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Sample Question Paper 2016

Science
Class X (SA II)
Time allowed: 03 Hours

Maximum Marks: 90

General Instructions:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)

The question paper comprises two sections, A and B. You are to attempt both the sections.
All questions are compulsory.
There is no choice in any of the question.
All questions of Section-A and B are to be attempted separately.
Question numbers 1 to 3 in Section - A are one mark question. They are to be answered in one
word or in one sentence.
(vi) Question numbers 4 to 6 in Section - A are two marks questions. These are to be answered in 30
words each.
(vii) Question numbers 7 to 18 in Section - A are three marks questions. These are to be answered in
about 50 words each.
(viii) Question numbers 19 to 24 in Section-A are 5 marks questions. These are to be answered in 70
words each.
(ix) Question numbers 25 to 33 in Section- B are multiple choice questions based on practical skills.
Each question is a one mark question. You are to select one most appropriate response out of
the four provided to you.
(x) Question numbers 34 to 36 in Section B are two marks questions based on practical skills.
These are to be answered in brief.

SECTION A
1

Name the process of converting vegetable oil to vegetable ghee.

Give reason for the statement- Since the ovary releases one egg every month, the
uterus also prepares itself every month by making its lining thick and spongy.

Name the component of white light that has the greatest wavelength.

Which natural resource are the biodiversity hot spots? Suggest what happens
when there is a loss of biodiversity?

Write the name and molecular formula of an organic compound having its name
suffixed with ol and having two carbon atoms in the molecule. With the help
of a balanced equation indicate what happens when its heated with excess of
conc. H2SO4.

+ +1

A cube of edge 6 cm is placed over a printed page. At what distance from the top
surface of cube will the letters appear when seen from above?
Refractive index of glass is 1.5

What is meant by isomers? We can not have isomers of the first three members
of alkane series give reason to justify this statement.
Draw the structures of two isomers of pentane, C5H12

1+1+1

i)

Name the following:

Sample Question Paper 2

Pg 1 of 5

a) Third member of aldehyde series


b) Second member of carboxylic series
ii)

1
1

Write the IUPAC name of the following:


CH 3

a)

|
CH 3 C CH 3

|
CH 3

b)

Four elements A, B, C and D have atomic numbers 12, 13, 14 and 15


respectively.
Answer the following questions giving reasons i) What is the number of valence electrons and valency of D?
ii) Which of them will have largest atomic radii?
iii) Which of these elements will form the most basic oxide?

10

Differentiate between combustion and oxidation reactions of ethanol.

11

In a germinating seed, which parts are known as future shoot and future root?
Mention the function of cotyledon.

12

What is placenta? Write any two major functions of placenta.

13

Different species use different strategies to determine sex of a newborn


individual. It can be environmental cues or genetically determined. Explain the
statement by giving example for each strategy.

14

A 2 cm high object is placed at a distance of 32 cm from a concave mirror. The


image is real, inverted and 3 cm in size. Find the focal length of the mirror and
the position where the image is formed?

15

A child while playing with his fathers spectacles burnt a hole in a piece of paper
by focusing a small image of the sun on it.
(i) What defect of vision his father is suffering from?
(ii) Write two causes for this defect?
(iii) Draw a ray diagram to show image formation by the defective eye?
(iv) Draw a ray diagram showing corrected eye using proper lens.

16

Explain the formation of rainbow in the sky with the help of a diagram. List the
three phenomena involved in proper sequence.

17

Which types of people are benefited from the development of different


resources? Why do we need to use the resources carefully?

18

Write any three characteristics of a food chain. Dharmesh always treated the
chemical effluent before disposing it in the water body. Mention any three moral
values possessed by Dharmesh.

19

In the following table. Six elements A, B, C, D, E and F of the modern periodic


table with atomic numbers 3 to 18 are given:

1+1+1+1+1

Sample Question Paper 2

1+1+1

Pg 2 of 5

3
A
11
B
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

12
C

13

14
D

15

8
E
16

9
17
F

10
G
18

Which of these is i) Noble gas ii) halogen


Which of these is the most active metal in 3rd period?
Identify the most electronegative element in the third period.
In the compound between B and F what type of bond will be formed?
What would be the nature of oxide formed by C?

