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# Chapter 11

Balanced Three-Phase
Circuits
11.1-2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6

Three-Phase Systems
Analysis of the Y-Y Circuit
Analysis of the Y- Circuit
Power Calculations in Balanced
Three-Phase Circuits
Measuring Average Power in ThreePhase Circuits

Overview

## where the power transmission uses balanced

three-phase configuration.
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Why three-phase?

## Three-phase generators can be driven by

constant force or torque (to be discussed).

## Industrial applications, such as high-power

motors, welding equipments, have constant
power output if they are three-phase systems
(to be discussed).

Key points

## Why a balanced three-phase circuit can be

analyzed by an equivalent one-phase circuit?

## How to get all the unknowns (e.g. line voltage of

the load) by the result of one-phase circuit
analysis?

## Why the total instantaneous power of a

balanced three-phase circuit is a constant?
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## Section 11.1, 11.2

Three-Phase Systems
1.
2.

Three-phase sources
Three-phase systems

## One-phase ac generator: static magnets, one

rotating coil, single output voltage v(t)=Vmcost.

(www.ac-motors.us)
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## Three static coils,

rotating magnets,
three output voltages
va(t), vb(t), vc(t).

Neutral

## Internal impedance of a generator is usually

inductive (due to the use of coils).

## Three sinusoidal voltages of the same

amplitude, frequency, but differing by 120
phase difference with one another.

## There are two possible sequences:

abc (positive) sequence: vb(t) lags va(t) by 120.
acb (negative) sequence: vb(t) leads va(t) by
120.

1.
2.

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abc sequence

## Va Vm0 , Vb Vm 120 , Vc Vm 120.

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Three-phase systems

(Y or )

(Y or )

## Source-load can be connected in four

configurations: Y-Y, Y-, -Y, -

## Its sufficient to analyze Y-Y, while the others

can be treated by -Y and Y- transformations.
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Section 11.3
Analysis of the Y-Y Circuit
1.

2.

## Equivalent one-phase circuit for

balanced Y-Y circuit
Line currents, phase and line voltages

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## General Y-Y circuit model

Ref.

The only
essential
node.

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Unknowns to be solved

Line (line-to-line)
voltage: voltage
across any pair of
lines.
Phase (line-toneutral) voltage:
voltage across a
single phase.

Line current

Line voltage

Phase
current

Phase voltage

current.
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## Solution to general three-phase circuit

No matter its balanced or imbalanced threephase circuit, KCL leads to one equation:
I 0 I aA I bB I cC ,
VN
Van VN
Vbn VN
Vcn VN

(1),
Z 0 Z ga Z1a Z A Z gb Z1b Z B Z gc Z1c Z C

Impedance
of neutral
line.

Total
impedance
along line aA.

Total
impedance
along line bB.

Total
impedance
along line cC.

circuit).
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1.

2.

## For balanced three-phase circuits,

{Va'n, Vb'n, Vc'n} have equal magnitude and 120
relative phases;
{Zga = Zgb = Zgc}, {Z1a = Z1b = Z1c}, {ZA = ZB = ZC};
total impedance along any line is the same
Zga + Z1a + ZA = = Z.

,
Eq. (1) becomes:
Z0
Z
Z
Z

1
Van Vbn Vcn
3
VN
0, VN 0.
Z

Z
Z
0

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## VN = 0 means no voltage difference between

nodes n and N in the presence of Z0. Neutral
line is both short (v = 0) and open (i = 0).

## The three-phase circuit can be separated into 3

one-phase circuits (open), while each of them
has a short between nodes n and N.

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Phase
voltage
of source

Line current

Phase
voltage
of load

Inn = 0 IaA

## Directly giving the line current & phase voltages:

Van VN
I aA
, VAN I aA Z A , Van I aA Z1a Z A .
Z ga Z1a Z A Z

## Unknowns of phases b, c can be determined by

the fixed (abc or acb) sequence relation.
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I bB

Vbn

I aA 120 ,
Z

I cC

Vcn

I aA120 ,
Z

which still
follow the abc
sequence
relation.
I cC

I aA
I bB
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## The phase & line voltages of the load in abc seq.

