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Agreement / Addition /

Similarity

The transition words


like also, in addition,
and, likewise, add
information, reinforce
ideas, and express
agreement with
preceding material.

in the first place


not only ... but also
as a matter of fact
in like manner
in addition

like

on the other hand

as

on the contrary

too

at the same time

moreover

in spite of

as well as

even so / though

together with

be that as it may

of course

then again

likewise

above all

comparatively

in reality

correspondingly

after all

similarly

but

furthermore

(and) still

additionally

unlike
or

coupled with
in the same fashion /
way
first, second, third

(and) yet
Opposition /
Limitation /
Contradiction

to say nothing of
equally important
by the same token
again
to

Transition phrases like


but, rather and or,
express that there is
evidence to the
contrary or point out
alternatives, and thus
introduce a change the
line of reasoning
(contrast).

as much as
even though
although
instead
whereas
despite
conversely

and
also

albeit
besides

in the light of
not to mention

while

otherwise

then

although this may be


true

equally

in contrast

rather

identically

different from

nevertheless

uniquely

of course ..., but

nonetheless

however

regardless

whenever

as an illustration

notwithstanding

while

in this case
for this reason

Cause / Condition /
Purpose

These transitional
phrases present
specific conditions or
intentions.

in the event that


granted (that)
as / so long as
on (the) condition
(that)

because of

to put it another way

as

that is to say

since

with attention to

while

by all means

lest
in case
provided that
given that

important to realize

only / even if

another key point

so that

first thing to remember

so as to

most compelling
evidence

owing to

for the purpose of

inasmuch as

with this intention

due to

to the end that


for fear that
in order to
seeing / being that
in view of
If
... then

Examples / Support /
Emphasis

on the positive side


on the negative side
with this in mind

These transitional
devices (like especially)
are used to introduce
examples as support,
to indicate importance
or as an illustration so
that an idea is cued to
the reader.

unless
in other words
when

point often overlooked


to point out

with this in mind


in the hope that

must be remembered

to put it differently
for one thing

notably
including
like
to be sure
namely
chiefly
truly
indeed
certainly

surely
markedly
such as

especially

Some of these
transition words (thus,
then, accordingly,
consequently,
therefore, henceforth)
are time words that are
used to show that after
a particular time there
was a consequence or
an effect.

Conclusion / Summary /
Restatement

Note that for and


because are placed
before the
cause/reason. The
other devices are
placed before the
consequences or
effects.

These transition words


and phrases conclude,
summarize and / or
restate ideas, or
indicate a final general
statement. Also some
words (like therefore)
from the Effect /
Consequence category
can be used to
summarize.

in general

as a result

as can be seen

in particular

generally speaking

in detail

under those
circumstances

for example

in that case

all things considered

for instance

for this reason

as shown above

to demonstrate

in effect

in the long run

to emphasize

for

given these points

to repeat

thus

as has been noted

to clarify

because the

in a word

to explain

then

for the most part

to enumerate

hence

after all

consequently

in fact

therefore

in summary

thereupon

in conclusion

forthwith

in short

accordingly

in brief

henceforth

in essence

explicitly
specifically
expressly
surprisingly
frequently
significantly
particularly
in fact

Effect / Consequence /
Result

in the final analysis

to summarize

up to the present time

now

on balance

to begin with

altogether

in due time

overall

as soon as

formerly

ordinarily

as long as

suddenly

usually

in the meantime

shortly

by and large

in a moment

henceforth

to sum up

without delay

whenever

on the whole

in the first place

eventually

in any event

all of a sudden

meanwhile

in either case

at this instant

further

all in all

first, second

during
in time

Obviously

immediately

prior to

Ultimately

quickly

forthwith

Definitely

finally

straightaway

after
Time / Chronology /
Sequence

later

by the time

last

whenever

until
These transitional
words (like finally) have
the function of limiting,
restricting, and defining
time. They can be used
either alone or as part
of adverbial
expressions.

till

until now

since

now that

then
before

instantly

hence

presently

since

occasionally

at the present time

when

from time to time

once

sooner or later

about

at the same time

next

Many transition words


in the time category

(consequently; first,
second, third; further;
hence; henceforth;
since; then, when; and
whenever) have other
uses.
Except for the numbers
(first, second, third)
and further they add a
meaning of time in
expressing conditions,
qualifications, or
reasons. The numbers
are also used to add
information or list
examples. Further is
also used to indicate
added space as well as
added time.

here and there

beside

in the foreground

behind

in the background

across

in the center of

adjacent to
opposite to
here
there
next
where
from
over
near

Space / Location / Place

above
below

These transition words


are often used as part
of adverbial
expressions and have
the function to restrict,
limit or qualify space.
Quite a few of these
are also found in the
Time category and can
be used to describe
spatial order or spatial
reference.

down
up
under
further
beyond
nearby
wherever
around
between

in the middle
to the left/right
in front of
on this side
in the distance

before
alongside
amid
among
beneath

A Translation of
common Scientific
Research Phrases

This list of phrases and


their translations
(definitions) might help
you understand the
mysterious language of
science in general and
medicine / biology
specifically. These
special phrases are
also applicable to
anyone working on a
Ph.D. dissertation,
academic paper or
journal article at a
university anywhere on
earth.

