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INSTRUCTORS MANUAL

for
W. E. Hewitt, Jerry White, James J. Teevan, eds.

INTRODUCTION
TO SOCIOLOGY
A Canadian Focus
Ninth Edition

Prepared by
Janine Ouimet
University of Western Ontario

Toronto
Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Canada, a division of Pearson Canada Inc. All rights
reserved. Reproduction of this material is restricted to instructors who have adopted Introduction to
Sociology: A Canadian Focus, Ninth Edition, edited by W. E. Hewitt, Jerry White, and James J.
Teevan, provided such reproduction bears copyright notice. Under no circumstances is any of this
material to be posted on an unprotected website. The copyright holder grants permission to
instructors who have adopted the textbook to post this material online only if use of the website is
restricted by access codes.

Table of Contents

Preface ............................................................................................................................. iii


Introduction ....................................................................................................................... iv
Chapter 1

What Is Sociology? .................................................................................... 1

Chapter 2

Research Methods ...................................................................................... 4

Chapter 3

Culture ....................................................................................................... 7

Chapter 4

Socialization ............................................................................................. 11

Chapter 5

Deviance .................................................................................................. 14

Chapter 6

Social Inequality ...................................................................................... 18

Chapter 7

Gender Relations ...................................................................................... 22

Chapter 8

Race and Ethnic Relations ....................................................................... 26

Chapter 9

Aging ....................................................................................................... 31

Chapter 10

Families .................................................................................................... 35

Chapter 11

Religion .................................................................................................... 40

Chapter 12

Media ....................................................................................................... 44

Chapter 13

Education ................................................................................................. 48

Chapter 14

Organizations and Work .......................................................................... 52

Chapter 15

Social Movements ................................................................................... 55

Chapter 16

Demography and Urbanization ................................................................ 59

Chapter 17

Social Change .......................................................................................... 62

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PREFACE
This Instructors Manual is designed to use with the Ninth Edition of Introduction to
Sociology: A Canadian Focus, W.E. (Ted) Hewitt, Jerry White, and James J. Teevan
(editors). It provides instructors with a range of aids that complement the text, and which
will assist them in preparing lectures and course tests.
The Introduction provides general information about conducting the first classes of
a new term, offers some helpful hints for handling large classes (now a fact of life in most
universities and colleges), and suggests strategies for dealing with disruptive students and
encouraging discussion in class. The chapters that follow correspond to those appearing in
Introduction to Sociology. For each chapter the following are provided:
1.

Chapter outline: a list of chapter headings and subheadings.

2.

Chapter summary: a summary of the chapter (generally corresponding to that which


appears at the end of each chapter in the text).

3.

Objectives: a checklist of theories, concepts and research findings with which


students should be familiar after reading the chapter.

4.

Important terms and concepts: a list of key terms and concepts with which students
should be familiar after reading the chapter. These are also found (along with
definitions) in the Glossary at the end of each chapter in the text, and at the end of
the book.

5.

Suggested issues for lectures, discussion, and class activity a list of questions which
can be used to generate lecture material or to stimulate class discussion and student
involvement generally in the course.

6.

Suggested videos from NFB: a list of up-to-date videos that may be useful for
demonstrating concepts, theories, and research within a Canadian context. These
are all National Film Board productions. Some may be available locally from your
university/college library. All titles may be ordered directly from the NFB at 1-800267-7710. Also check the NFB website at http://www.nfb.ca.

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INTRODUCTION
GETTING THINGS GOING: IDEAS FOR THE FIRST WEEK OF CLASSES
Student introductions
Many first year university and college students come from small communities and few of
them know each other. Here are some ways to help them become more comfortable at
university/college, and more comfortable participating in class.
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Ask students to introduce themselves to the two or three students sitting near them.
They could share information such as where they are from, what other courses they
are taking, whether they are living in residence or off-campus, etc.
Have students sifting near each other arrange to meet for coffee or lunch the
following week. You could follow up a couple of weeks later to see how many
groups managed to make the coffee/lunch date and could use this as an opportunity
to point out the value of out-of-class study groups.
Distribute 3 5 cards and ask students to write down what their biggest concern or
fear is about university/college, this course, etc. If the class is very large, instructors
can tell the class they will report on the common themes next class; or the cards
could be collected, shuffled and redistributed for anonymity. If the class is large,
students could just read for themselves the card they get and those of students
sitting nearby; or if the class is small enough, the students could read out loud the
concern written on their card. Everyone would probably not need to read since the
instructor could ask "how many of you have cards with a similar concern on them?
If the class is not too large, name chains are a good icebreaker. Each student says
their name (and, if a very small class, they could say something about themselves)
preceded by the names of the previous two or three people. A variation on this is for
the students to use only their first names and think of an appropriate alliteration to
go with it; e.g., marvellous Margaret, fabulous Freddy, windsurfing Wendy,
daredevil Dan, etc. Again each student says their own name and those of the
previous two or three students. Be sure to caution them that these names often stick
for the rest of their university/college life.
Use paired interviews. Students pair off and interview each other about name, home
town, why they are taking the course and what else they are taking. If the class is
small (e.g. tutorial) the students could then introduce each other to the whole group.

Introducing yourself
Revealing some personal aspects about yourself and why you are interested in your
discipline helps students to relate to you better and to the discipline you teach.
1.
2.

Give a bit of background information about yourself, e.g. do you have children, a
favourite sport or hobby, etc. Tell them about your own first year experience.
Tell students why you are excited about your discipline, about your research, about
the fact that you work in the summer, etc. Let them know that you are still learning
and discovering things. Talk about how you got interested in the discipline as a
student.

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Introduction to Sociology: A Canadian Focus

3.
4.

Discuss some practical applications of the field. What variety of work do graduates
in your discipline do? What exciting answers have come from your discipline?
Tell students about famous people (e.g. Nobel prize winners) in your field and their
discoveries.

Opinions from former students of the course


Students like to know what other students think of the course and they relate well to their
perspective.
1.

2.
3.

If you solicit student comments at evaluations, you could read some of them to give
students an idea about the course from the perspective of students in previous years;
so much the better if some of them are funny or fabulous.
Invite a student from a previous year to speak to them. Tell them that they made it,
what they did to be successful,
Ask the president of your University/College Student Council to come and say a
few words and talk about upcoming events.

Demonstrations and cognitive exercises


Demonstrations and cognitive exercises or games that deal with important principles in the
course always generate enthusiasm for the discipline.
1.

2.
3.
4.

5.

6.
7.

8.

9.
10.

Demonstrate a principle in science, or many other disciplines, with some


discussion; or leave the demonstration as a puzzle to be explained the next week or
even much later in the course.
Ask some questions about everyday things related to the discipline. Show how
common phenomena are related to your discipline.
Ask questions related to your discipline about which there are conflicting points of
view. Try a small debate about a controversial topic in the discipline.
Give students a problem to solve, particularly one that can be solved a number of
ways and discuss the various solutions. A variation is to get them to solve the
problem in pairs or small groups and discuss their problem solving strategies.
Get them to draw a cognitive map of how they think your discipline fits into
information they already have, perhaps into more everyday information. They could
compare their maps with those of nearby classmates, or they could compare them
with one you make.
Use a theatrical demonstration of some principle of the course.
Ask them about their assumptions regarding the discipline. Get them to question the
assumptions. Tell them whether some of them will be discussed or challenged later
in the course.
Use a survey to get at students preconceptions about your discipline. You could use
these throughout the course. Or have a handout of the right answers to give them
in the next class.
Ask students to write down what they think your discipline is all about. You could
use the funniest ones as an opener for the next lecture.
Get students to guess about an illusion or paradox, etc., something to be answered
later in the course.

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Instructors Manual

Run a discussion about how your discipline differs from others, what defines it,
e.g., How is biology different from the other sciences? Or generate a discussion
about the connections between your discipline and others.

Information about how to be successful in the course at university or college


Most instructors are aware of strategies that made them successful at university/college or
know about where students can go to get help.
1.

2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Be up front with them about how challenging the course is and tell them what skills
they will need, e.g., writing skills, problem-solving skills. Tell them about services
available at your university/college to help them acquire these skills.
Advise them about attending all classes, analyzing/clarifying notes, learning
continuously, emphasis on follow-up and taking advantage of the available
resources.
Are there tutoring services, do you have re-write policies for early reports, do you
give workshops re particular skills, e.g. writing essays or research protocols?
Check out their expectations of the course with your own.
Let them know what part of the course is your job and what part is their job.
Tell them the skills that are needed for the discipline and how best to start
developing these skills.
Discuss the difference between argument and opinion. Where is this important in
their own work for the course?
Discuss note-taking skills. Do they need to come to class prepared in some
particular way?
Tell them the rules regarding class behaviour: asking and answering questions, no
ridicule of other student responses, rules about eating or reading the paper, etc.

Information/advice about university/college in general


First year students have often complimented instructors who took time at the beginning of
the year to give them advice or information about university/college in a general way and
then sometimes tied some of the information to the particular course.
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.

Give students information about the administrative offices/officers at their


university/college. How does their course fit into a program? What are the crucial
stages for making decisions about programs? Is it possible to shift from one
program to another later on, etc.?
Where can students go for help or to complain? How can they appeal grades?
How do students get examples of tests? How helpful is this in your course?
How important is first year performance?
How does a university/college professors job/education differ from a high school
teachers job/education.

Source: Education Development Office, University of Western Ontario.

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TEACHING LARGE CLASSES


Many students find large classes alienating and frustrating. One first-year student said to
me, It took me a month to get over the fact that there were more students in this one room
than there were in my entire hometown, and where I knew everyone there, everyone in my
class was a stranger. Large, banked lectures theatres encourage passivity and dictation,
rather than comprehension and critical enquiry.
The large class can be analyzed, good teaching can be modelled, and practical
strategies can be identified. The following overview offers several practical suggestions for
teaching large classes effectively.
Expect support and accept help
All lecturers should expect a climate of support in their institution so that teaching large
classes can become exemplary. This kind of support includes access to technical
assistance and to appropriate hardware and software to support new media learning, as well
as opportunities for reduced loads, teaching assistants, and a mentor who knows the ropes.
Cover less, uncover more
Almost every lecturer has felt compelled to race to cover material. The important
question to ask yourself is why? All of us have been guilty of trying to achieve too much
in our lectures. It takes a particular kind of talent to use the lecture to: 1) motivate students;
2) transmit information not available elsewhere; and 3) teach some important concepts and
principles. Ask yourself hard questions about the relationship between the lectures and the
required texts and readings. How do they complement one another?
Do some planning
Preparing a lecture involves defining the purpose and learning outcomes you expect. Next,
identify the content you will use to reach those goals. Then use a trunk and branch or
concept map approach to determine how the pieces fit together. Ask whether you are
using an inductive or deductive approach. Make sure you have concrete examples to
illustrate the concept. Are you starting at the micro or macro level? Can you say why? Vary
your approachmoving from the general to the specific, and from the specific to the
general to suit the material and the learning needs of different students. Problem-based and
case study approaches can be invaluable for engaging student participation. Always ask-is
this necessary?
Be organized
Students, particularly younger ones in first-year classes, look to you for control of the
learning through clarity of both the structure and the presentation of your lectures. Prepare
a skeletal outline of the topics or ideas to be covered and show this on an overhead
periodically. This becomes a frame on which students can hang their notes. Further, this
will keep your focus and pacing clear. Transitions become natural (e.g. We will now look
at the second theory) because the student understands the context and the overall plan.

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Break it down
Research shows us that student attention starts to flag after 15-20 minutes of lecturing.
Students will tend to recall only the material from the first 10 minutes of the class. Because
of this, it is important not to attempt to lecture for the entire period. Divide your material
into 15- to 20-minute sections. You can ask students, for example, to summarize major
points with their neighbours. You can use this to stimulate some discussion. Students
energies are refocused and they are ready to move on. Or you can pose a question to the
entire class and then solicit a few answers. By making the students less passive, you are
engaging them more actively in the learning process and preparing them to be alert and
more ready to work with you on the next topic.
Provide a variety of experiences
It is appropriate to vary the type of instruction in large classes to encourage discussion,
interaction and involvement. Do not attempt to lecture the entire period. Each lecture
period could have some teacher talk, tasks for the student to do, and then more teacher talk
and general discussion. Form groups of 3 or 4 to discuss a problem or work on a task for a
few minutes. Have a question and answer period at the beginning or end of each class.
Present a question, and have students write their responses on an index card. Collect them
and use the information to start the next class. Call on a few students to read what they
have written. Collect all cards to discover the level of understanding of the total class. Give
feedback about this the next day. Dont leave students alone or in groups too long on openended tasks. Vary the tasks and be specific; ask for clear outcomes.
Becoming conscious of what is going on in the students heads as we talk, being
alert to feedback from students through their facial expressions, non-verbal behaviour, oral
comments, and then adjusting ones strategies in reference to these cuesthis with-itnesswill help the lecturer with his or her own reflection-in-action, and help students
to learn from the lecturer more effectively.
The problem of enhancing student learning is complex. When students regard
lectures as a waste of time, it usually means they are learning in other ways. But with
effort, there is no question that the large class can represent an effective learning
environment.
Source: James McNinch. Teaching large classes. Excerpted from TDC News, (University of Regina), 4, 3
(Fall 1998).

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ENLIVENING THE LARGE CLASS LECTURE: SOME TIPS

Use a simple, concrete image as a metaphor for more complex, abstract material.
Dont overuse the blackboardyou may lose the class when your back is turned.
Distribute skeleton handouts, which students can fill in during the class.
Use handouts to free up class time.
Assume a persona in the classroom and do unusual things.
Get students to role play.
Invite a guest lecturer.
Use a combination of teaching styles.
Use humour appropriately.

Source: Excerpted from Enlivening the Large Class Lecture, Focus (Dalhousie University), 6 (April 1992).

USING DISCUSSION IN THE CLASSROOM


Many university/college lecturers find that in-class discussion is an interesting, stimulating
and efficient teaching technique. Would it work in your course?
If presentation of new information is your only aim, discussion is not the way to do
ita traditional lecture presentation is much more efficient for this purpose, assuming the
students are motivated. However some other educational objectives can be better met by
incorporating discussions in your lectures:
1.

2.

3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.

9.