20

A. Draw a longitudinal section of a flower and label the following parts


a) Part that develops into a fruit
b) Part that produces pollen grain
c) Part that transfers male gametes
d) Part that is sticky to trap
B. Name the parts labeled A, B, C, D in the diagram given below:

21

A. How does speciation take place?


B. Define the term GENE.
C. The gene for red hair is recessive to the gene for black hair. What will be the
hair colour of a child if he inherits a gene for red colour from his mother and
a gene for black hair from his father? Express with the help of flow chart.

22

A. Mention any two point of difference between acquired and inherited traits.
B. If the tail of a mouse is cut for twenty one generations, will the tail occur in
the twenty second generation of that mouse? Give reason to support your
answer.
C. Define the term Natural Selection.
SECTION B
(i) Rohit claims to have obtained an image twice the size of object with a
concave lens. Is he correct? Give reason for your answer.
(ii) Where should an object be placed in case of a convex lens to form an image
of same size as of the object? Show with the help of ray diagram the
position and the nature of the image formed.
(iii) With the help of ray diagram, illustrate the change in position, nature and
size of the image formed if the convex lens in case of (ii) is replaced by
concave lens of same focal length.

(i) Which property of concave mirror is utilized for using them as shaving
mirrors?
(ii) Light passes through a rectangular glass slab and through a triangular glass
prism. Using proper ray diagram, explain in what way does the direction of
the two emergent beams differs with respect to the incident beam of light.
(iii) A concave lens has a focal length of 50 cm Calculate its power.

23

24

Sample Question Paper 2

Pg 3 of 5

25

A student is given equal amount of three samples A, B and C of water with


temporary hardness. He keeps the three samples at different temperatures. A at
room temperature, B at 50oC and C at 80oC.
Which sample will give maximum amount of lather with soap solution?
a) A
b) Both B and C
c) Only C
d) Both A and B

26

Soaps are formed by alkaline hydrolysis of


a) Carboxylic acids
b) Esters of long chain fatty acids
c) Esters of small chain
d) Inorganic acids

27

On addition of Na2CO3 to hard water


a) the foaming capacity increases
b) the foaming capacity decreases
c) the foaming capacity increases then decreases
d) the foaming capacity decreases then increases

28

In finding the focal length of a distant object by concave mirror, you are required
to draw the ray diagram of nature.

29

While performing the experiment to trace the path of a ray of light passing
through a rectangular glass slab, four students labeled their ray diagrams in the
manner shown below. The correct labeling has been done by students.

30

A convex lens forms a virtual image when an object is placed at a distance of


20cm from it.
The focal length
(a) f = 40 cm
(b) f = 20 cm
(c) f > 20 cm
(d) f < 20 cm

Sample Question Paper 2

Pg 4 of 5

31

In a dicot seed, the pore through which the seed absorbs water during seed
germination is called
a) Micropyle
b) Hilum
c) Funicle
d) Radical

32

For the experiment To prepare temporary mount of yeast to study budding


process; Yeast granules are made to first grow by adding them to
a) Hydrochloric acid
b) Distilled water
c) 10% sugar solution
d) Alcohol

33

Two slides were shown to four students, and they labeled them as following.

Student
I
II
III
IV

Slide A
Budding in Yeast
Binary fission in Amoeba
Binary fission in Amoeba
Budding in Amoeba

Slide B
Binary fusion in Amoeba
Buds of Amoeba
Daughter cells of Amoeba
Daughter cell of Yeast

The student who made the correct labeling is:


a) II
b) I
c) IV
d) III
34

With regard to turnip, carrot, sweet potato and potato, three belong to the same
category. Identify those three modifications and mention whether they are
homologous or analogous. Also mention the reason why the fourth modifications
do not belong to the same category.

35

A student has to perform an experiment on tracing the path of a ray of light


passing through a rectangular glass slab for three different angles of incidence.
Two of his friends suggest the following options to him:
(A) Draw the incident rays corresponding to 20o, 50o and 70o as angles of
incidence and fix the two pins on the incident ray just 2 cm apart.
(B) Draw the incident rays corresponding to 30o, 45o and 60o as the angles of
incidence and fix two pins on the incident rays nearly 8 cm apart. Which
is the better option he should follow?
Give reason in support of your answer.
A student obtained a sharp image of a lighted candle on a screen using a convex
lens. Now he wants to focus a distant lamp on a far away electric pole. In which
direction should the lens be move for this purpose with respect to the screen, to
get a sharp image on the screen? Justify your answer.

