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Solar radiation geometry is the determining factor of heat gain, Shading and the potential of

day light penetration. Direction of beam radiation is useful in establishing geometric

relationship between a plane and incoming beam solar radiation.

Direction of beam radiation can be described in terms of several angles.

Angles useful in solar radiation analysis

(a)

I.

II.

III.

(b)

Latitude angle ()

Declination angle ()

Hour angle()

Derived solar angles:

I.

II.

III.

(c)

Altitude angle()

Zenith angle(z)

Solar azimuth angle (s)

Surface angles:

I.

II.

III.

Slope ()

Incidence()

(1) Latitude angle (): Angle

centre of earth and the projection of that line on equatorial plane. It varies from 00 at

equator to 90 at poles (north positive).

( It is the angle between a line extending from centre of

sun to centre of earth and the projection of this line upon earths equatorial plane. It is

due to tilt of Earths axis and it varies between 23.45 (summer solstice: 22 June) to

-23.45 (winter solstice: December 22). On equinoxes, Declination=0

=0

It is given by

.( +

): The angle through which earth must turn to bring the

meridian of a point directly in line with Suns rays. The angle through which earth

must turn to bring the meridian of a point directly in line with Suns rays. At solar

noon = 0.

It is measures from

m noon, (+)ve before noon and (-)ve

)ve after noon.

(4) Altitude angle ():

( Vertical

projection on horizontal plane on earths surface.

surface It is maximum at solar noon.

z): Complementary

omplementary angle of solar altitude angle, i.e. Vertical

angle between Suns rays and a line perpendicular to horizontal plane through the

point.

( or Az): It is the horizontal angle measured from

north to horizontal projection of Suns rays. It is considered (+)ve west side. Also can

be defined as solar angle in degrees along the horizon east or west of north.

Relation between basic solar angles

cos +sin sin = sin

= 90- z

coss = sec (cos sin

sin cos sin cos )

sins = sec cos sin

(7) Surface azimuth angle (): For tilted surfaces. It is angle of deviation of

the normal to the surface from the local meridian, or It is the angle between the

normal to the surface and south.

For south facing surface = 0. For west facing surface = 90 and so on. Eastward: (+)ve, West-ward : (-)ve.

(8) Slope (): Angle made by the plane surface with the horizontal. (+)ve : for

surface slopping toward south . (-)ve : for surface slopping toward north.

(9) Incidence () : Used when tilted surfaces are involved. Angle between sun rays

and normal to surface under consideration.

General equation for angle of incidence ():

cos = sin ( sincos + coscoscossin ) + cos(coscoscos sincossin)

+ cos sinsinsin

Mtech (Thermal engineering)

GBPUAT PANTNAGAR

Uttarakhand

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