Discussion is superior in helping students learn how to think, since it converts them
from passive recipients to active participants. (Even students who dont speak up in
the discussion are stimulated, since often they consider what they would say.)
Discussion allows the students to try problem-solving or coming to grips with an
idea, with the advantage of receiving immediate feedback from their lecturer (and
classmates), before flying on their own.
Discussion can help students learn content if it is used to draw out similarities and
differences between ideas and facts.
Discussion is an excellent way to reveal students attitudes on an issue, and to
identify conflicts between different values.
Discussion dramatically increases student involvement in classes, and can be used
effectively in a lecture to provide the change of pace needed to re-stimulate the
students.
Discussion can motivate students to work harder, as students appreciate having their
ideas and independence encouraged.
Discussion can be used to abstract generalities from concrete situations and
examples.
Discussion provides the lecturer with immediate feedback concerning how
effectively material presented during the lecture has been understood and received
by the students.
Extensive use of discussions is essential in academic subjects in which various
schools of thought exist and in which students need to understand the controversies
and develop a reasonable position of their own. Discussions are usually considered
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Instructors Manual

to be less valuable in subjects in which the main object is to transfer an established


set of facts, concepts, principles and skills. However, discussions are useful for
promoting thought about information already acquired, for fixing it in long-term
memory, and in helping to achieve the higher levels of cognitive learning, i.e.
comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation. Thus some
discussion is appropriate in all courses.
How to get discussion started
To create an atmosphere conducive to discussion, an instructor should begin by asking a
short, simple question of the students. The best questions are not those with factual answers
or ones for which the instructor obviously has his/her own correct answer. Rather, use
the word YOU in the question and emphasize that it is the students personal thoughts that
are being requested, not a right answer. Go for thoughts, interpretations, and feelings,
not for facts! You may ask, for example, What stands out in your mind about this theory?
or Are you in agreement with this conclusion? (One expert points out that for every one
of the objectives attainable by discussion ...it is more desirable for students to give their
personal opinions or arguments than factual answers.)
Although phrasing questions in the YOU mode removes much of the anxiety
students experience about responding, the way in which the instructor responds to their
comments has an even more profound effect. Reinforce or treat positively in some other
way every student who makes a contributioneven if the comment is inappropriate or
wrong. Select and emphasize those portions that were insightful, white indicating that the
response was not completely what was expected. Thus, an instructor should thank
contributors for trying, or abstract something positive from their contribution.
Starting a discussion is easiest if the class is already emotionally aroused; for
example, by a common experience such as a demonstration or film/video or a reading, by
reference to a current event, or by the statement of the important parts on both sides of a
controversy.
Instructors must also be willing to wait for the first student response, and not give
up when one is not immediately forthcoming. After stating your question, wait at least ten
(long) seconds, scanning the audience slowly during this interval. If no response comes,
begin moving slowly toward an object on which you eventually can lean or sit, and repeat
the question in a shorter and slightly modified form. Then calmly ask for any association
at all and prop yourself against whatever object you choseand begin the count again.
This technique is reputed to be almost infallible.
An alternative approach is to ask students to think about the question for a few
seconds and then to jot down one element that might help answer it. This technique
increases the chance that shyer class members will participate.
How to keep the discussion going
Once it has been initiated, the role of the instructor is to guide and control gently the
discussion by making brief remarks or asking additional questions that follow from
students comments.
Eye contact with the student who is speaking, and nonverbal cues such as smiling
and nodding, encourage participation. Conversely, overly talkative students can be
controlled by not looking in their direction when you ask the question, by turning your

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back slightly to them, and calling upon them quickly sometimes, but systematically
ignoring them at other times. A second technique is to walk away from an overly talkative
person (without turning your back entirely) when he or she has the floor.
Discussion is most effective if the group tackles the various aspects of a problem
one at a time, rather than skipping around. Often, the first task is to clarify the problem to
ensure that each member knows what it is. In many types of discussions, the next phase is
to decide what information is relevant, then to move on to discussion of possible solutions
(or at least of their characteristics) and finally to evaluate the solutions.
Large classes (more than 50 students) can be divided into buzz groups, each of
which discusses the problem, or aspects of it, for a few minutes. Many more students get to
talk, but less group learning may occur as the instructor cannot make comments on
individual points raised in each group. A representative from each buzz group reports the
consensus of that unit on the problem at hand.
Alternatively, if particular groups are asked to develop pros and cons on a particular
issue, a short mini-debate between the leaders of two buzz groups can then occur.
Instructors should not launch into extensive comments of their own or a two or
three minute mini-lecture after the first few comments, if they wish to keep the
discussion going. Such activity should be reserved for points at which you wish to shift the
focus or to terminate discussion. Note, also, that generating further volunteers with the
phrase Someone else... (without particular emphasis on either word) is much more
inviting than Anyone else...?, which suggests that discussion is (almost) over.
If a student makes a lengthy discussion comment, it is useful after a time for the
instructor to glance around the classroom from time to time in order to keep the attention of
the class.
Terminating the discussion
Most benefits from a discussion in class are achieved in 10-15 minutes, although much
shorter or much longer time segments are warranted in special cases.
Usually it is appropriate to give the students a warning that discussion is about to
end (or to be switched to another topic) by asking whether there are any additional
comments before the ideas are tied together.
All discussions should terminate with a summary from the instructor. A more
forceful voice and stronger body movements associated with lecturing show students that
youve shifted gears and that they should resume their role as listeners at this point. (The
discussion should also be terminated before it begins to flag significantly: this will leave
them eager to participate again in your class.)
Source: Using discussion in your class. 1986. Reflections (University of Western
Ontario) 17 (September), pp. 1-2.

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DISCIPLINE AND CONTROL IN LARGE CLASSES


Common discipline problems are exacerbated by the large class. Lateness is made worse if
the tardy student has to climb up ten stairs and disturb twenty students in order to sit down.
Chattering is more disruptive when you can hear the culprits but cant see them well
enough to make eye contact. It is important to deal with these disruptive incidents
expeditiously, effectively, and constructively, always avoiding the creation of an
adversarial attitude.
In a smaller class it is possible to know your students better. Often more knowledge is all it
takes to solve a problem. A student may be chronically late because the class he or she
takes before yours is on the other side of campusand the professor always goes overtime.
The student who falls asleep in class regularly or seems otherwise distracted may be a
single parent working part-time to pay for tuition.
In a large class, however, anonymity may make it easier for students to challenge
the teachers authority in subtle, or not so subtle, ways.
There are other aspects of discipline and control that concern the large class
teacher:

Detecting and dealing with lack of motivation among students.

Addressing the different learning styles and objectives of the students within the
limits a large class imposes.

Gauging students self-discipline and mastery of the subject mailer.


A lack of student motivation may be a major reason for diminished discipline and control
in the classroom. Student motivation, then, is seen as a key to understanding, and
preventing disruptive behaviour in large classes; perhaps the disruptors feel that their
backgrounds, goals, and previous experiences are not being recognized by the instructor.
Thus, they become bored and dissatisfied, especially if the class is compulsory. This may
result in such disruptive behaviours as openly confronting a professor through excessive
questioning in class and asking mocking or provocative questions (e.g. Isnt that too
obvious?) which are designed to challenge a professors authority or convictions.
Professors who see a general lack of attention or motivation in a specific class
should speak openly to the class about it and, in an effort to improve the students selfdiscipline and responsibility, ask them how they would resolve the perceived problem.
There are several practical ways to improve students motivation and attentiveness:

Take attendance at tutorials

Assign marks for tutorials

Allocate marks for attendance at class

Show students that there are ways to learn outside the lecture: library, audio-visual
approaches, private reading

Give pop quizzes

Tell students theyve paid for the class; you owe it to them

Make contracts with the students


Of course, occasional chatter or inattention is different from chronic disruptiveness. While
the former may be dealt with quickly and effectively -through eye contact, the use of
humour, or moving toward the chattering students, the latter requires a more serious

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remedy. You may want to stop lecturing to deal with the problem. In these cases it is
important to focus on how the behaviour affects your teaching.
Source: Excerpted from Discipline and Control in Large Classes, Focus (Dalhousie University), 6 (April
1992).

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY
Gedalof, Allan J. Teaching Large Classes. Dalhousie: Dalhousie University Press, 1997.
Gibbs, G. and A. Jenkins, eds. Teaching Large Classes in Higher Education. London:
Kogan Page, 1992.
McKeachie, W.J. Teaching Tips: Strategies, Research, and Theory for College and
University Teachers. 9th ed. Lexington: Heath, 1994.
Weimer, Maryellen. 1990. Participation in Large Classes, Teaching Professor 4,2
(1990): 3-4.

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Canada

Chapter 1
WHAT IS SOCIOLOGY?
CHAPTER OUTLINE
Introduction
Sociology: Its Modern Origins and Varieties
Functionalism
Conflict theory
Symbolic interactionism and the micro perspective
Feminist Theories
Sociology in Canada
Future Challenges
Questions for Review and Critical Thinking
Key Terms
Suggested Readings
Websites
Key Search Terms
Answers to Test Your Powers of Prediction

CHAPTER SUMMARY
The study of sociology strives to explain why members of some groups behave differently
than members of other groups. The groups include whole societies that share a common
territory and way of life, such as Canada and the United States; smaller groups that share
the same status, such as trade unionists, doctors, or right-to-life advocates; and even social
categories, individuals who may not see themselves as forming social groups at all, but
who possess some social characteristic in common, such as having no children, being over
six feet tall, or living in the same province. Thus, sociology attempts to answer such
questions as why the U.S. has more crime than Canada, why the crime rate in British
Columbia is higher than that in Newfoundland, why fewer women than men are in certain
professions, how cohabiting couples differ from those who are married, or why some
Quebecers are attracted to separatism while others are not.
This chapter discusses the history of sociology and its main variants or
perspectives, compares it to other social sciences, and characterizes its development in
Canada.

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Instructors Manual

OBJECTIVES
This chapter provides information that should allow your students:
1.

To be able to define sociology and to distinguish it from other social sciences.

2.

To be familiar with the historical sources and development of the discipline.

3.

To understand the major theoretical positions taken by sociologists to explain


human interaction, including functionalist, conflict, symbolic-interactionist, and
feminist perspectives.

4.

To be familiar with the history of Canadian sociology.

IMPORTANT TERMS AND CONCEPTS


Students should also be familiar with the following terms and concepts. Definitions are found
in the Key Terms section at the end of each chapter and at the end of the text.
conflict theory
dysfunctions
equilibrium
functionalism
learning theory
rational choice theory
social facts
symbolic interactionism

SUGGESTED ISSUES FOR LECTURES, DISCUSSION AND CLASS ACTIVITY


1.

What are the social characteristics of your students? Either using a show of hands or
a more formal questionnaire, ask them to indicate their age, sex, size of hometown,
etc. You may also want to include attitudinal or behavioural items. You may then
tabulate and present the results. Students will be interested in learning about
themselves as a group, and you may use the information to illustrate the
sociological method, or simply to provide examples which support or call into
question theoretical propositions presented in the chapters which follow.

2.

What kind of predictions might sociology help us make about Canada in the 21st
century?

3.

What is, or should be, the role of sociology in contemporary society? Should it be
used simply to study society; or to help change it?

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Introduction to Sociology: A Canadian Focus

4.

Choose one social phenomenon or event (e.g. the evolution of womens rights in
Canada in the 20th century), and attempt to explain this using Functionalism,
Conflict Theory, Symbolic Interactionism and Feminism.

5.

In what ways are French-Canadian and English-Canadian sociology different?


What could be done to help bridge the gap between the two?

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Instructors Manual

Chapter 2
RESEARCH METHODS
CHAPTER OUTLINE
Introduction
Quantitative and Qualitative Methods
One quantitative option: Survey research
A qualitative strategy: Participant observation
The Methods Compared
A common omission: Historical and comparative issues
Summary
Writing a Sociology Library Research Paper
Questions for Review and Critical Thinking
Key Terms
Suggested Readings
Web Sites
Key Search Terms

CHAPTER SUMMARY
The discussions of Durkheim and Weber begun in the Introduction were continued in this
chapter, this time with respect to their different research strategies. Durkheim was
associated with quantitative research, Weber with qualitative research and participant
observation. The place of theory and hypothesis, types of models, measurement issues,
sampling, and simple analysis were presented for both, and their strengths and weaknesses
compared. Included in boxes in the chapter were alternative strategies such as content
analysis and experiments, along with Marxist and feminist comments on methods, and a
further elaboration of qualitative methods. The chapter concludes with a statement on the
importance of conducting ethical research and a summary of how to write a sociology
library research paper.

OBJECTIVES
This chapter provides information that should allow your students:
1.

To understand why sociologists conduct research and to appreciate the distinction


between qualitative and quantitative methods.

2.

To understand and be able to compare the workings of two major approaches


survey research and participant observationon the following: theory, complexity
of model, measurement, sampling, and data analysis, and to know the advantages
and disadvantages of each.

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Canada

Introduction to Sociology: A Canadian Focus

3.

To be aware of other specific research alternatives, like experiments and content


analysis, as well as some general approaches to methods, including Marxist and
female-friendly science.

IMPORTANT TERMS AND CONCEPTS


Students should also be familiar with the following terms and concepts. Definitions are found
in the Key Terms section at the end of each chapter and at the end of the text.
axiomatic logic
cluster sampling
content analysis
control group
control variables
correlation
cross-sectional research
deductive logic
dependent variables
experimental group
external validity
grounded theory
hypothesis
independent variables
inductive logic
longitudinal research

operational definition
participant observation
positivism
praxis
primary versus secondary sources
quota sample
random sample
reliability
replication
secondary analysis
spurious relationship
theory
triangulation
validity
variable
verstehen

SUGGESTED ISSUES FOR LECTURES, DISCUSSION AND CLASS ACTIVITY


1.

Which of the following projects are better investigated using quantitative methods?
Qualitative methods?
a) a study of rates of alcoholism among the elderly
b) an investigation of abuse at nursing homes
c) a study of the relationship between class attendance and marks at university
d) an analysis of how siblings relate to each other in later in life

2.

Choose any two of the prospective studies above (one quantitative and qualitative),
construct research projects using the appropriate theory, model, measurement,
sampling, etc., and then predict results for each.

3.

Ask students to collect a series of newspaper articles on a particular topic (e.g.,


terrorism) and then to discern themes and tendencies using content analysis.

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Canada

Instructors Manual

4.

A major soft drink company claims that one out of two people questioned in a
random taste test survey preferred the taste of its product over a competitors.
Statistically speaking, why is this claim not really very impressive?

5.

What information would you need to know about an Internet-based piece of


information or research article before using it as evidence in a paper for an
introductory course in sociology?

SUGGESTED VIDEOS FROM THE NATIONAL FILM BOARD


Asking Different Questions: Women and Science
How do women fare in the world of science? Asking Different Questions explores the
difficulties women scientists have faced in their fields. But it goes beyond the question of
womens participation to explore what women bring to science. In their desire to dismantle
the illusion of objectivity and the elitism of science, women are developing a new science
that is compassionate, holistic and socially responsible. From a Black township in South
Africa, to a boot factory in Quebec, to the forests of northern Ontario, this video follows
five women scientists as they work with communities and with the environment. (51
minutes)

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Canada

Introduction to Sociology: A Canadian Focus

Chapter 3
CULTURE
CHAPTER OUTLINE
Introduction
Some Basic Concepts
Values and norms
Social roles
Some additional terms
Aspects of Culture
Cultural variation
Is globalization reducing cultural variation?
Canadians and Americans: Are we the same or different?
Cultural universals
Cultural integration
Studying Culture
When cultures collide: Studying First Nations communities
Theoretical Perspectives on Culture
Functionalism
Conflict theory
Cultural materialism
Feminism(s)
From Sociology to cultural studies
Summary
Questions for Review and Critical Thinking
Key Terms
Suggested Readings
Web Sites
Key Search Terms

CHAPTER SUMMARY
Social life is patterned, not random, and much of this patterning can be attributed to the fact
that every social group possesses a culture. A cultural element is something held in
common by the members of a group, that affects their behaviour or the way they view the
world, and is passed on to new members. A groups culture is simply the sum total of all
the cultural elements associated with that group. There are many types of cultural elements,
but the three most important ones for sociologists are values, norms, and roles.
Most students of culture are concerned with three observations: (1) that the content
of culture varies greatly across the totality of the worlds societies; (2) that very few
cultural elements are found in all the worlds societies; and (3) that the elements of a given
culture are often interrelated. However, much of what we see when studying cultures,
whether our own or some other, is vulnerable to distortions produced by pre-existing

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Canada

Instructors Manual

biases. Ethnocentrism is always a danger, and Eurocentrism and androcentrism are


especially common. The fact that different cultures can literally see the same things in
different ways means that sociologists have a special responsibility to behave ethically
when studying cultures other than their own.
The most important theoretical perspectives used in the study of culture are: (1)
functionalism, (2) conflict theory, (3) cultural materialism, and (4) feminism. Cultural
studies is an interdisciplinary approach to the study of culture that is becoming increasingly
popular among sociologists.