Research Phrases
Translation /
Meaning
It has long been
known ...
I didn't
look up the original
reference.
A definite trend is
evident ...
These
data are practically
meaningless.
Of great theoretical and
practical importance ...
Interesting to
me.
While it has not been
possible to provide
definite answers to

these questions ... An


unsuccessful
experiment, but I still
hope to get it
published.
Three of the samples
were chosen for
detailed study ... The
results of the others
didn't make any sense.
Typical results are
shown ...
This is the
prettiest graph.
These results will be
shown in a subsequent
report...
I might
get around to this
sometime, if I'm
pushed / funded.
The most reliable
results are those
obtained by Jones ...
He was my
graduate assistant.
It is believed that... I
think.
It is generally believed
that ...
A couple
of other people think
so, too.
It is clear that much
additional work will be
required before a
complete
understanding of the
phenomenon occurs ...
I don't
understand it.
Correct within an order
of magnitude ...
Wrong.

In my experience ...
Once.
In case after case ...
Twice.
In a series of cases ...
Thrice.
According to statistical
analysis.
Rumor has
it.
A statistically oriented
projection of the
significance of these
findings.
A wild
guess.
Thanks are due to Joe
Blotz for assistance
with the experiment
and to George Frink for
valuable discussions ...
Blotz did the
work and Frink
explained to me what it
meant.
A careful analysis of
obtainable data...
Three pages of
notes were obliterated
when I knocked over a
glass of wine.
It is hoped that this
study will stimulate
further investigation in
this field ... I quit

Another, significant
factor in

Before considering X it
is important to note Y

By the same token,

But we should also


consider,
Useful linking words
and phrases that can
be used at the start of
new paragraphs:
A contrary explanation
is that,

Although,

As a consequence,

As a result,

As we have seen,

At the same time,

Accordingly,

An equally significant
aspect of

Despite these
criticisms, its
popularity remains
high.

Despite these
criticisms, the
popularity of X remains
largely undiminished.

Each of these
theoretical positions
make an important
contribution to our
understanding of,

Evidence for in support


of this position, can be
found in,

Evidently,

For this reason,


Certainly, there is no
shortage of
disagreement within

Consequently,

Correspondingly,

Conversely,

Chaytor, in
particular, has focused
on the

For these reasons,

Furthermore,

Given, the current high


profile debate with
regard to, it is quite
surprising that

Given, the advantages


of outlined in the
previous paragraph,
it is quite predictable
that

Despite this,
However,

Having considered X, it
is also reasonable to
look at

Hence,

In addition to,

It is important however
not to assume the
applicability of, in all
cases.

It is important however
not to overemphasis
the strengths of

In contrast,

In this way,

In the face of such


criticism, proponents
of, have responded in
a number of ways.

In this manner,
Moreover,
In the final analysis,

In short,

Notwithstanding such
criticism, .its
popularity remains
largely undiminished.

Indeed,

It can be seen from the


above analysis that,

It could also be said


that,

It is however, important
to note the limitations
of

It is important to note
however, that

Notwithstanding these
limitations, .it worth
remains in a number of
situations.

Noting the compelling


nature of this new
evidence, has
suggested that.

Nevertheless,
remains a growing
problem.

Nonetheless, the
number of, has
continued to expand at
an exponential rate.

Despite these
criticisms, its
popularity remains
high.

On the other hand,


critics of, point to its
blindness, with respect
to.

Of central concern
therefore to,
sociologists is
explaining how societal
processes and
institutions

Proponents of, have


also suggested that

Subsequently,

Similarly,

The sentiment
expressed in the
quotation, embodies
the view that,

This interpretation of,


has not been without
its detractors however.

Thus,
This approach is similar
to the, . position

This critique,
unfortunately, implies a
singular cause of,

This point is also


sustained by the work
of,

To be able to
understand,

Undoubtedly,

While such failures


must not be
discounted, there
were in comparison
small, when compared

Thirdly,

This counter argument


is supported by
evidence from,

The use of the term,

Therefore,

There appears then to


be an acceleration in
the growth of

There is also, however,


a further point to be
considered.

These technological
developments have
greatly increased the
growth in,

Whilst the discussion in


the preceding
paragraph,

Whether crime rates


were actually lower at
this time continues to
be a matter of debate.
Evidence from

There are an almost


limitless number of
linking phrases and
words one can use.
What is important is
that they complement
the style of your
writing.

