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MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

5.60/20.110 Fall 2009


Problem Set #2
Due: September 25, 2009
1.
One mole of ideal gas at 25C and 1 bar is expanded isothermally and reversibly
to a final volume of 75L . Write the change in state and calculate the final pressure, the
heat and the work in the change of state.
2.
One mole of ideal monatomic gas at 25C and 1 bar is expanded reversibly and
adiabatically to a final volume of 75 L. Write the change in state and calculate the final
pressure, the heat and the work in the change of state.

3.
One mole of an ideal monatomic gas (for which C v = 3/2R) is subjected
to the following sequence of steps:
a. The gas is heated reversibly at a constant pressure of 1 atm from 25o to
o
100 C.
b. Next, the gas is expanded reversibly and isothermally to double its
volume.
c. Finally, the gas is cooled reversibly and adiabatically to 35oC.
Calculate U, H, q, and w in Joules for each step.
4.
The enthalpy change for the unfolding of cytochrome c is 210 kJ/mole at 50 C
and 1 atm pressure and 370 kJ/mole at 70 C and 1 atm pressure. The change in state is:
cytochrome c (solution, folded, T, p = 1atm) = cytochrome c (solution, unfolded, T, p = 1 atm)

Estimate Cp(unfolded) Cp (folded) for cytochrome c, assuming that each Cp is


temperature independent.
5.
An adiabatic constant volume bomb calorimeter is filled with 0.01 mole of
acetylene gas (C2H2) and a large excess of O2. The initial temperature is 25C; after all the
acetylene is burned to form CO2(g) and H2O (liq), the temperature is found to be 26.55C.
The heat capacity of the bomb and products is 8350 J deg-1. You may assume the gases
are ideal and the liquid molar volume is negligible.
(a) Calculate U in kJ for the isothermal change in state (note: for one mole)
C2H2 (g) +2.5 O2(g) = 2CO2(g) + H2O (liq) (25 C, V= constant)
(b) Calculate H in kJ for the isothermal change in state (for one mole)
C2H2 (g) +2.5 O2(g) = 2CO2(g) + H2O (liq) (25 C, p= 1 bar)

6.
In an adiabatic constant pressure (1 atm.) calorimeter, 0.4362 grams of
solid naphthalene (C10H8, MW = 129.16 grams) are completely oxidized to
H2O(g) and CO2(g). The temperature rises from 25oC to 26.707oC. The heat
capacity of the calorimeter and the oxidation products is 10,290 J K-1
(a)

Write the change in state that occurs in the calorimeter.

(b)
Calculate the standard enthalpy change Ho for the isothermal combustion of one mole of naphthalene at T = 298K.
(c)
Assuming the gases are ideal and that the molar volume of the solid is
negligible with respect to that of the gases, calculate U for the isothermal
combustion of one mole of naphthalene at T = 298K and 1 atm.
7.
An average person produces about 10,000 kJ of heat a day through metabolic
activity. If a person were a closed system of mass 60 kg with the heat capacity of water
(4.2 JK-1g-1) and did no work, what would be the temperature rise in a day? Walking
briskly dissipates energy at a rate of 500W; what fraction of a day's metabolic energy
does a one-hour walk represent? A person is actually an open system, and an important
mechanism of heat loss is evaporation of water. How much water would a person need
to evaporate in a day to maintain constant temperature if this were the only means of
heat loss? H(vaporization) of water at 37C is 2400Jg-1.
8.
The standard heat of combustion of a hydrocarbon is the enthalpy change
associated with complete oxidation of that substance in its standard aggregation
state to CO2(g) and H2O(l), all at 1 atm and 298K. Calculate standard heats of
combustion, in both kJ/mole and Joule/kg for the following fuels:
C6H14(l) hexane, a typical petroleum-derived paraffinic hydrocarbon
C6H6(l) benzene, representative of coal-derived aromatic hydrocarbons
C6H12O6(s) a typical carbohydrate, representative of "biomass" fuel
C2H5OH(l) ethyl alcohol, which can be obtained from biomass starting
materials
You have to write balanced chemical equations for each change in state.
Use the following standard heats of formation(all in kJ/mol):

Hof(298K)

CO2(g) H2O(l) C6H14(l) C6H6(l) C6H12O6(s) C2H5OH(l)


-393.3 -284.5
-167.4
+83.7
-1260
-276.1