OBJECTIVES
This chapter provides information that should allow your students:
1.

To define culture and to distinguish and understand its major sociological aspects.

2.

Generally to be aware of the existence of cultural variation and of some cultural


differences between the United States and Canada.

3.

To begin to consider the complexity of ethical issues involved when nonIndigenous sociologists study First Nations, Mtis, and Inuit cultures.

4.

To appreciate cultural integration, the lack of cultural universals, and ethnocentrism, especially Eurocentrism, infantilization, Orientalism, and androcentrism.

5.

To understand cultural studies and how the major theories (functionalism, conflict
theory, cultural materialism, and feminism) explain cultural variation.

IMPORTANT TERMS AND CONCEPTS


Students should also be familiar with the following terms and concepts. Definitions are
found in the Key Terms section at the end of each chapter and at the end of the text.
androcentrism
cultural element
cultural integration
cultural materialism
cultural universals
culture
ethnocentrism
Eurocentrism
folkways
functionalism
infantilization

institution
mores
norms
Orientalism
popular culture
role
role conflict
society
subculture
urban legends
values

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Canada

Introduction to Sociology: A Canadian Focus

SUGGESTED ISSUES FOR LECTURES, DISCUSSION AND CLASS ACTIVITY


1.

Ask students about the differences they notice between members of different
ethnic/cultural groups in terms of values, norms, material culture, etc. Are
Canadians different from Americans in these regards?

2.

How are the mother and father roles in Canada changing? Why is this
happening?

3.

Discuss the effects of globalization on culture in a Canadian and developing world


context.

4.

How might growing acceptance of same-sex marriage in Canada today be explained


from the point of view of functionalism? Conflict theory? Feminism? etc.

5.

Is there such a thing as a Canadian culture? What are its defining elements?

6.

Is it ethical for a museum to hold and display objects taken from Indigenous
cultures, when those communities are asking that those objects be returned? What
cultural values are at play in a museums practice of keeping and lending out
cultural objects for use in First Nations rituals? What cultural values are at play in
keeping the bones of Indigenous Peoples ancestors in museum holdings?

SUGGESTED VIDEOS FROM THE NATIONAL FILM BOARD


They Live to Polka
It happens every year. From early April until late September, the Canadian Prairies are
home to a joyous phenomenonthe polka festival. In small towns across the western
plains, thousands of people gather to pay homage to polka music and to indulge their
passion for intensely rhythmic celebration. They arrive in brand-new Lincolns, motor
homes and half-ton trucks. Theyre 25, 45 and 85 years old, wearing party clothes or blue
jeans. The one trait they share: a passion for polka. This quirky Prairie film celebrates a
culture of festivals, contests and even a Sunday polka Massin an irresistible swirl of
unrelenting good feelings. Live performances of popular polka bands from Canada and the
USA figure prominently, and are shown as the glue that binds this unique subculture
together in irrepressible musical delight. (46 minutes)
Totem Talk
Traditional Northwestern Native spiritual images combine with cutting-edge computer
animation in this surreal story about the power of tradition. Three urban Native teens are
whisked away to an imaginary land by a magical raven. Here, the young people meet a
totem pole whose characters (a raven, a frog and a bear) come to life, becoming their
teachers, guides and friendsdemonstrating their significance to Northwest Native

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Canada

10

Instructors Manual

cultures and allowing the teens to understand the strength of their own traditions. Featuring
a special interview segment with J. Bradley Hunt, the celebrated Northwest Coast Native
artist on whose work the computer-animated characters in Totem Talk are based (22
minutes)

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Canada

Introduction to Sociology: A Canadian Focus

11

Chapter 4
SOCIALIZATION
CHAPTER OUTLINE
Introduction
Defining Socialization
Issues in the Study of Socialization
Perspectives on Socialization
Sociological perspectives
Cultural anthropology
Socialization Contexts and Agents
Social context and the life course
Summary
Questions for Review and Critical Thinking
Key Terms
Suggested Readings
Web Sites
Key Search Terms

CHAPTER SUMMARY
In this chapter, socialization was defined from a variety of perspectives, all of which
involve teaching or inducing people to fit into, and cooperate with, human groups. From
these definitions arose a number of issues associated with how much influence societies
have in determining peoples behaviour and how much personal control people can exert
over their own behaviour in the face of cultural influences and societal pressures. In
addition to cultural influences, scientists have also argued that evolutionary-based genetics
play a role in how people behave, both in terms of personality traits and in terms of how
societies are structured. Referred to as the nature-nurture debate, positions have been
adopted along the range, from total genetic influence to total cultural influence. Given the
focus of this chapter, the impact of culture was emphasized with the acknowledgment that
much remains to be learned about genetic influences and how they interact with cultural
ones.
Within sociology, three perspectives have dominated the field. Functionalists
emphasize the integrative function of socialization in maintaining existing social structures.
Conflict theorists question how benign these socialization processes are, arguing that they
often serve to perpetuate economic inequalities and social injustice. Symbolic
interactionists, in contrast, focus on the micro level of analysis in terms of how individuals
learn to interact with each other through negotiating and sharing symbols embodied in the
language and role-playing.
While sociologists tend to be interested in the contexts and content of socialization,
cultural anthropologists study variations in socialization practices between cultures, and
within cultures historically.

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Instructors Manual

The substantive portion of this chapter focused on socialization contexts and agents,
illustrating these in terms of how identity formation in the transition to adulthood has been
transformed in Canadian society. Socialization contexts vary in the extent to which they
can and do exert influence over people. In many contexts, people resist attempts to
influence them, leading to unintended consequences and a variety of socialization
problems. Socialization contexts also vary over the life course of the individual, and they
have changed over the course of history. Using a 200-year time frame and five social
contexts, it was argued that the family and religion have declined in the extent to which
they socialize young people for adulthood and their place in the community, while
education, peers, and mass culture have increased in influenced. It appears that
increasingly, the socialization of new recruits to adulthood is in the hands of bureaucracies
and businesses, rather than parents and other concerned adults.

OBJECTIVES
This chapter provides information that should allow your students:
1.

Using a variety of perspectives, to define socialization, to be aware of functionalist,


conflict, feminist, and symbolic interactionist perspectives on it and to appreciate
the content and limits of the nature versus nurture debate.

2.

To understand how cultural anthropology describes the relationships among


socialization practices, cultural patterns, and individual personality characteristics.

3.

To be aware of the various socialization agents and contexts and how they have
changed over the past 200 years.

IMPORTANT TERMS AND CONCEPTS


Students should also be familiar with the following terms and concepts. Definitions are
found in the Key Terms section at the end of each chapter and at the end of the text.
anticipatory socialization
configurative culture
defective socialization
disjunctive socialization
epigenetic
generalized other
I and me
inadequate socialization
individualization
looking-glass self
nature versus nurture

normative structure
postfigurative culture
prefigurative culture
role system
role-taking
self-socialization
significant others
social reproduction
socialization
socialization ratio

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Canada

Introduction to Sociology: A Canadian Focus

13

SUGGESTED ISSUES FOR LECTURES, DISCUSSION AND CLASS ACTIVITY


1.

Explore the nature versus nurture debate. Is there such a thing as a true or
inner self? From personal experience, how much of who we areour
personalityis inborn? How much is acquired or learned?

2.

Use Functionalism, Conflict Theory, Feminist, and Symbolic Interactionism to


explore aspects of learning and acquiring personality.

3.

What are some concrete examples of defective socialization? Can these be


corrected through re-learning?

4.

Can the Internet, as an expression of popular culture, be seen as a socializing agent


in society today? If so, in what ways does it perform this role?

5.

Of the three educational levels, primary, secondary, and post-secondary, which is


most important in the socialization process? Why?

SUGGESTED VIDEOS FROM THE NATIONAL FILM BOARD


Salt
Made by four 17-year-old directors with help from a professional crew, Salt is a four-part
filmzine: four films, four flavours, four windows into youth culture. These provocative 20minute moviezines made by high school students provide an insiders look at youth culture.
The four 17-year-olds explore such issues as alternative education, Montreals flourishing
independent music scene, the troubling practice of self-mutilation and a quest for the punk
subculture. (79 minutes)
Strangers in the House
By the time they leave school, most North American children will have seen 8000 TV
murders, 100 000 other acts of violence and over 600 000 commercials. TV violence and
addiction, commercialism, the V-chip and the death of imaginationthese are just some of
the key issues tackled by this documentary on the worlds most powerful medium.
Strangers in the House features interviews with culture critic Neil Postman; George
Gerbner, the guru of TV violence studies; John Pungente of the Jesuit Communication
Projectand, of course, TV-watching kids. While Strangers in the House raises troubling
questions about TV, it avoids simplistic solutions and inspires both parents and children to
action. It suggests that one of the ways to counter TVs more sinister effects is to widely
promote media literacyso that children can learn to be smarter than television. (52
minutes)

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Canada

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Instructors Manual

Chapter 5
DEVIANCE
CHAPTER OUTLINE
Introduction
The Relativism of Deviance
The Relationship between Crime and Deviance
Studying Crime and Deviance
Official data
Victimization and self-report studies
Ethnography
Deviance
Manners
Deviance and the human body
Theories of Crime
Prescientific theories
Classical criminology
Environmental criminology
Biological and psychological theories
Functionalism
Strain
Feminism
Differential association
Labelling
Social-control theory
Conflict-structural explanations
Summary
Questions for Review and Critical Thinking
Key Terms
Suggested Readings
Web Sites
Key Search Terms

CHAPTER SUMMARY
This chapter has sought to accomplish something that at first seems paradoxical it has
tried to demonstrate that deviance, rather than being rare and exceptional, is actually
remarkably common. Issues pertaining to deviance and normality pervade our daily lives. It
is only when informal social norms about something like manners are broken that we are
reminded of the existence of those norms, and of the degree to which we might be offended
when they are violated. We have also sought to foster an appreciation for the degree to
which deviance varies across cultures, subcultures, and throughout history. Deviance, like
beauty, is often in the eye of the beholder.

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Canada

Introduction to Sociology: A Canadian Focus

15

Society reacts to most forms of deviance in an informal fashion, through the


interpersonal process of shaming or perhaps by ostracizing deviant individuals. This can
involve a process of stigmatization, prompting certain classes of individuals to embrace
practices that will help them pass as normal. Cosmetic surgery is one example of such a
process. Our discussion of bodily transformation also helped to accentuate some of the
tensions inherent in social norms and efforts to pass. Norms can be something that social
groups aspire toward, but they can also occasionally be something that individuals
explicitly seek to challenge. Since the 1970s one of the most important developments in the
social dynamics of deviance has involved the emergence of groups who actively embrace
previously tainted designations.
When dominant social groups deem that a particular deviant behaviour is
sufficiently serious to justify formal state sanctioning, these acts are elevated to the status
of a crime. The line separating crimes and deviance can be complicated and are often
highly politicized. On any given day a host of different moral entrepreneurs advocate for
changes in how society responds to assorted forms of deviant (or potentially deviant)
behaviours.
The study of deviance draws upon a wide range of research methodologies. In
sociology this includes the analysis of official crime data, victimization studies, self-report
studies, and ethnographies. Each approach draws upon a different form of data, and is
consequently limited by the particular characteristics of how those data are produced.
Criminologists are frequently concerned that certain forms of deviance or crime are
excluded or under-represented by different data sources.
The data produced by these different methodologies only make sense when looked
at through the lenses provided by different theories. The theories advanced to understand
the dynamics related to crime and deviance have been extremely diverse. The earliest
theories explained deviance through appeal to a religious world-view, something that is not
apparent in todays largely secular research environment. Nonetheless, many citizens
continue to view issues of deviance in ways that are informed by religious principles.
The sheer variety of theories that have been advanced to try to explain deviance
point out the complexity of trying to explain not only deviance, but any human behaviour.
Different theories have different ambitions. Some, for example, seek to reduce crime, while
others aim to unmask patriarchy, and still others hope to trace how contemporary
definitions of crime serve established capitalist interests. Some propose that deviance is not
necessarily an entirely bad thing, in that it can serve important social functions. As the
study of crime and deviance advances, arguably the biggest challenge for the future will
involve the question of how to balance and integrate the insights of these different
perspectives.

OBJECTIVES
This chapter provides information that should allow your students:
1.

To understand that deviance is culturally relative, and that what is considered


deviant varies across cultures and across time.

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Instructors Manual

2.

To be able to differentiate between crime and deviance.

3.

To be aware of the strengths and weaknesses of the various ways in which deviance
and crime are studied in North America, including the study of official data,
victimization and self-report studies, and ethnography.

4.

To consider various theories of crime and deviance. These will include classical
criminology, functionalism, social-control theory, and other explanations.

IMPORTANT TERMS AND CONCEPTS


Students should also be familiar with the following terms and concepts. Definitions are
found in the Key Terms section at the end of each chapter and at the end of the text.
abnormal
anomie
civilizing process
classical criminology
contraculture (counterculture)
crime
crime funnel
critical school (also radical school)
dark figure of crime
differential association
displacement
environmental criminology
ethnography or participant observation
formal social control mechanisms
gendered norms
hedonistic calculus
informal social control mechanisms
innovation
liberation hypothesis

manners or etiquette
norm
pathologizing
pluralism
power-control theory
primary deviance
reaction formation
rebellion
ritualism
relativism
retreatism
rule breakers
self-fulfilling prophecy
self-report studies
sensibilities
stigma
techniques of neutralization
victim survey

SUGGESTED ISSUES FOR LECTURES, DISCUSSION AND CLASS ACTIVITY


1.

Get your students to think of examples of activities which may be deviant in some
cultures, but not in others. Are there some practices that are deviant across all
cultures?

2.

What are some of the positive functions that deviance may have in society?

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Canada

Introduction to Sociology: A Canadian Focus

17

3.

Consider a deviant behaviour, e.g., alcohol abuse, and demonstrate how the process
of labelling is in effect a self-fulfilling prophecy.

4.

Attempt to explain wife abuse using different approaches; e.g. biological,


psychological, social structural, social process and/or feminist approaches. Which
approach appears to work best?

5.

How and why do certain social factors (e.g., poverty, education, etc.) affect rates of
deviance?

