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Two Nation Theories

India had never seen the abode of single nation

Hindu and Muslims were quite separate and distinctive nations

Concept of Nation

Hertz says that consciousness is pre-requisite for nationhood

Iqbal said Nation is nothing but unity of thought and this unity of thought is
provided by religious ideology.

Nation in Indian Context

The existence of separate Muslim nation can be traced 1001 years back when
Al-Bairuni in Kitab-ul-Hind said Muslims and Hindus are two separate and
different nations.
Sir Syed used the word Nation for Muslims
On 2nd March 1941 Jinnah said we are a nation and nation have a territorial
state, that is what we want to get

Hindu Muslim Differences

1. Religious differences
Stanley Wolpert said:
Hindu polytheism presents the most striking contrast to Islamic monotheism
than any other religion in the world.
2. Political differences
Islam: democracy and egalitarian faith. No discrimination
Hindus: the opposite
3. Economic differences
Islam: circulation of wealth
Hindus: capitalistic economy
4. Social differences
Evaluation of the Two Nation Theory
1. Hindu exclusiveness and Muslim separation.
2. Clash of two processes of revivalism.
3. Impact of British Rule
British policies resulted in Indian Nationalism; later on it led to Muslim
4. Anti-Muslim policies of Congress, Akhand Bharat scheme.
5. Role of Hindu Militant organizations
Shudhi-forcefully threw Muslims out of India.
Sangathan-militant training to Hindus.

6. Cultural Factors
Significance of Two Nation Theory

Evoke political concessions

Provided conceptual dynamism for Pakistan Movement.
Basis of Ideology of Pakistan.
(Write it by yourself)

Ideology of Pakistan
(Muslim Nationalism)

Evaluation introduction
1883, Sir Syed demanded a separate elections for the Muslims
British administrator, John Bright in 1858 recommended the division
of India sub-continent into 5 regions on communal basis.
Ch. Rehmat Ali Now or Never 1933.
Pakistan come into being as a result of a moment which was based
on an ideology called the ideology of Pakistan.
Main Components
A. Islamic Ideology
Universalism of Islam
Complete code of life
Balance between individualism and collectivism
B. Two-Nation Theory
Hindus and Muslims are separate nations.
It provided conceptual inspiration for Pakistan Movement
Iqbal and the Ideology of Pakistan
When elected the president of all India Muslim Conference in March
1932, Iqbal said, we should infuse Islam in our individual and
collective lives. Which will be helpful for a strong country
Iqbals first letter to Jinnah on 28 May 1937
The enforcement of Sharia of Islam is impossible in this
country without free Muslim state or states.
2nd Letter,21 June 1937
that the only way to a peaceful India is the redistribution of
country on the lines of social, religious and linguistic affinities.

Jinnah and the Ideology of Pakistan

On March 1940 Jinnah said
Muslims are a nation according to any definition of nation.. they must
have their homeland
territory and a state. We wish to live in peace with
our neighbors as a free and independent people.
Jinnah said,
Ideology of Muslim league would be Islam
2nd March 1941

we are a nation a nation must have a territory. Nation does not live in air, it
lives on land. It must have a territorial state that is what we want to get.
Why Pakistan was Creating? Evolutionary Factors of Ideology
Ideological cleavage
Impact of revivalist movements
British rule of subjugation
Role of Muslim personalities
Cultural factors
Desire for separate state
Historical factors
Pan-Islamic consciousness
Jinnahs political sagacity.
Congress ministries
Impact of world war 2.
Significance of Ideology of Pakistan

Basis for separate state

Basis of Pakistan movement
Guiding principle for the state of Pakistan
Basis of Pakistans Unity

Difference between Two-Nation Theory and Ideology of Pakistan


2-Nation Theory started in 17th century and ideology of Pakistan

had shape in 19th century
2-Nation theory is the basis of Muslim Nationhood while ideology
basis of statehood.
2-Nation theory ended in 1947 whereas ideology exists to dates

(write it by yourself)