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Chapter 11

Balanced Three-Phase
Circuits
11.1-2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6

Three-Phase Systems
Analysis of the Y-Y Circuit
Analysis of the Y- Circuit
Power Calculations in Balanced
Three-Phase Circuits
Measuring Average Power in ThreePhase Circuits

Overview

An electric power distribution system looks like:

where the power transmission uses balanced


three-phase configuration.
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Why three-phase?

Three-phase generators can be driven by


constant force or torque (to be discussed).

Industrial applications, such as high-power


motors, welding equipments, have constant
power output if they are three-phase systems
(to be discussed).

Key points

What is a three-phase circuit (source, line, load)?

Why a balanced three-phase circuit can be


analyzed by an equivalent one-phase circuit?

How to get all the unknowns (e.g. line voltage of


the load) by the result of one-phase circuit
analysis?

Why the total instantaneous power of a


balanced three-phase circuit is a constant?
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Section 11.1, 11.2


Three-Phase Systems
1.
2.

Three-phase sources
Three-phase systems

One-phase voltage sources

One-phase ac generator: static magnets, one


rotating coil, single output voltage v(t)=Vmcost.

(www.ac-motors.us)
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Three-phase voltage sources

Three static coils,


rotating magnets,
three output voltages
va(t), vb(t), vc(t).

Ideal Y- and -connected voltage sources

Neutral

Real Y- and -connected voltage sources

Internal impedance of a generator is usually


inductive (due to the use of coils).

Balanced three-phase voltages

Three sinusoidal voltages of the same


amplitude, frequency, but differing by 120
phase difference with one another.

There are two possible sequences:


abc (positive) sequence: vb(t) lags va(t) by 120.
acb (negative) sequence: vb(t) leads va(t) by
120.

1.
2.

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abc sequence

vb(t) lags va(t) by 120 or T/3.

Va Vm0 , Vb Vm 120 , Vc Vm 120.

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Three-phase systems

(Y or )

(Y or )

Source-load can be connected in four


configurations: Y-Y, Y-, -Y, -

Its sufficient to analyze Y-Y, while the others


can be treated by -Y and Y- transformations.
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Section 11.3
Analysis of the Y-Y Circuit
1.

2.

Equivalent one-phase circuit for


balanced Y-Y circuit
Line currents, phase and line voltages

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General Y-Y circuit model

Ref.

The only
essential
node.

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Unknowns to be solved

Line (line-to-line)
voltage: voltage
across any pair of
lines.
Phase (line-toneutral) voltage:
voltage across a
single phase.

Line current

Line voltage

Phase
current

Phase voltage

For Y-connected load, line current equals phase


current.
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Solution to general three-phase circuit

No matter its balanced or imbalanced threephase circuit, KCL leads to one equation:
I 0 I aA I bB I cC ,
VN
Van VN
Vbn VN
Vcn VN

(1),
Z 0 Z ga Z1a Z A Z gb Z1b Z B Z gc Z1c Z C

Impedance
of neutral
line.

Total
impedance
along line aA.

Total
impedance
along line bB.

Total
impedance
along line cC.

which is sufficient to solve VN (thus the entire


circuit).
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Solution to balanced three-phase circuit

1.

2.

For balanced three-phase circuits,


{Va'n, Vb'n, Vc'n} have equal magnitude and 120
relative phases;
{Zga = Zgb = Zgc}, {Z1a = Z1b = Z1c}, {ZA = ZB = ZC};
total impedance along any line is the same
Zga + Z1a + ZA = = Z.

VN Van VN Vbn VN Vcn VN

,
Eq. (1) becomes:
Z0
Z
Z
Z

1
Van Vbn Vcn
3
VN
0, VN 0.
Z

Z
Z
0

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Meaning of the solution

VN = 0 means no voltage difference between


nodes n and N in the presence of Z0. Neutral
line is both short (v = 0) and open (i = 0).

The three-phase circuit can be separated into 3


one-phase circuits (open), while each of them
has a short between nodes n and N.

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Equivalent one-phase circuit

Phase
voltage
of source

Line current

Phase
voltage
of load

Inn = 0 IaA

Directly giving the line current & phase voltages:

Van VN
I aA
, VAN I aA Z A , Van I aA Z1a Z A .
Z ga Z1a Z A Z

Unknowns of phases b, c can be determined by


the fixed (abc or acb) sequence relation.
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The 3 line and phase currents in abc sequence

Given I aA Van Z , the other 2 line currents are:


I bB

Vbn

I aA 120 ,
Z

I cC

Vcn

I aA120 ,
Z

which still
follow the abc
sequence
relation.
I cC

I aA
I bB
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The phase & line voltages of the load in abc seq.


VAN

ZA
ZB
Van
, VBN Vbn
VAN 120 , VCN VAN 120.
Z
Z

VAB VAN VBN

VAN VAN 120

(abc sequence)

Line
voltage

3VAN 30 ,

VBC VAN 120 VAN 120


3VAN 90 ,

Phase
voltage

VCA VAN 120 VAN


3VAN 150.
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The phase & line voltages of the load in acb seq.


VAB VAN VBN

VAN VAN 120


3VAN 30 ,

(acb
sequence)

VBC VAN 120 VAN 120

Phase
voltage

3VAN 90 ,

VCA VAN 120 VAN


3VAN 150.