SUGGESTED VIDEOS FROM THE NATIONAL FILM BOARD


Sentenced to Life
Will Diane Charron ever be free? She began a life sentence behind bars in 1981 when she
was entangled in a friends act of revenge and ended up stabbing a stranger to death. She
had just turned 19. We follow the story of Dianes life, from her own testimony and that of
corrections officers, prison case-workers and psychiatrists. Many show remarkable
sympathy and affection for a troubled woman whose early life was marked by abuse. Diane
was placed in foster care with an abusive alcoholic when she was only 18 months old, a
misery that ended only at age 13. Diane has been shuttled back and forth between various
prisons and psychiatric hospitalsa personal hell, yet she is hopeful about the future.
Sentenced to Life asks serious questions about prisoners with mental health problems. (70
minutes)
Hollow Water
More than a decade ago, members of a tiny Ojibway reserve on the shores of Lake
Winnipeg set out to take justice into their own hands. Hollow Water, in Central Manitoba,
is home to 450 peoplemany of them victims of sexual abuse. The offenders have left a
legacy of pain and denial, addiction and suicide. By law, they were the responsibility of the
Manitoba justice system. But jail had not stopped offenders in the past. "Punishing people
and telling them they needed to heal didnt make sense," says one community counsellor.
Instead, Hollow Water chose to bring the offenders home to face justice in a community
healing and sentencing circle. Based on traditional practices, this unique model is reuniting
families and healing both victims and their offenders. Hollow Water documents the moving
journey of one family, torn apart by years of abuse, who struggle to confront their past.
This is a powerful tribute to one communitys ability to heal and change. (48 minutes)

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Canada

18

Instructors Manual

Chapter 6
SOCIAL INEQUALITY
CHAPTER OUTLINE
Introduction
Concepts and Definitions
Power
Status and stratum
Status hierarchies and power dimensions
Ascribed and achieved status
Social mobility
Class and social class
Major Theories of Social Inequality
Marx: class, conflict, and the power of property
Webers critique of Marx
Structural functionalism: Consensus, individualism, and pluralism
Combining the major theories to explain modern systems of inequality
Social Inequality in Canada
Socioeconomic hierarchies I: Wealth, Income, and Property
Socioeconomic hierarchies II: Occupation
Socioeconomic hierarchies III: Education
Racial and ethnic inequality
Regional and rural/urban inequalities
Gender inequality in Canada
Age and social inequality
Political power and social inequality
Summary
Questions for Review and Critical Thinking
Key Terms
Suggested Readings
Web Sites
Key Search Terms

CHAPTER SUMMARY
This chapter has introduced you to the topic of social inequality in Canadian society. We
looked at basic concepts and definitions and discussed the major theories advanced to
explain the process of social inequality in modern societies. We proposed eight principal
components to consider when examining Canadas system of inequality: wealth (including
income and property), occupation, education, race or ethnicity, region or rural/urban
location, gender, age, and political status. Each of these is the basis for a status hierarchy
and corresponding power ranking, reflecting the distribution of resources and privileges in
the population.

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Canada

Introduction to Sociology: A Canadian Focus

19

Our analysis indicates some fairly close linkages among the eight status hierarchies,
with high status on one hierarchy often associated with high status on the others. Certain
rankings seem to have a relatively greater influence. In particular, power deriving from
wealth and property tends to have the greatest impact on the overall system of social
inequality. The group that dominates in this hierarchy, the economic elite, is the single
most powerful entity in the structure. Along with the political leadership, or state elite, they
make most of the major decisions affecting the operation of the country, the distribution of
wealth and resources, and the extent of inequality experienced by other Canadians.
And what can we say about the future of social inequality in Canada? Is it possible
to predict whether the current patterns will continue as they are, or change in dramatic
ways as we enter the new millennium? Different researchers are bound to offer different
answers to such questions. However, the evidence we have reviewed in this chapter
indicates that social inequality will remain a significant problem in our society for many
years to come. Of course, there is reason to be optimistic that there will be some decline in
the amount of inequality on certain dimensions. For example, the gradual increases in
womens occupation, income, and especially education levels that we have seen in recent
decades seem likely to be sustained in the future. At the same time though, the evidence
offers little basis for expecting much improvement in other areas. This is illustrated by the
absence of any real change in the unequal distribution of income and wealth to the rich and
the poor in Canada over the last half-century or more, and by the increasing concentration
of ownership among large-scale business enterprises in this same period. Together, these
patterns suggest that Canada, like other capitalist societies, will continue to be a country in
which major inequalities exist between the powerful and the powerless, or the haves and
the have-nots. These are much the same inequalities that sociologists have been studying
since the time of Marx and Weber, and they seem destined to be subjects of concern to us
for the foreseeable future.

OBJECTIVES
This chapter provides information that should allow your students:
1.

To understand the basic concepts of social stratification: status, stratum, status


hierarchies and power, ascribed and achieved status, social mobility, class, and
social class.

2.

To understand several of the major theories of social stratification, including


Marxist, Weberian, and structural-functionalist positions.

3.

To be aware of Canadas stratification structure, including the eight most important


factors of social differentiation and their interrelationships: wealth and property,
occupation, education, race/ethnicity, region and rural-urban location, gender, age,
and political power.

4.

To realize some of the major consequences of stratification for people, including its
effects on life chances, lifestyles, values, and beliefs.

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Canada

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Instructors Manual

IMPORTANT TERMS AND CONCEPTS


Students should also be familiar with the following terms and concepts. Definitions are
found in the Key Terms section at the end of each chapter and at the end of the text.
achieved status
proletariat
ascribed status
social class
bourgeoisie
social differentiation
class
social inequality
class for itself
status
class in itself
status consistency
class, status group, party
status hierarchy
horizontal mobility
status inconsistency
institutionalized power
status set
intergenerational mobility
stratum
intragenerational mobility
vertical mobility
power

SUGGESTED ISSUES FOR LECTURES, DISCUSSION AND CLASS ACTIVITY


1.

Generally speaking, university and college students have very low incomes. Can
they uniformly be said to be members of the lower class? Why not?

2.

Anyone can succeed in life if they try. Is social mobility a myth or reality in
Canada? What factors are most likely to aid/hinder mobility?

3.

Is there evidence for the notion of a Marxian ruling class in Canada?

4.

Why do some parts of Canada continue to be wealthier than others? What can be
done to minimize regional disparities?

5.

Why do people value some occupations more than others? Are doctors really more
important (and therefore deserving of higher pay) than nurses, or even sanitation
workers? What factors maintain differences in levels of occupational prestige?

SUGGESTED VIDEOS FROM THE NATIONAL FILM BOARD


East Side Showdown
This film is a gripping account of class warfare in Canadas biggest city. Filmmaker Robin
Benger presents a diverse cast of real-life charactersfrom a prostitute to an Anglican
ministerin a gritty tale of conflict in the downtown Toronto district of Dundas and
Sherbourne. A superb cinema-verite documentary, says Starweek, a memorable look-at
how the system grinds the poor, and how the poor grind back. (60 minutes)

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Canada

Introduction to Sociology: A Canadian Focus

21

The Things I Cannot Change


This film is a look at a family (the Baileys) in trouble in the late 1960s, seen from the
inside. There is the trouble with the police, the begging for stale bread at the convent, the
birth of another child, and the father who explains his familys predicament. Although
filmed in Montreal, this is the anatomy of poverty as it occurs in North America, seen by a
camera that became part of the familys life for several weeks. (58 minutes)

Courage to Change
A remarkable sequel to The Things I Cannot Change, it explores what happened to the
Bailey family 18 years after the first documentary was made. (54 minutes)

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Canada

22

Instructors Manual

Chapter 7
GENDER RELATIONS
CHAPTER OUTLINE
Introduction
Biological and Social Determinism
Numeracy and literacy differences
Sex and Gender: Some Definitions
Major Theoretical Perspectives on Gender
Structural functionalism
The symbolic interactionist perspective
A Marxist conflict perspective
Feminist perspectives
Three Areas of Difference
Body image
The gendered wage gap
Experiencing violence
Convergence?
Summary
Questions for Review and Critical Thinking
Key Terms
Suggested Readings
Web Sites
Key Search Terms

CHAPTER SUMMARY
This chapter began with some examples of gender differences and looked briefly at
methodological issues. The idea that within variation is greater than between variation was
introduced to temper any tendencies to dichotomize the sexes. The roles of nature and
nurture in the development of such differences were also examined, using the example of
mathematical ability.
The next section provided some important definitions including the difference
between the terms sex and gender. Transvestites and transsexuals were discussed to further
illustrate the distinction. Also included was a presentation of the theoretical positions used
throughout this book. Functionalism was briefly discussed and criticized, while symbolic
interactionism was given more weight, particularly with the creation of definitions of
masculinity and femininity. Marxist and feminist positions on the causes of the gendered
division of labour (that women do more unpaid work than men and are not equal partners
in the world of work) were also presented. To explain this inequality, Marxists cite
capitalism, moderate feminists a correctable lack of opportunity, and more radical feminists
the need for women fully to control reproduction.

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Introduction to Sociology: A Canadian Focus

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Next we examined three areas of gender differences: norms surrounding body


appearance, the workplace (including pay), and violence. Although gender norms affect
both men and women, women are usually affected to a greater degree. There is bias in the
workplace but some issues of inequality arise from factors outside of work, especially in
the homes of dual-career families. The chilly climate does exist, but it may have to do
with things other than sexism, and better analyses, using two variables, are needed before
drawing conclusions.
A final section looked at convergence, and whether the sexes will ever be truly
equal. On some things, like the care of children, it may never happen; on others, like pay,
there is more optimism. But a decision on whether equity in a specific area is desired must
first be made.

OBJECTIVES
This chapter provides information that should allow your students:
1.

To apply the methodological skills learned in Chapter 2 to the study of gender.

2.

To acknowledge social and biological antecedents of gender differences in the


gendered order and the great overlap in the behaviours of women and men.

3.

To appreciate the distinction between sex and gender and apply the major
theoretical perspectives of the book to the study of gender.

4.

To describe body norms for men and women, the gendered division of labour with
respect to housework and paid work, and gendered violence.

5.

To look at convergence and its various forms.

IMPORTANT TERMS AND CONCEPTS


Students should also be familiar with the following terms and concepts. Definitions are
found in the Key Terms section at the end of the chapter.
gender
gender identity
gendered division of labour
gendered order
liberal feminism
objectification
patriarchy

private realm
public realm
radical feminism
sex
socialist feminism
transgendered

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Instructors Manual

SUGGESTED ISSUES FOR LECTURES, DISCUSSION AND CLASS ACTIVITY


1.

How do both biological and social factors affect the gender gap in Canada?

2.

Discuss the merits and drawbacks of employment equity programs for women.

3.

Can language ever become completely gender neutral? Does changing language
change attitudes towards women, or is language more a reflection of underlying
attitudes?

4.

How do male and female concerns about body image differ? What types of factors
account for these differences? Why are eating disorders more common among
women than men?

5.

Think about the roles that women in your community typically occupy. To what
extent does the Functionalist conception of the gendered division of labour in
society still hold in your view?

6.

Would you expect that most of the authors of your textbook chapters are male or
female? Why?

SUGGESTED VIDEOS FROM THE NATIONAL FILM BOARD


Unbalanced Scales: Gender Bias in the Justice System
Judges, defence lawyers and prosecutors, police, parole officers, teachers and students of
law enforcement, social agencies that help women: these are the intended audiences of this
video. This resource addresses the revictimization of women at the hands of the justice and
social systems after these women have already been victims of domestic violence. The
video is a consciousness-raising tool about this systematic discrimination and gender bias.
Unbalanced Scales helps viewers identify specific policies, procedures, and practices
which may appear neutral but which, in actuality, have an adverse impact on women.
Finally, it generates suggestions on ways to address this problem. (20 minutes)

Sticks and Stones


Young children ages 5 to 12 describe how they feel when they hear put-downs of
themselves or their families in this video for kids, their educators and parents. Children
learn from subtle clues what society thinks about gender roles, same-sex parents and family
differences. The children in Sticks & Stones vividly describe how it feels to be teased when
their families dont follow traditional gender roles. They talk about why bullies indulge in
name-calling, and what they think should be done about it. By showing that they know
whats wrong, the children challenge educators, parents and other kids to act positively to
make schools and playgrounds safe and welcoming for everyone. This compelling video

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Canada

Introduction to Sociology: A Canadian Focus

25

uses interviews, animation and documentary footage to spark discussions about families,
gender stereotypes and name-calling. It encourages all children to feel empathy and respect
for their playmates. (17 minutes)

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Canada

26

Instructors Manual

Chapter 8
RACE AND ETHNIC RELATIONS
CHAPTER OUTLINE
Introduction
The Local Ethnic Community: Formation and Development
Ethnic Group, Race, and Minority Group: Some Definitions
The ethnic group
Racialization
The Development of Race and Ethnic Relations in Canadian Society: An Overview
Colonialism and the First Nations
French and British Canadians: Two majorities, two solitudes
The other ethnic groups: The shaping of the Canadian mosaic
Perspectives on Canadian Race and Ethnic Relations
Assimilationism
Pluralism and multiculturalism
Post-colonial and postmodern perspectives
Summary
Questions for Review and Critical Thinking
Key Terms
Suggested Readings
Web Sites
Key Search Terms

CHAPTER SUMMARY
Canada is a pluralistic society, a social system composed of ethnic groups that coexist in
both peace and conflict within a common cultural, economic, and political framework,
while maintaining cultures and social institutions that are to some extent distinctive.
Canada has been called a vertical mosaic in recognition of the fact that racialized and
ethnic groups occupy differing ranks within its stratification system: some groups enjoy
relative privilege, while others lack access to power and opportunity in Canadian society.
The local immigrant community is a major form of ethnic group life in Canada.
Such communities often develop through a process of chain migration, the sequential
movement of people from a common place of origin to a common destination, with the
assistance of relatives or compatriots who settled there earlier. In the ethnic community,
newcomers find a familiar social network and an array of institutions to meet their needs.
As the community grows, it establishes a place for itself within the local economic
structure. Economic interests combine with cultural and social patterns to shape the
communitys distinctive adaptation to the new environment.
As a concept, ethnicity has several dimensions. Ethnicity is an ascribed status, a
potential conferred upon individuals at birth, which becomes a pat of personal identity
during socialization within an ethnic community. The ethnic group is self-perpetuating and

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Introduction to Sociology: A Canadian Focus

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has boundaries set and maintained by patterns of interaction rather than by formal
structures, cultural traits, or isolation. The ethnic group is also a subculture, the product of
shared historical experiences that shape present understandings about values important to
the group.
While members of a social group share values, interests, and patterns of interaction,
a social category such as a race is socially constructed, referring to a collection of
individuals who share certain physical features that are charged with social meaning. Racist
ideologies rationalize the exploitation of certain categories of human beings on the basis of
inherited characteristics. Minority groups are categories of people that are oppressed and
relegated to subordinate ranks in the social hierarchy, regardless of their numbers. Various
forms of social control, including annihilation, expulsion, discrimination, and segregation
have perpetuated the oppression and subordination of minority groups in modern societies.
The historical processes of colonialism, conquest, and migration have shaped
Canadian race and ethnic relations. Colonized groups such as Indigenous Peoples (also
known as Aboriginal Peoples) become part of a plural society involuntarily. They often
suffer longstanding and severe discrimination and disadvantage and remain economically
and politically marginal to that society. The Indian Act and the reserve system have been
the cornerstones of Canadas Aboriginal policy. Today, Canadas Indigenous population is
once again highly diverse, and is increasingly represented among urban residents and the
middle class. Indigenous Peoples continue to resist the oppressive legacy of colonialism
and to struggle for self-government and self-determination.
The conquest of the French by the British shaped the subsequent relationship
between Canadas two founding peoples. Legal guarantees at the federal level provide
for the perpetuation of the language, religion, and culture of French Canadians, and the
concentration of the French within Quebec provides a powerful territorial and institutional
base in the struggle of the Quebecois to perpetuate their culture and national identity. But,
for a variety of reasons, the French language and culture have eroded in the rest of Canada,
where English cultural dominance has accompanied the economic dominance of what was
once British North America.
Immigrant groups enter a society voluntarily, although they may have been driven
from their home lands by economic want or political oppression. Historically, The British
and Americans were Canadas dominant immigrant groups, but in the post-World War II
era, immigrant origins have diversified, with increasing representation of peoples from
Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Canadian policy is multiculturalism within a bilingual
framework, and the diversity that immigration brings is officially celebrated. Yet there is
evidence that recent immigrants, especially those who are members of racialized
minorities, are more likely than the rest of the Canadian population to suffer
unemployment, poverty, and pay inequality. Researchers have documented the presence of
racial discrimination, inequality, and disadvantage as issues that challenge Canadians
today.
Interpretations of ethnic and race relations encompass two tasks: describing and
making sense of social reality, and proposing social goals or visions of what Canadian
society should be like. Assimilationism is the view that diversity declines as ethnic-group
members achieve economic prosperity and are absorbed into the general population and
culture of the society. This view of society as a melting pot has proven to be an inaccurate
description of social reality and a doubtful guide to social policy. Pluralism, the perspective

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Instructors Manual

that recognizes the central place of ethnic diversity and conflict in modern societies, has
long typified Canadian thought on ethnic and race relations, and is expressed in the policy
of multiculturalism. Postmodern approaches provide insight into the structures of power
relations and the ideological constructions that institutionalize racism. Inequality remains a
central feature of most pluralistic societies today, including Canada, and racism and ethnic
conflict continue to pose dilemmas for Canada and the modern world.

