration of NaOH unreacted


concentration NaOH
0.04948
0.1

= 0.4948
Xreacted
Xreacted

= 1 - Xunreacted
= 1 - 0.4948
= 0.5052

Conversion for flow rate 150mL/min


0.5052 x 100% = 50.52 %

placed in Table 2

Hence, at flow rate 150 mL/min of NaOH in the reactor, about 50.52% of NaOH is reacted with
Et(Ac).
5. For flow rates of 100 ml/min :
Moles of reacted NaOH, n1
n1
= Concentration NaOH x Volume of NaOH titrated
= 0.1 M x 0.000256 L
= 0.0000256 mole
Moles of unreacted HCl, n2
Moles of unreacted HCl

= Moles of reacted NaOH


n2 = n1
n2 = 0.0000256 mole

Volume of unreacted HCl, V1


V1

n2
concentration HCl quenc h

0.0000256
0.25

= 0.0001024 L
Volume of HCl reacted, V2
V2

= Total volume HCl V1


= 0.01 0.0001024
= 0.009898 L

Moles of reacted HCl, n3


n3

= Concentration HCl x V2
= 0.25 x 0.009898
= 0.002475 mole

Moles of unreacted NaOH, n4


n4

= n3
= 0.002475 mole

Concentration of unreacted NaOH


CNaOH unreacted

n4
volume sample

0.002475
0.05

= 0.0495 M
Xunreacted =
=

Concentration of NaOH unreacted


concentration NaOH
0.0495
0.1

= 0.495
Xreacted
Xreacted

= 1 - Xunreacted
= 1 - 0.495
= 0.505

Conversion for flow rate 100mL/min


0.506 x 100% = 50.50 %
Hence, at flow rate 100mL/min of NaOH in the reactor, about 50.50% of NaOH is reacted with
Et(Ac).
6. For flow rates of 50 ml/min :
Moles of reacted NaOH, n1
n1
= Concentration NaOH x Volume of NaOH titrated
= 0.1 M x 0.000281 L
= 0.0000281 mole
Moles of unreacted HCl, n2
Moles of unreacted HCl

= Moles of reacted NaOH


n2 = n1
n2 = 0.0000281 mole

Volume of unreacted HCl, V1

V1

n2
concentration HCl quenc h

0.0000281
0.25

= 0.0001124 L
Volume of HCl reacted, V2
V2

= Total volume HCl V1


= 0.01 0.0001124
= 0.009888 L

Moles of reacted HCl, n3


n3

= Concentration HCl x V2
= 0.25 x 0.009888
= 0.002472 mole

Moles of unreacted NaOH, n4


n4

= n3
= 0.002472 mole

Concentration of unreacted NaOH


CNaOH unreacted

n4
volume sample

0.002472
0.05

= 0.04944 M
Xunreacted =
=

Concent ration of NaOH unreacted


concentration NaOH
0.04944
0.1

= 0.4944
Xreacted
Xreacted

= 1 - Xunreacted
= 1 - 0.4944
= 0.5056

Conversion for flow rate 50mL/min

0.506 x 100% = 50.56 %


Hence, at flow rate 50mL/min of NaOH in the reactor, about 50.56% of NaOH is reacted with
Et(Ac).