VAN

ZA
ZB
Van
, VBN Vbn
VAN 120 , VCN VAN 120.
Z
Z

(abc sequence)

Line
voltage

3VAN 30 ,

3VAN 90 ,

Phase
voltage

3VAN 150.
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VAB VAN VBN

3VAN 30 ,

(acb
sequence)

Phase
voltage

3VAN 90 ,

3VAN 150.

Line
voltage

## Line voltages are 3 times bigger, leading (abc)

or lagging (acb) the phase voltages by 30.
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## Q: What are the line currents, phase and line

voltages of the load and source, respectively?

Zga

Z1a
Phase voltages

ZA

(abc sequence)

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## The 3 line currents (of both load & source) are:

1200
Van

2.4 36.87 A,
I aA
Z ga Z1a Z A 40 j 30

## I bB I aA 120 2.4 156.87 A,

I cC I aA 120 2.4 83.13 A.

## VBN VAN 120 115.22 121.19 V,

VCN VAN 120 115.22 118.81 V.

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VAB

330 VAN

199.58 28.81 V,
VBC VAB 120

199.58 91.19 V,

199.58 148.81 V.
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118 .9 0.32 V,

## Vbn Van 120 118 .9 120 .32 V,

Vcn Van 120 118 .9 119 .68 V.

Vab

330 Van

205.94 29.68 V,

## Vca Vab 120 205.94 149.68 V.

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Section 11.4
Analysis of the Y- Circuit

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Load in configuration
Line current

Phase current

Line voltage =
Phase voltage

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## The impedance of each leg in Y-configuration

(ZY) is one-third of that in -configuration (Z):
ZbZc
Z1
,
Za Zb Zc
ZcZa
Z2
,
Za Zb Zc
Za Zb
Z3
.
Za Zb Zc
ZZ Z
ZY

.
3Z
3
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## The 1-phase equivalent circuit in Y-Y config.

continues to work if ZA is replaced by Z/3:

Line current

Line-to-neutral
voltage
Phase voltage
Line voltage

Van
,
directly giving the line current: I aA
Z ga Z1a Z A

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## Can be solved by 3 node equations once the 3

line currents IaA, IbB, IcC are known:

## I aA I AB ICA , IbB I BC I AB , I cC ICA I BC .

Line current

Phase
current

(abc
sequence)
Phase
current

Line current
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Section 11.5
Power Calculations in
Balanced Three-Phase
Circuits
1.

2.

## Complex powers of one-phase and

the entire Y-Load
The total instantaneous power

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PA V I cos ,
V VAN VL 3 ,

(rms value)
I I aA I L ,
V I Z .

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## The reactive powers of one phase and the

entire Y-Load are:

Q V I sin ,

## The complex powers of one phase and the

entire Y-Load are:

S P jQ V I e j V I* ;

j
j
Stot 3S 3V I e 3VL I L e .
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## p A (t ) v AN (t )iaA (t ) Vm I m cos t cos(t ).

(abc sequence)

The instantaneous
powers of ZA, ZC are:
pB (t ) vBN (t )ibB (t )

Vm I m cost 120
cost 120 ,

pC (t ) Vm I m cost 120
cost 120 .

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## The instantaneous power of the entire Y-Load

is a constant independent of time!

## ptot (t ) p A (t ) pB (t ) pC (t ) 1.5Vm I m cos

1.5 2V

2 I cos 3V I cos .

## The torque developed at the shaft of a 3-phase

motor is constant, less vibration in
machinery powered by 3-phase motors.

## The torque required to empower a 3-phase

generator is constant, need steady input.
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## Q: What are the complex powers provided by

the source and dissipated by the line of a-phase?

## The equivalent one-phase circuit in Y-Y

configuration is:
Z1a
S

(rms value)
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## The line current of a-phase can be calculated by

the complex power is:

600 *
S V I , 160 j12010
I aA ,
3

I aA 577.35 36.87 A.
*

600

357.511.57 V.

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206.4138.44 kVA.

2

8.5078.66 kVA.

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Key points

## Why a balanced three-phase circuit can be

analyzed by an equivalent one-phase circuit?

## How to get all the unknowns (e.g. line voltage of

the load) by the result of one-phase circuit
analysis?

## Why the total instantaneous power of a

balanced three-phase circuit is a constant?
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