OBJECTIVES
This chapter provides information that should allow your students:
1.

To understand how an immigrant community is formed.

2.

To understand what is meant by ethnic, racial, and minority groups, especially in


relation to the changing Canadian ethnic mosaic, and to become acquainted with
such issues as prejudice, discrimination, and racist ideology.

3.

To understand that there is only one human race, and that race is a social
construction rather than a social or biological fact.

4.

To become more fully aware of the history and pattern of Canadian


Indigenous/European colonizer and French/English relationships.

5.

To understand three interpretations of ethnic group relationsassimilationism,


pluralism, and a postmodern approachand to consider some of the implications of
each for social policy.

IMPORTANT TERMS AND CONCEPTS


Students should also be familiar with the following terms and concepts. Definitions are
found in the Key Terms section at the end of each chapter and at the end of the text.
acculturation
assimilationism
chain migration
colonialism
discrimination
employment equity
ethnic group
institutional completeness
minority group
pluralism
pluralistic society
postmodern perspectives

prejudice
race
race relations cycle
racialization
racist ideology
segregation
social category
stereotypes
structural assimilation
systemic or institutionalized discrimination
vertical mosaic

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Canada

Introduction to Sociology: A Canadian Focus

29

SUGGESTED ISSUES FOR LECTURES, DISCUSSION AND CLASS ACTIVITY


1.

Does the importance of ethnic identification vary by generation? For example, are
people born outside Canada more likely to identify with their homeland than second
generation Canadians? If so, why?

2.

Why do immigrants tend to settle in cities in Canada? Should attempts be made to


encourage them to move to less populated areas? Why is this problematic?

3.

How do media (newspapers, television, etc.) reinforce stereotypes about Indigenous


Peoples in Canada?

4.

Should refugees entering Canada be given the same rights as resident Canadians or
landed immigrants? Or should immigration officials have the power to send
refugees back immediately should they feel that they have entered the country
without a legitimate claim?

5.

Are younger people less racist than their parents?

6.

What is implied when White people label racialized minorities as ethnic and do
not consider this as an appropriate label for themselves? Do White people have an
ethnicity?

7.

The text explains that Canadian immigration policy has encouraged immigration of
highly educated professionals, but then these professionals are unable to find work
commensurate with their qualifications. What should Canada be doing about this
issue?

SUGGESTED VIDEOS FROM THE NATIONAL FILM BOARD


Journey to Justice
Journey to Justice pays tribute to a group of Canadians who took racism to court. They are
Canadas unsung heroes in the fight for Black civil rights. Focusing on the 1930s to the
1950s, this film documents the struggle of six people who refused to accept inequality.
Viola Desmond insisted on keeping her seat at a Halifax movie theatre in 1946 rather than
moving to the section normally reserved for the citys Black population. Fred Christie was
denied service at a Montreal tavern because of his skin colour and took his case to the
Supreme Court in 1936. Hugh Burnette and Bromley Armstrong pressured the Ontario
government to enact fair accommodation practices in the 1940s. Donald Willard Moore
dedicated his life to reforming Canadas biased immigration policy. Stanley G. Grizzle,
president of the Toronto Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, worked to ensure fair
employment practices for his predominantly Black union members. These brave pioneers
helped secure justice for all Canadians. Their stories deserve to be told. (47 minutes)

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Canada

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Instructors Manual

Asylum
The first documentary to take us right inside the Canadian refugee process, Asylum follows
a human rights worker from Bangladesh, a Russian mother and son from Kazakhstan and a
Romanian stowaway from their arrival in Canada to the final decision of the Refugee
Board ... and beyond. Who is telling the truth? Who is really a refugee? And how do we
decide? (78 minutes)
Keepers of the Fire
For half a millennium, First Nations women have been at the forefront of aboriginal
peoples resistance to cultural assimilation. Today, Native women are still fighting for the
survival of their cultures and their peoplein the rainforest and the city, in the courts and
the legislatures, in the longhouses and the media. Keepers of the Fine profiles Canadas
Native warrior women who are protecting and defending their land, their culture and
their people in the time-honoured tradition of their foremothers. (30 minutes)
El Contrato (The Contract)
El Contrato (The Contract) follows Teodoro Bello Martinez, a father of four living in
Central Mexico, and several of his countrymen as they make an annual migration to
southern Ontario. For eight months of the year, the towns population absorbs 4000
migrant labourers who pick tomatoes for conditions and wages no local will accept. Under
a government program that allows growers to monitor themselves, the opportunity to
exploit workers is as ripe as the fruit they pick. Only men with families to support and no
more than an elementary school education need apply. Grievances among them abusive
bosses, unhealthy conditions, and paying for benefits they dont receive are deflected by
employers who can choose from a long line of others back home who are willing to take
workers places.
Despite a fear of repercussions, the workers voice their desire for dignity and respect, as
much as for better working conditions. El Contrato ends as winter closes in and the
Mexican workers return home. Back in the embrace of their families some pledge, not for
the first time and possibly not for the last, that its their final season in the North. (51
minutes)

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Canada

Introduction to Sociology: A Canadian Focus

31

Chapter 9
AGING
CHAPTER OUTLINE
Introduction
Aging: A Personal Matter
Personalizing aging
Stereotypes of old age
The Study of Aging
Theoretical approaches
A profile of older Canadians
Family Ties and Social Support in Later Life
Intimate ties
Marriage in the later years
The impact of caring
Widowhood and divorce
The single (never married)
Other intimate ties
Intergenerational ties
Relations between older parents and their adult children
Childless older persons
Siblings
Aging and Health
Aging versus illness
Delivering health care
Retirement
Social Policy and Future Directions
Looking ahead
Summary
Questions for Review and Critical Thinking
Key Terms
Suggested Readings
Web Sites
Key Search Terms

CHAPTER SUMMARY
Canadas population is aging, due mostly to the decline in birth rates of the past few
decades. In 2001, almost 13 percent of Canadians were 65 years or older. A realistic picture
of old age leads us to reject the negative stereotype of this stage as a time of loss, as well as
the stereotype that tends to equate successful aging with youthfulness. Sociologists seek to
understand aging at both the societal and individual levels, examining the balance between
social structural forces and the experiences of older persons themselves. Theories on aging

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Instructors Manual

have progressed over the past twenty years, and the best of them emphasize heterogeneity
among older persons, the role of power and conflicting interests in shaping aging across the
life course, and the ability of older individuals to exercise agency over their lives.
Women generally outlive men, creating one basis for the quite different life
experiences of older men and women. Older women are more likely to experience old age
on their own, while older men are most likely to be married. The greater financial resources
of men than women in later life reflect a lifetime of difference due to socially constructed
opportunities based on gender. The majority of older men and women have children and
siblings, relationships that loom larger in the lives of women, in part because they are less
likely to have a spouse in old age. Rising rates of divorce will change the experience of
being unattached in older age, given that divorce has different implications for family ties
than does widowhood.
The private domain of the family is under strong pressure to provide support for all
members in need, including those older persons who require care. A key policy issue is the
extent to which Canadians judge it appropriate for the fate of older persons to rest heavily
in the hands of family members who generally care for one another, but who find
themselves overextended with competing commitments to work as well as family. While
older Canadians are enjoying better health than ever, the oldest-old, the fastest-growing age
group in our population, experience high levels of chronic illness.
OBJECTIVES
This chapter provides information that should allow your students:
1.

To present a balanced portrait of old age and aging, including its ups and downs.

2.

To learn the various theoretical approaches to aging, including activity theory,


disengagement theory, exchange theory, and others.

3.

To understand the importance and sources of family ties and social support in later
life, including siblings.

4.

To be aware of the health and retirement issues facing older Canadians.

5.

To grasp the policy implications of the above.

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Canada

Introduction to Sociology: A Canadian Focus

33

IMPORTANT TERMS AND CONCEPTS


Students should also be familiar with the following terms and concepts. Definitions are found
in the Key Terms section at the end of each chapter and at the end of the text.
activity theory
age effects
age-graded
age-stratification perspective
critical theory
disengagement theory
exchange theory

geriatrics
gerontology
life course perspective
maturation (see age effects)
period effects
political economy of aging perspective
social constructionist perspective

SUGGESTED ISSUES FOR LECTURES, DISCUSSION AND CLASS ACTIVITY


1.

How will our aging society affect job openings and occupational choices for
students in future?

2.

What are some stereotypes of old age? Through their actions and activities, how do
older Canadians that you are aware of routinely break these stereotypes?

3.

As Canadas population ages, what effects will this have on our health care system?

4.

Should Canadians be forced to retire at age 65? What are the advantages and
disadvantages of such a requirement?

5.

Who should care for the elderly in Canada? Is this a public or a private
responsibility? Why?

6.

Should everyone, even single people, be allowed to share pension benefits with
someone? For example, a brother and sister? An aunt and nephew? Two friends?
Why or why not?

SUGGESTED VIDEOS FROM THE NATIONAL FILM BOARD


The Power of Time
Their numbers are constantly growing ... the group known as older women. Most live at
home, alone and lonely. This isolation, as well as declining physical abilities, makes
women who are 65 years and over vulnerable to all kinds of abuse. Adapting to an everchanging world is a never-ending battle. This film penetrates our mercurial world, focusing
on older women of various backgrounds and cultures and how they confront the challenges
of advancing age. (28 minutes)

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Canada

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Instructors Manual

You Wont Need Running Shoes, Darling


Mildred and Bob Todd are retired octogenarians who live in rural Ontario. With the river
by their doorstep, a beloved garden and new friends, they savour life in daily rations. But
just as the seasons change, so does their health. She is diagnosed with cancer. He has a fifth
heart attack. Hospital stays and home care now take precedence over mulching the garden.
Gradually, Mildred and Bob accept the physical indignities, and their own mortality. Their
passion for living carries them through the difficult times. Over a critical two-year period,
their daughter, acclaimed documentarian Dorothy Todd Hnaut, films their life. The result
is a gritty, sensitive look at the human aging process. The pastoral setting, and this elderly
couples tenderness and mutual care soften the reality of diminishing strength. With
unfailing humour, Mildred sums it up when she says to her daughter: You wont need
running shoes, darling, to follow me around. (53 minutes)

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Canada

Introduction to Sociology: A Canadian Focus

Chapter 10
FAMILIES
CHAPTER OUTLINE
Introduction
Definitions of Marriage and Family
Variability in Family Patterns
Number of partners in the marriage
Sex codes
Consanguine versus nuclear bonds
Uniformity of Family Patterns
Importance of marriage
Incest taboo
Importance of inheritance
Family Change
Theoretical Perspectives on Family Change
Macro or structural explanations
Micro or cultural explanations
Anticipating Marriage and Mate Selection
Family behaviour over the life course
Socialization for marriage
Dating and premarital intercourse
Home leaving
Cohabitation
Homogamy in mate selection
The timing and propensity to marry
Marital and Family Interactions
Models of the division of paid and unpaid work
Lone-parent families
Childbearing and children
Family change and children
Marital Dissolution
Decrease in instrumental functions
Importance of the expressive dimension
Redefinition of the marital commitment
Anticipating Future Change and Continuity
Summary
Questions for Review and Critical Thinking
Key Terms
Suggested Readings
Web Sites
Key Search Terms

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Canada

35

36

Instructors Manual

CHAPTER SUMMARY
A family is two or more people related by an enduring commitment, blood, or adoption,
and who reside together. Marriage involves a commitment and ongoing expressive and
instrumental exchanges between partners. A look at various cultures shows uniformity in
family patterns in some aspects, such as the incest taboo, but variability in others, such as
monogamy and polygamy. Thus, there is much variety and complexity to family behaviour,
and it is necessary to view family questions against the background of the larger society.
In the theory section, we attempted to understand some of the historical changes in
families through both macro and micro considerations. The macro perspective highlights
the structural differentiation through which families no longer perform some of the
functions they previously provided for the larger society. On the other hand, a look inside
families at the micro level shows that families now play a more important role in the
emotional gratification of their individual members.
In the section on anticipating marriage and mate selection, we first noted that
socialization provides little systematic knowledge regarding expectations from marriage.
Also, boys tend to be socialized more towards the sexual, and girls more towards the
emotional aspects of heterosexual relationships. Dating was described as an exchange or
bargaining situation in which the person with the most to offer has the most power. Within
this dating environment, moreover, there are several normative standards in existence. As
we saw, the abstinence standard has decreased, while the love standard, or permissiveness
with affection, is the most representative of postsecondary-school students. Homogamy is a
common feature in mate selection, with similar people getting married to each other more
often than those who are different in social, economic, and physical characteristics. In
addition, the woman in a marriage is often younger than the man. This age gap tends to
entrench traditional gender-role differences.
In terms of marital interactions, the empty-nest stage is an important and relatively
new stage in the life course. Another new stage is a premarital one involving young people
living together before marriage. Additionally, more couples are choosing to live together in
committed, long-term, common-law relationships rather than getting legally married.
Considering models of the division of paid and unpaid work, about half of couples are in
complementary-roles arrangements, with about a third in double burden, and one in eight a
collaborative or role-sharing model.
Regarding childbearing, it was shown that children are expensive and that people
are having fewer of them. There has been a weakening of the norm that childbearing is an
essential part of marriage. Nonetheless, most couples have children and want to perform
well in the difficult job of childrearing.
The rising level of marital dissolution was related to the decrease in instrumental
functions played by the family, the increase in the importance of the expressive dimension
in marriage, and the changing definition of the commitment of marriage.
Finally, while there is a larger variety of family forms today, including especially
common-law unions and lone-parent families, there is also much continuity in the family
patterns, with high priority for living in enduring relationships and having children. Just as
the biggest change in the past thirty years has been associated with womens earning
activities, there is some basis to anticipate that the future will show important changes in
mens caring activities.