Reaction Rate Constant,k

k=

v0
X
V TFR C AO 1X

1. For flow rates of 300 ml/min :


V0

= Total inlet flow rate


= 0.6 L/min

VTFR

= Volume for reactor


=4L

CAO

= inlet concentration of NaOH


= 0.1 M

= 0.506

k=

0.6
0.506
(4)(0.1) 10.506

2. For flow rates of 250 ml/min :


V0

= Total inlet flow rate


= 0.5 L/min

VTFR

= Volume for reactor


=4L

CAO

= inlet concentration of NaOH


= 0.1 M

= 0.5058

= 1.5365 L.mol/min

k=

0.5
0.5058
(4)(0.1) 10.5058

= 1.2793 L.mol/min

= 1.0194 L.mol/min

= 0.7658 L.mol/min

3. For flow rates of 200 ml/min :


V0

= Total inlet flow rate


= 0.4 L/min

VTFR

= Volume for reactor


=4L

CAO

= inlet concentration of NaOH


= 0.1 M

= 0.5048

k=

0.4
0.5048
(4)(0.1) 10.5048

4. For flow rates of 150 ml/min :


V0

= Total inlet flow rate


= 0.3 L/min

VTFR

= Volume for reactor


=4L

CAO

= inlet concentration of NaOH


= 0.1 M

= 0.5052

k=

0.3
0.5052
(4)(0.1) 10.5052

5. For flow rates of 100 ml/min :


V0

= Total inlet flow rate


= 0.2 L/min

VTFR

= Volume for reactor


=4L

CAO

= inlet concentration of NaOH


= 0.1 M

= 0.5050

k=

0.2
0.5050
(4)(0.1) 10.5050

= 0.5101 L.mol/min

= 0.2557 L.mol/min

6. For flow rates of 50 ml/min :


V0

= Total inlet flow rate


= 0.1 L/min

VTFR

= Volume for reactor


=4L

CAO

= inlet concentration of NaOH


= 0.1 M

= 0.5056

k=

0.1
0.5056
(4)(0.1) 10.5056

Rate of Reaction, -rA


-rA = k (CA0)2 (1-X)2
1. For flow rates of 300 ml/min :
-rA

= 1.5365 (0.1)2 (1-0.506)2


= 3.7496 x 10-3 mol.L/min

2. For flow rates of 250 ml/min :

-rA

= 1.2793 (0.1)2 (1-0.5058)2


= 3.1245 x 10-3 mol.L/min

3. For flow rates of 200 ml/min :


-rA

= 1.0194 (0.1)2 (1-0.5048)2


= 2.4998 x 10-3 mol.L/min

4. For flow rates of 150 ml/min :


-rA

= 0.7658 (0.1)2 (1-0.5052)2


= 1.8749 x 10-3 mol.L/min

5. For flow rates of 100 ml/min :


-rA

= 0.5101 (0.1)2 (1-0.5050)2


= 1.2499 x 10-3 mol.L/min

6. For flow rates of 50 ml/min :


-rA

= 0.2557 (0.1)2 (1-0.5056)2


= 6.2501 x 10-4 mol.L/min

Conversion vs Residence Time


50.6
50.5
50.4
50.3
50.2
50.1
50
5

10

15

20

25

30

Graph : Conversion vs Residence Time

35

40

45

DISCUSSION
Based on the results and calculations that have been done, the conversion of NaOH pair
has been successfully obtained for each flowrate. The main objective of this experiment has
been achieved which is to observe the effect of residence time on the reaction between NaOH
and Et(Ac) in a plug flow reactor based on a graph of conversion against residence time was
plotted by referring the calculated result. Residence times, refers to the time that a certain
compound spends in a particular system, or in this case, in the reactor. It is also sometimes
known as space time, or holding time. The formula for residence time is given, as in the
calculations:

residence time, =

reactor volume , V ( L)
L
total flowrate , v 0 (
)
min

Only one type of reactor is used since the reactor volume is constant. The method was
applied to manipulate the residence time is by changing the total flowrate that enters the PFR.
In this experiment, the flowrates was changed from 300 to 50 ml/min for both reactants, at 50
ml/min decrements.
As for conversion, XA, the value can be obtained from a series of calculations based on
the back-titration result, which is the volume of NaOH titrated. Based on the graph of X vs
residence time was plotted, it can be observed that the conversion does not change significantly
as the residence time increases. There is only a slight increment in the conversion as the
residence time rises. Thus, it can be said that the residence time does not give a large and
significant effect on the conversion of NaOH in the saponification reaction between NaOH and
Et(Ac).
If the formula for calculating X is observed, the basis of the calculation is the volume of
NaOH titrated to change the quench sample solution colour to pink. When referring to the
results of titration, the volume required for titration show some increases and some decreases

as the total flowrate, v0 decreases. It may occur some error during back-titration process. In
other words, as the residence time increases, due to lower total flowrate, the volume of NaOH
titrated also increases, however not significantly. Also, when the volume of titrated NaOH
increases, the no. of moles of NaOH reacted n1 increases, thus n2 also increases as n1=n2.
When n2, which is no. of moles HCl unreacted increases, the volume of unreacted HCl V1 also

increases, as

v=

no . of moles
concentraion . When V1 increases, V2 which is the volume of reacted HCl

will decrease, as V2= Vtotal-V1.