Line
voltage

Line voltages are 3 times bigger, leading (abc)


or lagging (acb) the phase voltages by 30.
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Example 11.1 (1)

Q: What are the line currents, phase and line


voltages of the load and source, respectively?

Zga

Z1a
Phase voltages

ZA

(abc sequence)

Z = Zga + Z1a + ZA = 40 + j30 .


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Example 11.1 (2)

The 3 line currents (of both load & source) are:


1200
Van

2.4 36.87 A,
I aA
Z ga Z1a Z A 40 j 30

I bB I aA 120 2.4 156.87 A,


I cC I aA 120 2.4 83.13 A.

The 3 phase voltages of the load are:

VAN I aA Z A 2.4 36.87 39 j 28 115.22 1.19 V.

VBN VAN 120 115.22 121.19 V,


VCN VAN 120 115.22 118.81 V.

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Example 11.1 (3)

The 3 line voltages of the load are:

VAB

330 115.22 1.19


330 VAN

199.58 28.81 V,
VBC VAB 120

199.58 91.19 V,

VCA VAB 120

199.58 148.81 V.
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Example 11.1 (4)

The 3 phase voltages of the source are:

Van Va n I aA Z ga 120 2.4 36.87 0.2 j 0.5


118 .9 0.32 V,

Vbn Van 120 118 .9 120 .32 V,


Vcn Van 120 118 .9 119 .68 V.

The three line voltages of the source are:


Vab

330 Van

330 118.9 0.32

205.94 29.68 V,

Vbc Vab 120 205.94 90.32 V,

Vca Vab 120 205.94 149.68 V.

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Section 11.4
Analysis of the Y- Circuit

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Load in configuration
Line current

Phase current

Line voltage =
Phase voltage

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-Y transformation for balanced 3-phase load

The impedance of each leg in Y-configuration


(ZY) is one-third of that in -configuration (Z):
ZbZc
Z1
,
Za Zb Zc
ZcZa
Z2
,
Za Zb Zc
Za Zb
Z3
.
Za Zb Zc
ZZ Z
ZY

.
3Z
3
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Equivalent one-phase circuit

The 1-phase equivalent circuit in Y-Y config.


continues to work if ZA is replaced by Z/3:

Line current

Line-to-neutral
voltage
Phase voltage
Line voltage

Van
,
directly giving the line current: I aA
Z ga Z1a Z A

and line-to-neutral voltage: VAN I aA Z A .


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The 3 phase currents of the load in abc seq.

Can be solved by 3 node equations once the 3


line currents IaA, IbB, IcC are known:

I aA I AB ICA , IbB I BC I AB , I cC ICA I BC .


Line current

Phase
current

(abc
sequence)
Phase
current

Line current
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Section 11.5
Power Calculations in
Balanced Three-Phase
Circuits
1.

2.

Complex powers of one-phase and


the entire Y-Load
The total instantaneous power

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Average power of balanced Y-Load

The average power delivered to ZA is:

PA V I cos ,
V VAN VL 3 ,

(rms value)
I I aA I L ,
V I Z .

The total power delivered to the Y-Load is:

Ptot 3PA 3V I cos 3VL I L cos .


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Complex power of a balanced Y-Load

The reactive powers of one phase and the


entire Y-Load are:

Q V I sin ,

Qtot 3V I sin 3VL I L sin .

The complex powers of one phase and the


entire Y-Load are:

S P jQ V I e j V I* ;

j
j
Stot 3S 3V I e 3VL I L e .
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One-phase instantaneous powers

The instantaneous power of load ZA is:

p A (t ) v AN (t )iaA (t ) Vm I m cos t cos(t ).

(abc sequence)

The instantaneous
powers of ZA, ZC are:
pB (t ) vBN (t )ibB (t )

Vm I m cost 120
cost 120 ,

pC (t ) Vm I m cost 120
cost 120 .

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Total instantaneous power

The instantaneous power of the entire Y-Load


is a constant independent of time!

ptot (t ) p A (t ) pB (t ) pC (t ) 1.5Vm I m cos

1.5 2V

2 I cos 3V I cos .

The torque developed at the shaft of a 3-phase


motor is constant, less vibration in
machinery powered by 3-phase motors.

The torque required to empower a 3-phase


generator is constant, need steady input.
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Example 11.5 (1)

Q: What are the complex powers provided by


the source and dissipated by the line of a-phase?

The equivalent one-phase circuit in Y-Y


configuration is:
Z1a
S

(rms value)
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Example 11.5 (2)

The line current of a-phase can be calculated by


the complex power is:

600 *
S V I , 160 j12010
I aA ,
3

I aA 577.35 36.87 A.
*

The a-phase voltage of the source is:

Van VAN I aA Z1a


600

3 577.35 36.87 0.005 j 0.025

357.511.57 V.

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Example 11.5 (3)

The complex power provided by the source of aphase is:

San Van I*aA 357.511.57 577.3536.87


206.4138.44 kVA.

The complex power dissipated by the line of aphase is:

SaA I aA Z1a 577.35 0.005 j 0.025


2

8.5078.66 kVA.

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Key points

What is a three-phase circuit (source, line, load)?

Why a balanced three-phase circuit can be


analyzed by an equivalent one-phase circuit?

How to get all the unknowns (e.g. line voltage of


the load) by the result of one-phase circuit
analysis?

Why the total instantaneous power of a


balanced three-phase circuit is a constant?
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