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Canada

Introduction to Sociology: A Canadian Focus

37

OBJECTIVES
This chapter provides information that should allow your students:
1.

To learn terms like consanguine family, exogamy, polygamy, matriarchy, and


patrilocality, to name a few, which reflect the variety of kinship and family forms.

2.

To be aware of the differences in family patterns across societies.

3.

To know both macro- and micro-changes in family functions.

4.

To understand the life cycle of the family, from socialization for marriage, to childbearing, and child-rearing.

5.

To appreciate the continuity in family form, despite increasing divorce and other
changes.

6.

To consider models of the division of paid and unpaid work in the family.

IMPORTANT TERMS AND CONCEPTS


Students should also be familiar with the following terms and concepts. Definitions are
found in the Key Terms section at the end of each chapter and at the end of the text.
abstinence standard
collaborative or role-sharing model
complementary roles model
double burden
double standard
expressive exchanges
family
fun standard

heterogamy
homogamy
instrumental exchanges
love standard
marriage
mating gradient
premarital sexual standards

Note: Other terms are listed in Chart 10.1 in the text.

SUGGESTED ISSUES FOR LECTURES, DISCUSSION AND CLASS ACTIVITY


1.

With the varieties of family now present in Canadian society, what are the chances
that the traditional nuclear family will disappear? If not, why not?

2.

Do opposites really attract? Or does like marry/cohabit with like?

3.

What factors are likely to influence the decision to divorce? Why do so many
unions fail in the first few years of married life?

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Instructors Manual

4.

Today, prior to elementary school, many young children already have spent years in
daycare facilities. What effect, if any, might this have upon their future
development?

5.

What role should religious organizations play, if any, in determining the definition
of marriage?

6.

Recently in Canada, same-sex couples have been granted the right to marry, though
many organizations have fought this change. What are the implications of denying
same-sex couples the right to marry?

7.

Did you grow up in a home in which there was a gendered division of paid and
unpaid work? Are you currently in a relationship in which there is such a division
of work? In what ways would you like the division of work in your relationships to
be the same as the model which you grew up with, and in what ways would you like
to make changes?

SUGGESTED VIDEOS FROM THE NATIONAL FILM BOARD


Variations on a Familiar Theme
Single-parent, same-sex, blended, common-law, disabled, intercultural, traditional ...
todays family defies definition. Meet Lois, who has two mothers. Veronique and Marcel
have children whose voices they cannot hear. Helen lost, and subsequently recovered, her
children. Though portraits of seven very different families, this engaging documentary
shows that, no matter what form it may take, the family is still the mainstay of the
individual. (57 minutes)

Ms. Conceptions
What makes a vibrant, thirty-something woman decide to pack in the search for Mr. Right
and pick up a $250 vial of sperm instead? Over the past decade, the birth rate among
single, college-educated women in their 30s has nearly tripled. This quirky documentary
examines both sides of the Single Mother by Choice controversy a debate which rages
on the political stage, in the media, and in the hearts and minds of three women who decide
to go it alone. (56 minutes)

Sticks and Stones


Young children ages 5 to 12 describe how they feel when they hear put-downs of
themselves or their families in this video for kids, their educators and parents. Children
learn from subtle clues what society thinks about gender roles, same-sex parents and family
differences. The children in Sticks & Stones vividly describe how it feels to be teased when

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Canada

Introduction to Sociology: A Canadian Focus

39

their families dont follow traditional gender roles. They talk about why bullies indulge in
name-calling, and what they think should be done about it. By showing that they know
whats wrong, the children challenge educators, parents and other kids to act positively to
make schools and playgrounds safe and welcoming for everyone. This compelling video
uses interviews, animation and documentary footage to spark discussions about families,
gender stereotypes and name-calling. It encourages all children to feel empathy and respect
for their playmates. (17 minutes)

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Canada

40

Instructors Manual

Chapter 11
RELIGION
CHAPTER OUTLINE
Introduction
Studying Religious Life Sociologically
The challenges of researching religion
The Insights and Issues of Classical Theory
Marx: Religion and ideology
Durkheim: Religion and social solidarity
Weber: Protestantism and the rise of capitalism
Understanding the forms of religious life
Contemporary Conceptions of Religion: Secularization
The theory of religious economies
Thinking further about religion in Canada
Religious Change in the Twenty-First Century
Summary
Questions for Review and Critical Thinking
Key Terms
Suggested Readings
Web Sites
Key Search Terms

CHAPTER SUMMARY
We began this chapter by talking about how the conventional religious life of Canadians is
changing. Canada was once quite a religious country, but it has been secularizing at a quite
rapid pace since the 1960s. This is especially and most surprisingly the case in the province
of Quebec. On the one hand, this decline in the fortunes of mainstream religion has brought
Canada in line with more long-term developments in Western Europe, though we are still
more religious than the Europeans. On the other hand, it is putting us increasingly at odds
with our close neighbours, the Americans, who continue to be quite religious. Whether this
pattern of development will continue, and why, are open questions and the subject of much
research. In all three regions, Europe, Canada, and the United States, however, surveys also
reveal a continued belief in God and other supernatural phenomena.
Marx, Durkheim, and Weber, all recognized long ago that changes in the fate of
religion were indicative of other sweeping social transformations. Thus, each sought to
understand something of the fundamental nature and functioning of religion. The socialscientific study of religion, however, entails grappling with a number of methodological
and theoretical problems: How can we study a phenomenon whose ultimate nature is
thought to elude empirical assessment? How can we define religion? How can we measure
the religiosity of people? In thinking about religion in the present are we making
assumptions about religion in the past that are not historically accurate?

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In line with his critique of capitalism, Marx captured the primary role of religious
beliefs and institutions in the legitimation of the status quo. He portrayed religions as
human creations serving the vested interests of ruling classes by deceiving the masses
about the true source of their deprivation, and persuading them to accept their fate as
divinely imposed. He portrayed religions as human creations serving the vested interests of
ruling classes by deceiving the masses about the true source of their deprivation, and
persuading them to accept their fate as divinely imposed. He felt that Christianity, with its
emphasis on otherworldly salvation provided a particularly clear example of a religion that
diverts people from their this-worldly oppression. More comprehensively, Durkheim
captured how religion plays a crucial role in the creation and maintenance of social
solidarity through the detailed study of the religious life of Australian aboriginals.
Individuals and groups are strengthened in their capacity to persevere in the face of the
trials and tribulations of life by participating in the religious rituals through which society
worships itself in symbolic guise. Alternatively, Weber captured the ways in which religion
acts, often unintentionally, as a powerful agent of social change. Seeking the origins of the
spirit of capitalism, Weber argued that the Protestant Reformation represented the
culmination of a religiously inspired process of rationalization that gave rise to the first true
capitalists. In particular he pointed to the combined psychological impact of the doctrines
of the calling and predestination in rendering worldly success a sign of salvation.
As the functions of religion are diverse, so are its forms. Sociologists have tried to
capture some of this diversity with the development the church/sect typology. Framed in
different ways by different theorists, this typology identifies how religious groups vary in
terms of their degree of formality, institutionalization, and integration with the dominant
society, with churches being the most formal, institutionalized, and integrated groups, and
cults the least.
The contemporary debate about the forms and functions of religion is still framed
very much by the theory of religious economies, which posits an ongoing need in every
society for the kinds of general compensators based on supernatural assumptions that
religion uniquely offers. We are not witnessing the end of religion, the argument goes, just
the slow demise of the form in which religion has been delivered for the last few centuries.
In general, religions actually succeed better in an environment of religious competition.
Taking a supply-side view of religious growth, they argued that it is monopoly and not
pluralism that undermines faith. Theorists working in this tradition also recognize that
religion can prosper when a particular religious tradition becomes central to a social
identity.
Although it is easy to overlook what has remained unchanged, there is no denying
that the past century has seen a number of important changes in religion. Sociologists have
been concerned, in particular, with the rise of religious fundamentalism (and what does and
does not mean), and with the emergence of new forms of spirituality and new religions.

OBJECTIVES
This chapter provides information that should allow your students:

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1.

To become familiar with population research on Canadians religious practices and


how these have changed over the past several decades.

2.

To understand the classical theories of religion in sociology, paying particular


attention to Durkheim, Marx, and Webers approaches to understanding religion
and social change.

3.

To be able to compare and contrast different forms of religious organizations,


including: sect, church, denomination, ecclesia, and cult.

4.

To become familiar with the theory of religious economies and how it applies to
contemporary North America and Europe, and to understand how the changing
religious life of Canadians may be similar or different to the religious life of
Europeans and Americans.

5.

To be aware of the ways in which religion is changing in the twenty-first century,


including understanding the concept of invisible religion and how it fits in with
contemporary movements to make religion more individualistic, tolerant, and
pragmatic.

IMPORTANT TERMS AND CONCEPTS


Students should also be familiar with the following terms and concepts. Definitions are
found in the Key Terms section at the end of each chapter and at the end of the text.
ascetic
calling
church
collective conscience
collective effervescence
cult
denomination
doctrine of predestination
ecclesia
functionalist definition of religion
invisible religion

profane
religion
sacred
sect
secularization
substantive definitions of religion
supernatural
syncretism
universal church
vocation

SUGGESTED ISSUES FOR LECTURES, DISCUSSION AND CLASS ACTIVITY


1.

Canadians may be less religious than in the past, but many show an inclination
towards the spiritual side of life. How valid is this statement?

2.

In what ways is perhaps religion the opium of the masses as Marx suggests?

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3.

What are some contemporary examples of cults? Are such organizations


dangerous? Should they be regulated by government?

4.

If Canada is an increasingly secular society, then why do conflicts over religion


persist?

5.

Should the practices of religious organizations (e.g. the Catholic Churchs practice
of ordaining only men as priests) be exempt from the Canadian Charter of Rights
and Freedoms?

SUGGESTED VIDEOS FROM THE NATIONAL FILM BOARD


Salvation
There is an army in the citys mean streets. Its foe is poverty and human misery. Salvation
is about front-line workers serving the needy under the umbrella of the Salvation Army,
offering a glimpse into the hearts and minds of people on both sides of the street. Shot in
downtown Toronto at Christmastime, this moving documentary chronicles the small hopes
and tiny victories of life lived in the shadows of destitution in the inner city. (50 minutes)

Poverty, Chastity, Obedience


Joanne ORegan is at a crossroads. At 35, shes unhappy at work and unfulfilled by her
day-to-day life. Far from prudish, Joanne socializes, smokes, drinks and isnt thrilled about
the secondary role women play in the Catholic Church. Yet God has called her.
After discovering an affinity with the Sisters of St. Martha, whose vision
encompasses service and community involvement, she acceptsbut not without
reservations. Before taking the ultimate leap of faith, Joanne is forced to confront her
demons, her motivation, and her family and friends. Joannes personal struggle is
juxtaposed with the crisis confronting the convent today. Once considered a traditional
calling for young women, life as a nun is now a radical choice, as revealed by dwindling
recruits. Sister Susan Kidd of Torontos Congregation of Notre Dame confesses that
despite a costly two-month national advertising campaign, they didnt net a single
response. In a penetrating montage of direct cinema, historical imagery and video diary,
Poverty, Chastity, Obedience dives into the psyche of modern society and asks whether we
need money to feel successful, sex to express love, and control to feel empowered. (52
minutes)

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Chapter 12
MEDIA
CHAPTER OUTLINE
Introduction
Perspectives on Media Transformation
Technological change and the information society
The political economy of media: Power and wealth
Media Audiences: From couch potato to co-creator
Gender and the media
Violence in the Media
One World: Media and Globalization
Cyberspace: Virtual community, virtual commerce, virtual protest
Predictions for the Future
Summary
Questions for Review and Critical Thinking
Key Terms
Suggested Readings
Web Sites
Key Search Terms

CHAPTER SUMMARY
We began this chapter by looking at the vision of an information revolution, and its
promise of a world transformed by better communications technology. To many, computer
networks seem like the fulfillment of the vision. The Internet and the information highway
represent the latest stage of a process that, over a couple of centuries, has taken us from a
predominantly oral culture, through the spread of print literacy, and into an era of
electronic and digital culture. In many respects these rapid changes have meant huge
increases in knowledge, creativity, and enjoyment for millions of people a point we hope
this chapter has sufficiently acknowledged.
At the same time, however, we want to sound a note of caution about the
unqualified optimism often expressed about the information revolution. It is important to
look not just at technological changes, but at the political economy of media. Control over
the means of communication has always involved massive vested interests and intense
social conflict. In liberal democracies, our political traditions make us at least somewhat
alert to issues of governmental censorship and state direction of media systems. But it is
perhaps harder for us to grasp the blind spots and blockages that arise from a market-driven
media system, dominated by multinational conglomerates operating on a purely
commercial basis. It is in this area that some of the most important critical media studies
are now being done.
In studying issues of ownership and control, it is important not to lapse into
simplistic notions about media audiences. We saw how straightforward models of media

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effects, which portray people as passive victims of indoctrination, have been challenged by
theories that ascribe a much more active role to audiences in interpreting and criticizing
what they read, hear, and see. The cultural studies school of media theory suggests that
dominant values encoded in media products can be opposed or subverted by such audience
decoding. This is a valuable corrective to notions of monolithic mind-control by media
owners. In emphasizing the creativity of audiences, cultural studies theorists sometimes
bend the stick too far the other way. But it is clear that media meanings must now be
understood as arising not just in production, but also in reception.
We went on to see how these issues played out in some concrete cases. Studies of
gender in media have shown that the major means of communicationhistorically
controlled mainly by menhave played an important role in maintaining patriarchal
authority. But they also show how media can become a site of struggle. Women have reappropriated and reinterpreted texts and programs that might seem just to confirm their
subordinate roles and domestic identities. Through campaigns of media activism, and
because of increasing independent economic power, women and also sexual minorities
have, over the last few decades, significantly altered the stereotypes transmitted by the
mainstream media-even if this process sometimes seems painfully long.
The issues of on-screen and in-print violence show how difficult it can be to
conclusively determine the social effects of media. Both critics of media violence and their
opponents have strong intuitive arguments as to why representations of violence may or
may not lead to real-life aggression. Although the huge volume of research on the topic
probably suggests some linkage, decades of sociological and psychological work have
failed to give a definitive answer to the question, largely because of the difficulty of
separating the effects of media from all the other potential factors causing real-life
violence. This is a case that indicates how far public-policy decisions about media need to
take into account the many unknowns in the media environment.
Next, we placed media in a global context. Here, the paradoxes of the information
revolution are clearly revealed. In complex ways, new communications technologies are
making something of a global village, creating exciting transnational cultural crossfertilizations and dramatic accelerations in the circulation of knowledge. But there are also
staggering inequities in the distribution of information resources. Nowhere is this clearer
than in the case of that ultimate information-age media, computer networks. Here we have
to simultaneously hold in mind two apparently contradictory tendencies. On the one hand,
the Internet is, in speed and ease of communication, a truly global media. On the other, its
use is still limited to a privileged minority of the planets population. We should remember
that there are still large numbers of people who do not read or write. It is estimated that
some 880 million adults (the majority of them women) in developing countries have never
been taught these skills. Even in the industrial world, there may be as many as 200 million
people who do not possess adequate literacy skills. Arguably the most basic need in the
field of media is not for computer literacy, but for the skills of reading and writing. None
of this is to say that media technologies are insignificant in making cultural change;
instead, it is to insist that other social institutions are important too.