This will then cause the no. of moles of reacted HCl, n3 to also decrease, according to
the formula for no. of moles (N=Conc*Volume). Thus, referring to the relation between NaOH
and HCl, where the no. of moles of reacted HCl is equal to no. of moles of unreacted NaOH, or
n3=n4, n4 (moles of unreacted NaOH) will decrease as well. Subsequently, the concentration of
unreacted NaOH, C1 shall also decrease, as CA= (NA)/(V). Therefore, the Xunreacted which is

X unreacted =

concentration of unreacted
, will decrease, and finally, Xreacted or XA increases, since
initial concentration

XA/reacted=1-Xunreacted. Concluding this, as volume of titrated NaOH increases, the conversion XA will
also increase.
As for rate constant k, it is dependent on flowrate v0, as the formula is:

k=

v0
X
.(
)
V C A 0 1 X

Therefore, as the flowrate decreases, the rate constant also decreases. Residence time
effect is not significant in this case.

Finally, for reaction rate rA, it is dependent on k, thus also meaning that it is dependent
on the flowrate. Therefore, as the total flowrate continues to decrease in this experiment, the
reaction rate shall also decrease. Again, the effect of residence time is insignificant in this case,
as the residence time gives a small effect on X.

CONCLUSION
In conclusion, the experiment was conducted with several objectives in mind. The first
one is to carry out a saponification process between Sodium Hydroxide, NaOH and Ethyl
Acetate, Et(Ac). By using a Plug Flow Reactor, PFR, these two substances were flowed into the
reactor, mixed and let to react for a certain period of time. By doing that, saponification process
was completed. The experiment also targets to determine the reaction rate of this particular
reaction. From the calculated results, there is a small effect of residence time on the conversion
of sodium hydroxide, NaOH, in the reaction between NaOH and ethyl acetate Et(Ac), that is, as
the residence time increases, the conversion of NaOH will slightly increase. There is small
changes in the conversion as the residence time increases. Also, the rate constants and the
reaction rate, or in other words, the rate law, for the reaction has also been determined from the
calculations. Also, the rate constant k is found to be decreasing as the total flowrate decreases
in this experiment. The same conditions apply for the reaction rate, as rate depends on k, k
depends on flowrate. Residence time gives very small impact on these two variables, as it gives
a small change to conversion X, which is used for calculation of rate constant k, and therefore
reaction rate rA.

RECOMMENDATIONS
There are a few recommendations that can be done to get better results:
1. The flowrates should be constantly monitored to ensure that it remains constant
throughout the running time.
2. Ensure that the reactor is in good condition, that is, there is no leakage. Leakage in the
reactor can lead to errors as the output is no longer controllable. This can affect the

concentration of the samples taken for titration, thus affecting the results and
calculations.
3. When conducting back-titration, conduct it three times for each flowrate pair by using
three samples taken, and determine the average volume of NaOH titrated, to get better
and more accurate results.
4. When taking sample, ensure that the flask, or beaker used is properly cleaned,
especially from HCl and phenolphthalein to avoid the solution from turning pink even
before titration
5. Increase the running time, from 7.5 minutes to 10 minutes, to ensure that the system has
reached a stable steady-state condition. However, do not let the system run for too long
for each flowrate, as it can affect the reaction occurring inside.

REFERENCES

1. Fogler, H.S (2006). Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering (3rd Edition). Prentice
Hall.
2. Brown, R. L., n.d. Tubular Flow Reactors With First-Order Kinetics
3. Levenspiel, O. (1999). Chemical Reaction Engineering (3rd Edition). John Wiley.
4. Laboratory Manual Tubular Flow Reactor.
5. Fogler, H. S., 2014. Continuous-Flow Reactors. In: Elements Of Chemical Reaction
Engineering, Fourth Edition. s.l.:Pearson New International Edition, pp. 14-15.
6. The Plug Flow (Retrieved from http://www.konferenslund.se/p/L16.pdf on 18th October
2013)
7. Reaction Kinetics (Retrieved from http://smk3ae.files.wordpress.com/2007/10/reaksikinetik.pdf on the 18th October 2013)
8. Christie J. Geankoplis(2003) Transport Processes and Separation Process Principles(4th
Edition)

9. Parr Instrument Company, n.d. 5400 Continuous Flow Tubular Reactors. [Online]
Available at: http://www.parrinst.com/products/specialty-custom-systems/5400continuous-flow-tubular-reactors/
10. https://www.scribd.com/doc/179120412/Plug-Flow-Reactor