Use these examples to


arouse your creativity.

Remember that you


dont have to use them

all the time. Using


words like, therefore
subsequently
moreover etc. for
every new paragraph
would probably
become repetitive and
detract from the key
component of most
academic work
critical analysis.

Finally, remember to
succinctly, identify the
key paragraphs and/or
sections of your essay
during your
introductory paragraph.
Then restate them
along side an
unambiguous position
in your concluding
paragraph. Again this
will help to
communicate a clear
and understandable
progression and
structure, to those who
read or mark your
essay.

between ideas. Below


is a list of possible
sentence starters,
transitional and other
words that may be
useful.

To introduce

This essay discusses

is explored

are identified

The key aspect


discussed

are presented

is justified

Views on . range from


.

is defined
is evaluated
The definition of will
be given

is briefly outlined

is explored

Sentence Starters,
transitional and other
useful words PDF Print
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It can sometimes be
difficult to start a
sentence to express
ideas, or find words to
show the relationship

is examined

The central theme

is described

The issue focused on


.

is analysed

is demonstrated ...

Emphasised are

is included

is explained and
illustrated with
examples

In this essay ..

is explained

To conclude

Similarly,
Whereas

In summary,

In the same way


In contrast to

To review,

Likewise,
That aside, ...

In conclusion,

In comparison
While this is the case

In brief,

Complementary to this

... disputes

To summarise,
Then again,

Despite this, ...

To sum up,
However,

To add ideas

To conclude,
This is in contrast to

Also,

Thus,
In contrast,

Equally important ...

Hence,
And yet
It has been shown that,

Nevertheless,

In short,

Conversely,

On the contrary,

To compare and
contrast

On the other hand,

Notwithstanding

Subsequently,

Futhermore,

Moreover,

As well as ....

Next

Another essential
point

Not many ...


Commonly ...
A few ...

Additionally, ...

Significant ...
... is uncommon

More importantly,

... is prevalent ...


... is scarce ...

In the same way

... is usual ...


Rarely ...

Another ...

Usually ...
... is rare ...

Then,
... is unusual ...

To present inconclusive
ideas

In addition,

Besides, ...

To present common or
widespread ideas

Perhaps ...

... may be ...


Then again,

Numerous ...
... might be ...

Firstly, ... secondly, ...


thirdly, ... finally, ...

Many ...

More than ...

There is limited
evidence for ...

To elaborate, ...
Several ...
To present uncommon
or rare ideas
Almost all ...
Seldom ...
The majority ...
Few ...
Most ...

... is debated ...

... is possibly ...

... could ...

... may include ...

For instance, ...

It is apparent that ...

To give examples

Considering ... it can be


concluded that ...

For example, ...

... as can be seen in ...

... supports ...

An illustration of ...

... as demonstrated
by ...

These factors
contribute to ...

To show relationships
or outcome
Subsequently, ....
Therefore ...
The effect is ...
As a result ...
The outcome is ...
For that reason ...
The result ...
Hence, ...
The correlation ...

... is observed ...


Otherwise, ...

The relationship ...

Specifically, ...
Consequently, ...

The link ...

... is shown ...

... exemplifies ...

Such as ...

As an example ...

To illustrate, ...

The evidence
suggests/shows ...

The convergence ...

It can be seen that ...

The connection ...

With regard to ...

... interacts with ...

After examining ....

Both ....

... affects ...

At first, ...
Traditionally, ...

Thus it is ...

Recently ...
Customarily, ...

... causes ...

Until now, ...


Beforehand, ...

... influences ...


Originally, ...

The traditional
interpretation ...

... predicts ...


Prior to this, ...
... leads to ...
Earlier, ...

To present others' ideas

... informs ...


Formerly, ...

According to

... presupposes
Previously, ...

Based on the findings


of ... it can be argued...

... emphasises
Over time, ...

proposed that

... demonstrates ...


At the time of ...

As explained by

... impacts on ...


Conventionally, ...

states that

... supports ...

To present prior or
background ideas

Foundational to this
is ...

claims that

In earlier ...

However, ... stated that

In the past, ...


Initially, ...
Historically, ...

... suggested

concluded that

Similarly, stated that


.

highlights

demonstrates

found that

goes on to
state/suggest/say

emphasises

for example,
identifies
agreed that
... wrote that
Based on the ideas of

demonstrated
defined . as .
also
relates
reported .
As identified by
pointed out that
disputed that
maintained that
contrasts
hypothesised that
With regard to
argued that

expressed the
opinion that

concluded that
... also mentioned .
confirmed that
... asserts that .
... argues .
identified

challenges the idea


.

showed that

explored the idea