Our civilization has the technological power to create universal communication.


But a market economy rations and stratifies access to media according to purchasing power

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Instructors Manual

in a way that sharply divides the global population. This tension between the technological
potential for truly global communication and the limitations our economic system places on
such networks may eventually prove to be the central issue of the information age.

OBJECTIVES
This chapter provides information that should allow your students:
1.

To understand the information revolution, its benefits and costs.

2.

To learn how audiences react to the media, including the cultural studies
explanation of this topic.

3.

To be introduced to research on both gender representation in the media and media


violence.

4.

To be aware of the issues associated with the globalization of cyberspace both for
haves and have-nots.

IMPORTANT TERMS AND CONCEPTS


Students should also be familiar with the following terms and concepts. Definitions are
found in the Key Terms section at the end of each chapter and at the end of the text.
active audience theory
communication conglomerates
cultivation effect
cultural imperialism
cultural studies school
culture industry
cyberspace
desensitization
disinhibition
hybridization

hypodermic model
information imbalance
information society
political economy of media
surrogate theory
technological determinism
technologies of freedom
virtual commerce
virtual community

SUGGESTED ISSUES FOR LECTURES, DISCUSSION AND CLASS ACTIVITY


1.

Do we all really need cell phones? Are there dangers in becoming too connected?

2.

Are current restrictions on foreign ownership of Canadian media outlets fair?


Should foreigners be allowed greater access to the Canadian newspaper, radio, and
televisions markets?

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3.

How valid is a cultural studies interpretation of new media? Does television news
sometimes attempt to shape public perceptions, rather than just report the news?
What are some examples?

4.

Thinking of the situation at your place of residence, can you think of some
examples of differences between male and female television viewing patterns?

5.

Should violent/pornographic content on the Internet be controlled? If so, how; by


whom? What problems would be encountered in seeking to enforce control of this
medium?

SUGGESTED VIDEOS FROM THE NATIONAL FILM BOARD


McLuhans Wake
Fascinated by the role technology played in transforming our lives, one the twentieth
centurys most famous intellectuals realized, with stunning accuracy, the impact the digital
age would have on our social, spiritual, economic and ideological selves. The global
village and the medium is the message are among the most quoted phrases of our time.
Few people grasped the enormity of his ideas, however, and over the course of the
following decades his work was largely ignored by academia and the public. Now, twenty
years after his death, in the midst of an era of Internet, virtual and wired technologies,
McLuhans Wake explores the enduring hold of McLuhans message. Blending all forms
of media, including animation and special effects, McLuhans Wake is a visually dazzling
and poetic film, with narration by renowned performance artist Laurie Anderson, and
commentary by scholars Eric McLuhan, Neil Postman, Lewis Lapham and journalist
Patrick Watson. (93 minutes)

Growing Up Canadian: Media


Canadian children in the 20th century witnessed an explosion of communication and
entertainment innovations. Witnesses recall the first time that they saw the telephone, a
movie, the television, the computer. From wondering where the actors were hiding in the
movie theatre to wondering if Casey was a boy or a girl, media intrigued children and often
made parents suspicious. Canadians of all ages talk about the books, radio shows,
television programs, music and movies that they loved as children. From listening in on the
party line to watching newsreels, media connected children to an ever-expanding world and
redefined what it meant to grow up Canadian. (46 minutes)

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Instructors Manual

Chapter 13
EDUCATION
CHAPTER OUTLINE
Introduction
Functions of Education
Socialization
Employment
Education and Social Inequality
Gender
Ethnicity
Social Class
Labelling, Tracking and Streaming
Labelling
Streaming
Experiencing Schools
Student Roles
Bullying
Looking to the Future
Summary
Questions for Review and Critical Thinking
Key Terms
Suggested Readings
Web Sites
Key Search Terms

CHAPTER SUMMARY
We began this chapter by identifying socialization and employment preparation as two
central functions of education and schooling. Through the formal curriculum, schools are
essential in helping young people learn about and understand the world around them.
Through the hidden curriculum they are socialized to accept a range of social conventions,
such as respect for authority, discipline and punctuality.
More concretely, schools play an important role in transferring not only cultural
knowledge, norms and values, but also employment-specific knowledge and skills. From a
functionalist perspective, schools are important as they provide a fair and meritocratic basis
on which individuals are selected for adult roles and responsibilities. In contract, conflict
theorists have argued that schools may achieve the exact opposite. Rather than providing a
fair and level playing field, education stacks the deck in favour of those who are already in
advantaged positions.
School curriculum is based on middle- and upper-middle-class culture and
knowledge, which gives students from these backgrounds an advantage at school and
shapes how individuals experience schooling. Research has shown, for instance, that

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placement in specific streams at school corresponds to social class background. White


middle- and upper-middle-class students are more likely to be placed in advanced,
academic streams. Not only does stream placement determine what and how students
learn, but it also affects longer-term educational and occupational aspirations. It may also
affect how individuals engage with the education system, which can range from being
enthusiastic and committed learners to resentment, resistance, and deviance.
Deviant behaviour at school has received a fair share of attention in recent years
due to high-profile cases of bullying, sexual harassment, and weapons-related violence.
Although the threat of extreme violence at schools is relatively minor and tends to be
exaggerated in the public media, bullying and sexual harassment are far more pervasive.
This chapter discussed various research findings that try to make sense of these forms of
aggression and determine effective ways of combating them.
This chapter closed with a brief look at educational reform challenges, which have
seen a seismic shift in recent decades. The 1960s and 1970s were dominated by reform
initiatives characteristic of inclusive practices and holistic learning principles. In the spirit
of feminism, antiracism, and critical pedagogy, educators and activists sought for an
inclusive education system founded on principles of social justice. More recently,
educational reform debates are dominated by a back-to-basics agenda that views
education largely in terms of its contribution to giving Canadians and Canada a competitive
edge in a global economy. Added to this view of education are concerns of fiscal
accountability and a belief in market-based solutions to educational problems. Although
market-based solutions like school vouchers and charter schools have found little support
in Canada so far, these debates will continue as we struggle to understand education as
fostering social justice, reproducing social inequalities, or preparing students for success in
a post-industrial knowledge economy.
OBJECTIVES
This chapter provides information that should allow your students:
1.

To understand that the two central functions of education are to socialize children
and youth and to prepare them for future employment. This includes transferring
cultural knowledge, norms and values, as well as employment-specific knowledge
and skills.

2.

To recognized the distinction between the formal and the hidden curricula, and to
become aware of components of the hidden curriculum, including a range of social
conventions, such as respect for authority, discipline and punctuality.

3.

To understand the sociological concept of education as viewed from a functionalist


versus a conflict theorist perspective.

4.

To recognize that middle- and upper-middle-class students may have an advantage


in the school system, and to understand the effects of placement in academic
streams.

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Instructors Manual

5.

To appreciate the various forms of deviant behaviours which occur within the
educational system and to understand reasons for and implications of such
behaviour.

6.

To learn the context in which education reform has occurred in recent decades and
to understand the drive for social justice in the education system in Canada, andto
grasp the direction in which the system may continue to change in the near future.

IMPORTANT TERMS AND CONCEPTS


Students should also be familiar with the following terms and concepts. Definitions are
found in the Key Terms section at the end of each chapter and at the end of the text.
correspondence theory
credential inflation
critical pedagogy
cultural capital
formal curriculum
habitus
hidden curriculum
human capital

lifelong learning
meritocracy
rational choice theory
resistance theory
streaming
symbolic violence
underemployment

SUGGESTED ISSUES FOR LECTURES, DISCUSSION AND CLASS ACTIVITY


1.

Ask students to break up into small groups of 2-3 and to discuss how their own
experiences in the educational system support either a functionalist or a social class
(Marxist) theory of education.

2.

Are we, as Canadians, truly entering a post-industrial knowledge economy? What


evidence can students draw from their own life experiences to support this? Is this
evidence different from information portrayed in popular media? What
implications does this labour market shift have for young Canadians? What about
for older Canadians?

3.

Ask students to recall their years in school. Was there ever a point in time that they
felt they had been labeled? OR did they observe others in their classes being
labeled? Ask students to pair up and to describe the labeling experience and the
outcome. Does labeling occur often in schools? Is there a way to increase teachers
awareness of this practice?

4.

Ask students to recall their reactions to high profile cases of violence at schools that
have been portrayed in the media. Are their measures that can be taken to ensure
that these events dont happen in the future? Have students ideas about what

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measures would be the most successful changed over time since they first heard
about an episode of school violence? In what ways have their ideas changed?
5.

Pose the question to the class: If you had unlimited funding and resources to make
any one change to the Canadian education system what would it be? Write down
the suggestions, have the class vote to determine which suggestion they believe is
the best idea. How likely is it that this change will happen in the future? What
challenges or blocks exist to implementing this change?

SUGGESTED VIDEOS FROM THE NATIONAL FILM BOARD


Building Momentum in Education
This compilation of the four Momentum films contains: Dreams of Education, Escaping
Destiny, Ready to Learn and Street Lessons. Dreams of Education sees a group of young
high school students as they express their anxieties about life after high school and their
ability to afford a post-secondary education.
Escaping Destiny is about the Pioneer Program, an educational initiative being
implemented in a juvenile detention centre in Oakville, Ontario. This program, for which
students are given an English high school credit, uses genetic mapping, or genograms, to
predict the future of young offenders in the hope of enlightening and educating them to
break the cycle of violence. Through the life of one young offender, the film shows how
the cycle can be broken.
Ready to Learn is a moving portrait of an alternative school model that aims to instill selfesteem through African centred learning.
Street Lessons examines the meaning of an education lost as seen through the eyes of
Buddy Dwan, a 43 year-old homeless man - who dropped out of school at the age of 13.
Buddy offers candid reflections on the personal cost of missing out on a decent education
and delivers poignant "street lectures" to young people about the need to stay in school.
Through Buddy's voice we are privileged to gain a rare and new perspective on the value of
an education. (39 min 50 s)

Being Human
Zoom-out from a too-tight focus on problems like dropout rates, loss of motivation among
students, and depression among teachers. Entering the daily lives of "problem cases" at a
Montreal secondary school that sits at the bottom of the school performance rankings,
Denys Desjardins sweeps away preconceptions about the quality of teaching in
disadvantaged neighbourhoods and the alleged delinquency of the kids who live there. This
is a subtle, captivating film that gives new impetus to the debate over public education. It
provides a far-reaching examination of student life that stimulates reflection on the role of
school in our society, and asks how willing we are to support and finance the school system
so that it will not be merely a factory churning out parts for the social machine. In French
with option of English subtitles. (107 min)

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Instructors Manual

Chapter 14
ORGANIZATIONS AND WORK
CHAPTER OUTLINE
Introduction
What Is Work?
Where We Work: The Many Faces of Organizations
The Evolution of Modern Work
The division of labour
Industrialization
The rise of scientific management and Fordism
Where We Work: The Many Faces of Organizations
Inequalities in Organizations and Workplaces
Youth and the Labour Market
Work: Satisfying or Alienating?
Instrumentalism
Resistance and consent work
Unions and resistance
The End of the Social Contract and the Changing Nature of Work
The globalization of production
Unemployment
The Future
Summary
Questions for Review and Critical Thinking
Key Terms
Suggested Readings
Web Sites
Key Search Terms

CHAPTER SUMMARY
We began the chapter by defining work as activity that adds value to goods, services, or
ideas. Unlike the work of animals, which is often instinctual, human work is
conceptualized and purposive. We discussed the distinction between social and detailed
divisions of labour, and examined patterns in how labour has been organized across time
and place. We then considered scientific management which, on paper, may seem to be an
ideal way to maximize production; however, it is associated with many costs as well,
among which alienation of labour is perhaps the greatest.
We then took a closer look at the settings in which work occurs, discussing
both formal bureaucratic structures and informal modes of organization. We also
considered trends towards McDonalidization in organizations.
Further, we saw that the organization of work is related to social inequality, and we
examined, in particular, challenges traditionally faced by women, ethnic minorities, and,

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more recently, youth in the labour market. Then we touched on workers responses to
alienating and unfulfilling labour, including resistance and union activity.
The chapter ended with a discussion of the end of the social contract and
globalization of work and their multiple effects on workers in Canada, especially
downsizing, unemployment, and wage reductions.

OBJECTIVES
This chapter provides information that should allow your students:
1.

To grasp a new definition of the human activity called work, and examine its effect
upon people. How is it different from non-human work?

2.

To distinguish formal organizations and their informal counterparts.

3.

To understand strengths and weaknesses of the modern detailed division of labour


and the historical context of how the division of labour has changed through the
process of industrialization.

4.

To understand the types of inequalities (based on sex, race, age, class) that exist in
organizations and workplaces, and to identify factors implicated in these situations.

5.

To recognize the specific challenges faced by youth in Canadas work force during
the recent past and present.

6.

To appreciate the various forms of labour resistance, the role of unions in them, and
the effects of globalization on them.

IMPORTANT TERMS AND CONCEPTS


Students should also be familiar with the following terms and concepts. Definitions are
found in the Key Terms section at the end of each chapter and at the end of the text.
alienation
bureaucracy
detailed division of labour
downsizing
Fordism
formal organizations
globalization of production
informal organization
instrumentalism
iron law of oligarchy

occupational segregation
McDonaldization
rationalization
resistance
sabotage
scientific management
social contract
social division of labour
unions
work

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Instructors Manual

SUGGESTED ISSUES FOR LECTURES, DISCUSSION AND CLASS ACTIVITY


1.

Is work really is uniquely human activity? Why cant animals do work?

2.

Identify bureaucratic structures at your university/college, or at your place of work.


What examples of informal organization are also in evidence in these venues?

3.

How do people tend to compensate for alienation arising out of the work process?
How important is money in reducing alienation?

4.

Should strikes and other forms of resistance be made illegal in certain sectors of the
workforce? Which ones and why? How would this affect the quality of life for
workers in these sectors?

5.

Who wins and who loses as the economy globalizes? Is the net global effect of
globalization positive or negative?

