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Summary Table for Statistical Techniques

Inference

Estimating a
mean

mean

Estimating a
proportion

proportion

Parameter
One
population
mean

One
population
mean

One
population
proportion
p

One
population
proportion
p

Statistic

Type of
Data

Examples
What is the average

Sample mean

Sample mean

Sample
proportion

Sample
proportion

Numerical

What is the average

cholesterol level of
Is the average GPA
of juniors at Penn
State higher than
3.0?
Is the average
Winter temperature
in State College
less than 42 F?
What is the
proportion of males
in the world?
What is the
proportion of
students that smoke?
Is the proportion
of females different
from 0.5?

Categorical
(binary)

1-sample t-interval

x t / 2

s
n

Ho : = o
Ha : o or Ha : > o
or Ha : < o
The one sample t test:

Numerical

Categorical
(binary)

Minitab
Command

Analysis

Is the proportion of
students who fail
Stat200 less than
0.1?

t=

x 0
s
n

> 1-sample t

Stat > Basic statistics

> 1-sample t

Conditions
Data approximately normal
OR
Have a large sample
size (n 30)

Data approximately normal

OR
Have a large sample
size (n 30)

1-proportion Z-interval

p z / 2

p (1 p )
n

Stat > Basic statistics

> 1-sample proportion

Have at least 5
in each category

Stat > Basic statistics

> 1-sample proportion

n po 5 and n (1-po ) 5

Ho : p = po
Ha : p po or Ha : p > po
or Ha : p < po
The one proportion Z-test:

z=

p p0
p0 (1 p0 )
n

Inference

Parameter

Difference in
two
Estimating the population
difference of
means
two means
1-2

Test to
compare two
means

Difference in
two
population
means
1-2

Statistic

Type of
Data

Examples

Minitab
Command

Analysis

How different are

the mean GPAs of
males and females?
Difference in
two sample
means

Numerical

x1 x 2

Difference in
two sample
means

Do the mean pulse

rates of exercisers
and non-exercisers
differ?
Numerical

x1 x 2

Estimating a
mean with
paired data

Mean of
paired
difference
D

Sample mean
of
Numerical
difference

mean with
paired data

Mean of
paired
difference
D

Sample mean
of
Numerical
difference

How many fewer

colds do vitamin C
takers get, on
average, than non
vitamin C takers?

Independent samples from

the two populations
2-sample t-interval

( x1 x 2 ) t * s.e.( x1 x 2 )

What is the
difference
in pulse rates, on the
average, before and
after exercise?

Is the difference in
IQ of pairs of twins
zero?
Are the pulse rates
of people higher
after exercise?

Stat > Basic statistics

> 2-sample t

Ho : 1 = 2
Ha : 1 2 or Ha : 1 > 2
or Ha : 1 < 2
The two sample t test:

Is the mean EDS

score for dropouts
greater than the
mean EDS score for

Conditions

( x x2 ) 0
t= 1
s.e.( x1 x2 )

Independent samples from

the two populations
Stat > Basic statistics
> 2-sample t

See text, page 445, for

the s.e. of the difference

paired t-interval

d t / 2

sd
n

Ho : D = 0
Ha : D 0 or Ha : D > 0
or Ha : D < 0
d 0
t=
sd
n

Data in each sample are

about normal or large
samples

> Paired t

> Paired t

Data in each sample are

about normal or large
samples

Differences approximately
normal
OR
Have a large number
of pairs (n 30)

Differences approximately
normal
OR
Have a large number
of pairs (n 30)

Inference

Parameter

Difference in
two
Estimating the population
difference of
proportions
two
proportions
p -p
1

Test to

10 compare two

Difference in
two
population
proportions

proportions
p1- p2

11

Relationship
in a 2-way
table

Relationship
between two
categorical
variables
OR
Difference in
two or more
population
proportions

Statistic

Difference in
two sample
proportions

p 1 p 2

Difference in
two sample
proportions

Type of
Data

Categorical
(binary)

Categorical
(binary)

p 1 p 2

The observed
counts in a
two-way table

Analysis

How different are

the percentages of
male and female
smokers?

two-proportions Z-interval

How different are

the percentages of
upper- and lowerclass binge
drinkers?
Is the percentage of
males with lung
cancer higher
than the percentage
of females with lung
cancer?
Are the percentages
of upper- and lowerclass binge drinkers
different?
Is there a
relationship
between smoking
and lung cancer?

Categorical

Minitab
Command

Examples

Do the proportions
of students in each
class who smoke
differ?

( p 1 p 2 )
z / 2 s.e.( p 1 p 2 )

Stat > Basic

statistics
> 2 proportions

Ho : p1 = p2
Ha : p1 p2 or Ha : p1 > p2
or Ha : p1 < p2
The two proportion z test:

z=

p 1 p 2

1
1
p (1 p ) +
n1 n2
x + x2
p = 1
n1 + n2

Stat > Basic

statistics
> 2 proportions

Conditions

Independent samples
from the two populations.
Have at least 5 in each
category for both
populations.

Independent samples
from the two populations.
Have at least 5 in each
category for both
populations.

not related

Ha : The two variables are

related
The chi-square statistic:
c2 =

all
cells

(Observed Expected ) 2
Expected

Stat >Tables
> CrossTabulation > ChiSquare analysis

All expected counts should

be greater than 1
At least 80% of the cells
should have an expected
count greater than 5

Inference

12

Parameter

Slope of the
population
regression
line
slope
1

Statistic

Sample
estimate of
the slope

Type of
Data

Numerical

b1

Examples

Is there a linear
relationship between
height and weight of
a person?

Minitab
Command

Analysis

Ho : 1 = 0
Ha : 1 0 or Ha : 1 > 0
or Ha : 1 < 0
The t test with n-2 degrees of
freedom:

b 0
t= 1
s.e.(b1 )

Conditions
The form of the equation
that links the two variables
must be correct

Stat >
Regression
> Regression

The error terms

are normally distributed
The errors terms have equal
Variances
The error terms are
independent of each other

13

14

Test to
compare
several
means

Test to
Compare
Two
Population
Variances

Population
means of the
t populations
1,2,.., ,t

Two population
variances
12, 22

Sample mean
of the t
populations Numerical
x1,x2,.., ,xt

Sample
variances
of 2
populations
s12, s22

Numerical

Is there a difference
between the mean
GPA of Freshman,
Sophomore, Junior
and Senior classes?

Are the variances of

length of lumber
produced by
Company A
different from
those produced by
Company B

Ho : 1 = 2= = t
Ha : not all the means are
equal
The F test for one-way
ANOVA:

F=

Each population is normally

Distributed
Independent samples
Stat >ANOVA
from the t populations
> Oneway

MSTR
MSE

deviations

Ho: 12 = 22
Ha: 12 22
2

F = s1 / s2

statistics >
2 variances

Each population is normally

Distributed
Independent samples from
the 2 populations