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Inference

Estimating a

mean

Test about a

mean

Estimating a

proportion

Test about a

proportion

Parameter

One

population

mean

One

population

mean

One

population

proportion

p

One

population

proportion

p

Statistic

Type of

Data

Examples

What is the average

weight of adults?

Sample mean

Sample mean

Sample

proportion

Sample

proportion

Numerical

cholesterol level of

adult females?

Is the average GPA

of juniors at Penn

State higher than

3.0?

Is the average

Winter temperature

in State College

less than 42 F?

What is the

proportion of males

in the world?

What is the

proportion of

students that smoke?

Is the proportion

of females different

from 0.5?

Categorical

(binary)

1-sample t-interval

x t / 2

s

n

Ho : = o

Ha : o or Ha : > o

or Ha : < o

The one sample t test:

Numerical

Categorical

(binary)

Minitab

Command

Analysis

Is the proportion of

students who fail

Stat200 less than

0.1?

t=

x 0

s

n

> 1-sample t

> 1-sample t

Conditions

Data approximately normal

OR

Have a large sample

size (n 30)

OR

Have a large sample

size (n 30)

1-proportion Z-interval

p z / 2

p (1 p )

n

> 1-sample proportion

Have at least 5

in each category

> 1-sample proportion

n po 5 and n (1-po ) 5

Ho : p = po

Ha : p po or Ha : p > po

or Ha : p < po

The one proportion Z-test:

z=

p p0

p0 (1 p0 )

n

Inference

Parameter

Difference in

two

Estimating the population

difference of

means

two means

1-2

Test to

compare two

means

Difference in

two

population

means

1-2

Statistic

Type of

Data

Examples

Minitab

Command

Analysis

the mean GPAs of

males and females?

Difference in

two sample

means

Numerical

x1 x 2

Difference in

two sample

means

rates of exercisers

and non-exercisers

differ?

Numerical

x1 x 2

Estimating a

mean with

paired data

Mean of

paired

difference

D

Sample mean

of

Numerical

difference

Test about a

mean with

paired data

Mean of

paired

difference

D

Sample mean

of

Numerical

difference

colds do vitamin C

takers get, on

average, than non

vitamin C takers?

the two populations

2-sample t-interval

( x1 x 2 ) t * s.e.( x1 x 2 )

What is the

difference

in pulse rates, on the

average, before and

after exercise?

Is the difference in

IQ of pairs of twins

zero?

Are the pulse rates

of people higher

after exercise?

> 2-sample t

Ho : 1 = 2

Ha : 1 2 or Ha : 1 > 2

or Ha : 1 < 2

The two sample t test:

score for dropouts

greater than the

mean EDS score for

graduates?

Conditions

( x x2 ) 0

t= 1

s.e.( x1 x2 )

the two populations

Stat > Basic statistics

> 2-sample t

the s.e. of the difference

paired t-interval

d t / 2

sd

n

Ho : D = 0

Ha : D 0 or Ha : D > 0

or Ha : D < 0

d 0

t=

sd

n

about normal or large

samples

> Paired t

> Paired t

about normal or large

samples

Differences approximately

normal

OR

Have a large number

of pairs (n 30)

Differences approximately

normal

OR

Have a large number

of pairs (n 30)

Inference

Parameter

Difference in

two

Estimating the population

difference of

proportions

two

proportions

p -p

1

Test to

10 compare two

Difference in

two

population

proportions

proportions

p1- p2

11

Relationship

in a 2-way

table

Relationship

between two

categorical

variables

OR

Difference in

two or more

population

proportions

Statistic

Difference in

two sample

proportions

p 1 p 2

Difference in

two sample

proportions

Type of

Data

Categorical

(binary)

Categorical

(binary)

p 1 p 2

The observed

counts in a

two-way table

Analysis

the percentages of

male and female

smokers?

two-proportions Z-interval

the percentages of

upper- and lowerclass binge

drinkers?

Is the percentage of

males with lung

cancer higher

than the percentage

of females with lung

cancer?

Are the percentages

of upper- and lowerclass binge drinkers

different?

Is there a

relationship

between smoking

and lung cancer?

Categorical

Minitab

Command

Examples

Do the proportions

of students in each

class who smoke

differ?

( p 1 p 2 )

z / 2 s.e.( p 1 p 2 )

statistics

> 2 proportions

Ho : p1 = p2

Ha : p1 p2 or Ha : p1 > p2

or Ha : p1 < p2

The two proportion z test:

z=

p 1 p 2

1

1

p (1 p ) +

n1 n2

x + x2

p = 1

n1 + n2

statistics

> 2 proportions

Conditions

Independent samples

from the two populations.

Have at least 5 in each

category for both

populations.

Independent samples

from the two populations.

Have at least 5 in each

category for both

populations.

not related

related

The chi-square statistic:

c2 =

all

cells

(Observed Expected ) 2

Expected

Stat >Tables

> CrossTabulation > ChiSquare analysis

be greater than 1

At least 80% of the cells

should have an expected

count greater than 5

Inference

12

Parameter

Slope of the

population

regression

Test about a

line

slope

1

Statistic

Sample

estimate of

the slope

Type of

Data

Numerical

b1

Examples

Is there a linear

relationship between

height and weight of

a person?

Minitab

Command

Analysis

Ho : 1 = 0

Ha : 1 0 or Ha : 1 > 0

or Ha : 1 < 0

The t test with n-2 degrees of

freedom:

b 0

t= 1

s.e.(b1 )

Conditions

The form of the equation

that links the two variables

must be correct

Stat >

Regression

> Regression

are normally distributed

The errors terms have equal

Variances

The error terms are

independent of each other

13

14

Test to

compare

several

means

Test to

Compare

Two

Population

Variances

Population

means of the

t populations

1,2,.., ,t

Two population

variances

12, 22

Sample mean

of the t

populations Numerical

x1,x2,.., ,xt

Sample

variances

of 2

populations

s12, s22

Numerical

Is there a difference

between the mean

GPA of Freshman,

Sophomore, Junior

and Senior classes?

length of lumber

produced by

Company A

different from

those produced by

Company B

Ho : 1 = 2= = t

Ha : not all the means are

equal

The F test for one-way

ANOVA:

F=

Distributed

Independent samples

Stat >ANOVA

from the t populations

> Oneway

MSTR

MSE

deviations

Ho: 12 = 22

Ha: 12 22

2

F = s1 / s2

statistics >

2 variances

Distributed

Independent samples from

the 2 populations

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