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Summary Table for Statistical Techniques

Inference

Estimating a
mean

Test about a
mean

Estimating a
proportion

Test about a
proportion

Parameter
One
population
mean

One
population
mean

One
population
proportion
p

One
population
proportion
p

Statistic

Type of
Data

Examples
What is the average
weight of adults?

Sample mean

Sample mean

Sample
proportion

Sample
proportion

Numerical

What is the average


cholesterol level of
adult females?
Is the average GPA
of juniors at Penn
State higher than
3.0?
Is the average
Winter temperature
in State College
less than 42 F?
What is the
proportion of males
in the world?
What is the
proportion of
students that smoke?
Is the proportion
of females different
from 0.5?

Categorical
(binary)

1-sample t-interval

x t / 2

s
n

Ho : = o
Ha : o or Ha : > o
or Ha : < o
The one sample t test:

Numerical

Categorical
(binary)

Minitab
Command

Analysis

Is the proportion of
students who fail
Stat200 less than
0.1?

t=

x 0
s
n

Stat > Basic statistics


> 1-sample t

Stat > Basic statistics


> 1-sample t

Conditions
Data approximately normal
OR
Have a large sample
size (n 30)

Data approximately normal


OR
Have a large sample
size (n 30)

1-proportion Z-interval

p z / 2

p (1 p )
n

Stat > Basic statistics


> 1-sample proportion

Have at least 5
in each category

Stat > Basic statistics


> 1-sample proportion

n po 5 and n (1-po ) 5

Ho : p = po
Ha : p po or Ha : p > po
or Ha : p < po
The one proportion Z-test:

z=

p p0
p0 (1 p0 )
n

Inference

Parameter

Difference in
two
Estimating the population
difference of
means
two means
1-2

Test to
compare two
means

Difference in
two
population
means
1-2

Statistic

Type of
Data

Examples

Minitab
Command

Analysis

How different are


the mean GPAs of
males and females?
Difference in
two sample
means

Numerical

x1 x 2

Difference in
two sample
means

Do the mean pulse


rates of exercisers
and non-exercisers
differ?
Numerical

x1 x 2

Estimating a
mean with
paired data

Mean of
paired
difference
D

Sample mean
of
Numerical
difference

Test about a
mean with
paired data

Mean of
paired
difference
D

Sample mean
of
Numerical
difference

How many fewer


colds do vitamin C
takers get, on
average, than non
vitamin C takers?

Independent samples from


the two populations
2-sample t-interval

( x1 x 2 ) t * s.e.( x1 x 2 )

What is the
difference
in pulse rates, on the
average, before and
after exercise?

Is the difference in
IQ of pairs of twins
zero?
Are the pulse rates
of people higher
after exercise?

Stat > Basic statistics


> 2-sample t

Ho : 1 = 2
Ha : 1 2 or Ha : 1 > 2
or Ha : 1 < 2
The two sample t test:

Is the mean EDS


score for dropouts
greater than the
mean EDS score for
graduates?

Conditions

( x x2 ) 0
t= 1
s.e.( x1 x2 )

Independent samples from


the two populations
Stat > Basic statistics
> 2-sample t

See text, page 445, for


the s.e. of the difference

paired t-interval

d t / 2

sd
n

Ho : D = 0
Ha : D 0 or Ha : D > 0
or Ha : D < 0
d 0
t=
sd
n

Data in each sample are


about normal or large
samples

Stat > Basic statistics


> Paired t

Stat > Basic statistics


> Paired t

Data in each sample are


about normal or large
samples

Differences approximately
normal
OR
Have a large number
of pairs (n 30)

Differences approximately
normal
OR
Have a large number
of pairs (n 30)

Inference

Parameter

Difference in
two
Estimating the population
difference of
proportions
two
proportions
p -p
1

Test to

10 compare two

Difference in
two
population
proportions

proportions
p1- p2

11

Relationship
in a 2-way
table

Relationship
between two
categorical
variables
OR
Difference in
two or more
population
proportions

Statistic

Difference in
two sample
proportions

p 1 p 2

Difference in
two sample
proportions

Type of
Data

Categorical
(binary)

Categorical
(binary)

p 1 p 2

The observed
counts in a
two-way table

Analysis

How different are


the percentages of
male and female
smokers?

two-proportions Z-interval

How different are


the percentages of
upper- and lowerclass binge
drinkers?
Is the percentage of
males with lung
cancer higher
than the percentage
of females with lung
cancer?
Are the percentages
of upper- and lowerclass binge drinkers
different?
Is there a
relationship
between smoking
and lung cancer?

Categorical

Minitab
Command

Examples

Do the proportions
of students in each
class who smoke
differ?

( p 1 p 2 )
z / 2 s.e.( p 1 p 2 )

Stat > Basic


statistics
> 2 proportions

Ho : p1 = p2
Ha : p1 p2 or Ha : p1 > p2
or Ha : p1 < p2
The two proportion z test:

z=

p 1 p 2

1
1
p (1 p ) +
n1 n2
x + x2
p = 1
n1 + n2

Stat > Basic


statistics
> 2 proportions

Conditions

Independent samples
from the two populations.
Have at least 5 in each
category for both
populations.

Independent samples
from the two populations.
Have at least 5 in each
category for both
populations.

Ho : The two variables are


not related

Ha : The two variables are


related
The chi-square statistic:
c2 =

all
cells

(Observed Expected ) 2
Expected

Stat >Tables
> CrossTabulation > ChiSquare analysis

All expected counts should


be greater than 1
At least 80% of the cells
should have an expected
count greater than 5

Inference

12

Parameter

Slope of the
population
regression
Test about a
line
slope
1

Statistic

Sample
estimate of
the slope

Type of
Data

Numerical

b1

Examples

Is there a linear
relationship between
height and weight of
a person?

Minitab
Command

Analysis

Ho : 1 = 0
Ha : 1 0 or Ha : 1 > 0
or Ha : 1 < 0
The t test with n-2 degrees of
freedom:

b 0
t= 1
s.e.(b1 )

Conditions
The form of the equation
that links the two variables
must be correct

Stat >
Regression
> Regression

The error terms


are normally distributed
The errors terms have equal
Variances
The error terms are
independent of each other

13

14

Test to
compare
several
means

Test to
Compare
Two
Population
Variances

Population
means of the
t populations
1,2,.., ,t

Two population
variances
12, 22

Sample mean
of the t
populations Numerical
x1,x2,.., ,xt

Sample
variances
of 2
populations
s12, s22

Numerical

Is there a difference
between the mean
GPA of Freshman,
Sophomore, Junior
and Senior classes?

Are the variances of


length of lumber
produced by
Company A
different from
those produced by
Company B

Ho : 1 = 2= = t
Ha : not all the means are
equal
The F test for one-way
ANOVA:

F=

Each population is normally


Distributed
Independent samples
Stat >ANOVA
from the t populations
> Oneway

MSTR
MSE

Equal population standard


deviations

Ho: 12 = 22
Ha: 12 22
2

F = s1 / s2

Stat > Basic


statistics >
2 variances

Each population is normally


Distributed
Independent samples from
the 2 populations