SUGGESTED VIDEOS FROM THE NATIONAL FILM BOARD


For Man Must Work or The End of Work
The 20th century has seen the creation of colossal wealth and exploding economies. But
the days of industry providing mass employment are over. In the global economy, human
resources are being replaced more and more by technology. We are moving from a mass
labour force to an elite corps concentrated in the knowledge sector. Will this change result
in a sort of economic apartheid in which a third of humanity is made redundant? Will this
revolution mean the end of work as we know it? For Man Must Work raises crucial
questions and suggests rethinking the future. Focusing on situations in Canada, France and
Mexico, the film shows how living and working conditions are deteriorating for many
people. Besides personal stories, we also hear from experts such as Vivianne Forrester,
author of The Economic Horror; Jeremy Rifkin, American economist and author of The
End of Work; sociologist Ricardo Petrella; Ignacio Ramonet, editor-in-chief of Le Monde
diplomatique; and Jacques Attali, author of Dictionary of the 21st Century and former
president of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. They have no
illusionsthey think the 21st century is getting off to a very bad start. Some subtitles. (52
minutes)
A Balancing Act
First-hand accounts of working women and men offer a look at the positive impact of
structural change in the workplace, including flex time, satellite offices, and job-sharing.
(24 minutes)

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Chapter 15
SOCIAL MOVEMENTS
CHAPTER OUTLINE
Introduction
Three Traditional Theoretical Approaches
Collective behaviour
Social breakdown
Relative deprivation
Collective Action Approaches
Resource mobilization
Game theory
The Marxist explanation of social movements
Political opportunity structure
Competition
The Most Recent Approaches
Postmodernism and the new social movements
Culture and social movements
Putting it all together
Canadian Social Structure and Collective Action
Regional cleavage
Ethnic cleavage
Social movements of the future: The politics of status
Summary
Questions for Review and Critical Thinking
Key Terms
Suggested Readings
Web Sites
Key Search Terms

CHAPTER SUMMARY
The first part of this chapter examined different theoretical approaches to the study of
social movements. It began with the collective behaviour perspective, which was long the
dominant theoretical school in North American sociology. This approach assumes that
social movements are less institutionalized than ordinary behaviour, and it studies them
along with other types of relatively less institutionalized events, such as panics, crowds,
and crazes. The discussion then turned to the breakdown theory that social unrest occurs
when institutions that normally control and restrain human behaviour are weakened. The
third theoretical perspective presented was the relative deprivation approach. It makes the
intuitively appealing argument that social unrest is most likely to erupt when a sharp
increase develops in the difference between what people receive and what they think they
have a right to receive.

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Collective action approaches take a different tack by placing social movements in a


broad category of events called collective action. Most advocates of this position
emphasize the need to study how social unrestindeed, how any kind of collective
actionvaries from one society to another, and how it changes in character over time.
They also attempt to explain these variations in terms of the structural conditions that
underlie and shape collective action, particularly those conditions that facilitate
mobilization. They also study the way in which people overcome extreme obstacles to
collective action, such as the free-rider problem. This theoretical approach is critical of
other perspectives for giving insufficient attention to how people acquire the capacity to act
collectively.
Postmodernism and the new social movement approach sought to explain the
particular movements that have emerged in postmodern or postindustrial society in
Western Europe and North America, placing more emphasis on the importance of culture
than other perspectives. Finally, we examined the way in which culture contributes to and
shapes collective action.
The second part of the chapter shifted to a necessarily brief, examination of
collective action in Canada. Movements in western Canada were described as examples of
collective action built on regional cleavage, and Quebec nationalism as an example of
collective action resulting from ethnic cleavage. Finally, it was suggested that status
movements will predominate in Canada in the 21st century.

OBJECTIVES
This chapter provides information that should allow your students:
1.

To understand the meaning of the general term collective behaviour and its
specific forms: panics, crowds, fads, crazes, publics, and social movements.

2.

To understand the collective behaviour perspective on social movements, including


Blumers work and emergent-norm theory.

3.

To compare and contrast other theoretical perspectives on social movementsthe


social breakdown approach, the relative deprivation approach, the collective action
approaches, and postmodernism and the new social movement approach.

4.

To be aware of the principal cleavages and integrative bonds that have shaped
collective action in Canada, with emphasis on regional and ethnic cleavages.

IMPORTANT TERMS AND CONCEPTS


Students should also be familiar with the following terms and concepts. Definitions are
found in the Key Terms section at the end of each chapter and at the end of the text.
collective action
collective behaviour

Quiet Revolution
relative deprivation

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Canada

Introduction to Sociology: A Canadian Focus

craze
crowd
emergent norm theory
fad
frame
free-rider problem
hegemony
ideology
mobilization
panic
public

57

selective incentives
social breakdown approach
social cleavage
social contagion
social integration
social movement
social structure
status bloc
status communities
la survivance

SUGGESTED ISSUES FOR LECTURES, DISCUSSION AND CLASS ACTIVITY


1.

How might the current wave of global terrorism be understood using a collective
action approach?

2.

Some have argued that nationalism in Quebec is a generational phenomenon, with


younger people less concerned with preserving Quebecois language and culture.
What factors may be causing this to occur?

3.

Why is it so difficult for the new Conservative (former Reform) party to break out
of its traditional stronghold in Western Canada?

4.

What factors might account for the strength of regionalism and regional social
movements in Canada?

5.

Do certain types of social movements appear to attract certain people from certain
social groups or classes (e.g., the environmental movement)? If so, why?

SUGGESTED VIDEOS FROM THE NATIONAL FILM BOARD


Kanehsatake: 270 Years of Resistance
July 1990. An historic confrontation propelled Native issues in Kanehsatake and the village
of Oka, Quebec into the international spotlight and into the Canadian conscience. Director
Alanis Obomsawin endured 78 nerve-wracking days and nights filming the armed standoff
between the Mohawks, the Quebec police and the Canadian army. A powerful featuredocumentary emerges that takes you right into the struggle. The result is a portrait of the
people behind the barricades, providing insight into the Mohawks unyielding
determination to protect their land. (119 minutes)

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Instructors Manual

Traitor or Patriot
Hero or villain? Traitor or patriot? Free-thinker or dupe? Adlard Godbout was premier of
Quebec from 1939 to 1944, and during his office he helped lay the groundwork for the
Quiet Revolution of the 1950s and 1960s: instituting compulsory education, giving women
the vote, creating Hydro-Qubec and trying to free the province from domination by the
clergy. But instead of being celebrated, he was written out of the history books. Why?
While most Quebec nationalists saw participation in the Second World War as subjugation
to the British Crown and were opposed to conscription, Premier Adlard Godbout
recognized that failure to oppose Hitler was a greater evil than conscription. He threw his
support behind the war effortand earned the scorn of his provinces intelligentsia. Fortyfive years after Godbouts death, his great-nephewpoet, essayist, novelist and filmmaker
Jacques Godboutlaunches an investigation into Quebec during the Second World War. A
film about the writing of history and our views of the past, Traitor or Patriot asks uneasy
questions about history: who is remembered, who is forgotten and why? (82 minutes)

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Canada

Introduction to Sociology: A Canadian Focus

59

Chapter 16
DEMOGRAPHY AND URBANIZATION
CHAPTER OUTLINE
Introduction
The course of world population growth
Demographic Transition Theory
Factors Affecting Population Growth
Fertility
Mortality
Migration
Urbanization
Urbanization in developed countries
Urbanization in the developing world
Age/Sex Structure
Population in the Twenty-First Century
Summary
Questions for Review and Critical Thinking
Key Terms
Suggested Readings
Web Sites
Key Search Terms

CHAPTER SUMMARY
In this chapter we discussed the trends in population growth at both the global and national
level. Our examination of population change was influenced by demographic transition
theory, which sees populations moving from one of high birth and death rates to one in
which birth and death rates are low. The economically privileged countries of the world
have completed this transition and now experience slow population growth or even decline.
In the rest of the world, the transition is continuing and rates of natural increase are
beginning to fall. Nevertheless, global population is likely to continue to increase for some
time to come and may eventually reach a total of more than nine billion people.
In Canada, population is now growing slowly. Most women have few children, and
life expectancy is rapidly approaching 80 years of age. Demographers expect these patterns
to continue, and once the baby-boom generation enters the older age groups, the number of
deaths will exceed the number of births in Canada. If Canadas population is to grow in the
future, then it will do so as a result of the immigration. The distribution of Canadas
population is also changing in two important ways. As a nation, we are gradually growing
older. Continued low fertility will see this trend continue in the years ahead. And our
population is becoming more concentrated in our major cities. The attractions of urban
living continue to draw Canadians to the urban centres, leaving much of this very large
land very thinly populated.

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Instructors Manual

OBJECTIVES
This chapter provides information that should allow your students:
1.

To learn the basic variables of population studyfertility, mortality, and


migrationand the part each plays, in conjunction with other social, cultural, and
economic factors in social life.

2.

To understand several theoretical perspectives on population changedemographic


transition theory and the views of Malthus and Marx.

3.

To be aware of different measures of mortality, fertility, and migration, and to know


the factors related to them in the Canadian context, past and present.

4.

To appreciate patterns of urbanization in the developed and developing world.

IMPORTANT TERMS AND CONCEPTS


Students should also be familiar with the following terms and concepts. Definitions are
found in the Key Terms section at the end of each chapter and at the end of the text.
age-specific death rates
age-specific fertility rates
cohort measures
crude birth rate (CBR
crude death rate (CDR)
demographic transition theory
demography
dependency ratio
expectation of life at birth
internal migration

international migration
life table
migration
period measures
population pyramid
positive checks
preventive checks
rate of natural increase
total fertility rate

SUGGESTED ISSUES FOR LECTURES, DISCUSSION AND CLASS ACTIVITY


1.

Why isnt world population growth viewed with as much alarm as in the past?
Does this mean that Demographic Transition Theory is correct?

2.

What are the economic and job-related implications of the aging baby boom
generation for Canadian society (and young people in particular)?

3.

Given Canadas imbalanced distribution of population, should Canadians be


encouraged, through financial or other incentives, to move to less populated areas?

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Introduction to Sociology: A Canadian Focus

61

4.

In Quebec, the government pays a flat cash bonus for the birth of each child in a
family as a means for preserving and enhancing the population of Francophones in
that province. What do you think of this policy? Are there other measures that
might be adopted to help achieve this end?

5.

Why are cities in developing countries growing so quickly? How might such
population growth adversely affect the environment in these regions? Globally?

SUGGESTED VIDEOS FROM THE NATIONAL FILM BOARD


The Bomb under the World
What happens when large developing countries like India adopt full-scale consumer
economies? Vivid personalitiesfrom Bombay businessmen to village artisansdiscuss
how global economic forces are changing the lives of people throughout the developing
world. And they raise urgent questions about the limits of our shared global environment.
(51 minutes)

Exploding Cities
At the beginning of this century, Earth was still a rural plant. By the year 2000, two out of
three of us will be living in cities. This film examines the causes of this massive migration,
the terrible poverty that ensues, and what steps are being undertaken in some cities in the
developing world to cope with the great influx of people. (30 minutes)

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Instructors Manual

Chapter 17
SOCIAL CHANGE
CHAPTER OUTLINE
Introduction
Early Societies and the Beginnings of Social Change
Hunting and gathering societies
Farming societies
The modern era
Theories of Social Change
Evolutionism
Developmental theories
Historical materialism
The Weber thesis
The state theory of modernization
Social Change Since the 1960s
The Great Disruption
Increased tolerance, rejection of authority
Postmaterialism
Group rights
Globalization and development
Summary
Questions for Review and Critical Thinking
Key Terms
Suggested Readings
Web Sites
Key Search Terms

CHAPTER SUMMARY
In this chapter we have examined in broad outline how human societies have changed over
the past 10 000 years. Their evolution from hunting and gathering bands to farming
societies and finally to industrialized nations produced a number of significant changes,
including new forms of inequality, altered gender relations, variations in the power of the
state, and urbanization. We also examined several theories that seek to account for the
changes that occurred, namely evolutionism, developmental theories, historical
materialism, the Weber thesis, and the state theory of modernization. Recent changes in
Western industrialized countries were discussed as well. These included increases in
divorce rates and the number of unwed parents, growing tolerance among racial and ethnic
groups, the decline in deference to lites, and the influence of postmodernism and
postmaterialism. We concluded with a discussion of globalization and development.

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Introduction to Sociology: A Canadian Focus

63

OBJECTIVES
This chapter provides information that should allow your students:
1.

To understand how human societies have changed over the past 10 000 years, from
gathering and hunting to post-industrial.

2.

To be familiar with theories of social change: evolutionism, the Weber thesis,


developmental theories, historical materialism, and state theory of modernization.

3.

To learn something about specific changes, including greater equality, the decline
of the traditional family, postmodernism, post-materialism, and globalization.

IMPORTANT TERMS AND CONCEPTS


Students should also be familiar with the following terms and concepts. Definitions are
found in the Key Terms section at the end of each chapter and at the end of the text.
anomie
cultural lag
dependency theory
dialectical.
diffusion
ecological-evolutionary theory
Enlightenment
evolutionism
gemeinschaft
gesellschaft
historical materialism
imperialism

materialist values
mechanical solidarity
modernization theory
neo-liberalism
organic solidarity
postmaterialism
postmodernism
rationalization
staples thesis
state
state theory of modernization
world system theory

SUGGESTED ISSUES FOR LECTURES, DISCUSSION AND CLASS ACTIVITY


1.

Innis suggests that the Canadian economy was shaped by the production and export
of staple products. How important are raw materials today to the health of the
Canadian economy? What, if anything, has changed?

2.

How might modern Canada appear to be shaped by the ethos of Protestantism,


following Webers thesis?

3.

What are the chances that social change in Canada will occur as a result of
revolution, as Marx suggests? Where might revolutions be likely to occur in future,
and under what conditions?

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Instructors Manual

4.

Is Canada a net producer, or a net receptor of global economic and cultural


influences? Where is there evidence of the expanding global economy in your city
or town?

5.

What are the chances that developing countries will ever reach a level of affluence
enjoyed by countries such as Canada? Discuss with reference to modernization,
dependency and world systems theory.

SUGGESTED VIDEOS FROM THE NATIONAL FILM BOARD


Turbulences
What happens when a butterfly flutters its wings? Does the air around it rumble and seethe,
creating a hurricane on the other side of the globe? And when blue chip stocks suddenly
plummet one day, how many workers lose their jobs or their pensions? The global market
is not a neutral territory, but an unprecedented state of interconnections and
interdependence. Circling the globe, director Carole Poliquin meets squatters in Paris,
families living on welfare in Qubec, factory workers in Thailand, teachers in Ontario, fish
processors in Senegal and debt-ridden Mexicans. She also interviews some of the market
speculators and fund managers who help dictate economies worldwide and yet, for the
most part, remain indifferent to the consequences of their actions. Irreverent, witty and
fearless, Turbulences highlights the unprecedented power of the financial markets and the
threat they pose to democracy. (52 minutes)

A Place Called Chiapas


On January 1,1994, the day the North American Free Trade Agreement came into force,
the indigenous Zapatista National Liberation Army (EZLN) took over five towns and 500
ranches in southern Mexico. Three years later, the Zapatistas and their charismatic leader,
guerrilla poet Subcomandante Marcos, are trapped in the Locandon jungle. Surrounded by
30 000 Mexican troops, they struggle to maintain a nervous cease-fire. Director Nellie
Wild travels throughout the jungle canyons of Chiapas to capture the elusive and fragile
life of a revolution. (93 minutes)

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Canada