36

Sample Question Paper 2

Pg 5 of 5

Marking Scheme 2016


Science
Class X (SA II)
1

Hydrogenation

Required for nourishing the embryo if fertilization takes place and


reaches the uterus.

Red

Forests
Loss of ecological stability

1
1

Its ethanol, its molecular formula is C2H6O and structural formula is


C2H5OH (CH3CH2OH)

CH 3CH 2OH Conc.H 2 SO4 CH 2 CH 2 H 2O


heat

Ethanol

Real depth
Apparent depth

Ethane

App depth

6
4cm
1.5

Isomers are those compounds which have same molecular formula and
different structural formula.
In first three members of alkane, branching is not possible, therefore
isomers are not possible.
CH3---CH2---CH2----CH2-----CH3
Pentane

CH3---CH---CH2----CH3

CH 3

1
1

2-methyl butane
8

i)
a. Third member of aldehyde series- Propanal ( CH3CHO)
b. Second member of Carboxylic series- Ethanoic acid
(CH3COOH)

1
1

a. 2,2-dimethyl propane
b. 2 Butanol

ii)

i)
ii)
iii)

Marking Scheme 2

Valence electrons in D- 5
Valency of D 3
A will have largest atomic radii.
A will form the most basic oxide as it is most metallic.

1
1
1

Pg 1 of 6

10

Complete burning of ethanol in the presence of excess of oxygen to


give carbon dioxide and water is called combustion.

CH3CH 2OH 3O2

2CO2 3H 2O

Addition of oxygen to ethanol in the presence of oxidizing agents to


give ethanoic acid is called oxidation.

CH3CH 2OH
11

12

13

14

Alk. KMnO4 CH3COOH


Heat

Future shoot Plumule


Future root Radicle
Cotyledon Store food for the future plant or embryo
A disc shaped organ or special tissue in the uterus of pregnant
mammal, nourishing and maintaining the foetus through the umbilical
cord.
OR
Any other definition
Functions of placenta: (Any two)
a) Provides large surface area for glucose and oxygen to pass from
mother to the embryo.
b) Removal of waste generated in the developing embryo into the
mothers blood
or any other

1
1
1
1

1
1

Environmental Cue
In some animals, the temperature at which fertilized eggs are
kept determines whether the developing animal in egg is male
or female
In some animals like snail, individual can change sex.

Genetical Cue
A child who inherits an x chromosome from her father will be a girl and
one who inherits a y chromosome from the father will be a boy.

v he
he 3cm ho 2cm u 32cm

u ho

he 3cm

1.5
ho
2cm

or

v
1.5
u

v 48cm
also

1 1 1
1
1
5

f v u 48 32
96

f 19.2cm
focal length of concave mirror is 19.2cm and image is formed 48 cm
infornt of it

Marking Scheme 2

Pg 2 of 6

15

(i) Hypermetropia
(ii) This defect arises because either
(a) focal length of eye lens is too large or
(b) the eyeball becomes too short.
(iii)

(iv)

16

17

18

The water droplets act like small prisms. They refract and disperse
the incident sunlight, then reflect it internally and finally refract it
again when it comes out of rain drop. Due to dispersion and internal
reflection of light, different colours reach the observers eye along
different pairs.
Therefore the three phenomena involved are refraction, dispersion,
internal reflection of light.
Rich & Powerful people are benefited
We need to use resources carefully because
they are not unlimited
the demand is increasing
due to human population rate increase because of improved health
care
for sustainable development
any other (Any two)

A.
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

Unidirectional
Helps in understanding the food relationship and interaction
among various organisms in an ecosystem
Helps to understand movement of toxic substances and the
problem of their biological magnification

B.
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

Marking Scheme 2

Sensitive towards environment


Possess knowledge about biological magnification
Scientific temperament
Conscious
(Any three)

Pg 3 of 6

19

20

a) Noble gas- G
Halogen - F
b) Most active metal B
c) Most electronegative in 3rd period- F
d) Ionic bond
e) Oxide formed by C would be basic.

1
1
1
1
1

A.

Diagram:1
Lebellings:x4

B. A Pollen grain
B Pollen tube
C Ovary
D Female gamete
21

x4

A. Speciation may take place by


(i) Migration
(ii) Natural selection
(iii) Mutation
(iv) Genetic Drift
(Any two)
B. Segment of DNA which is functional and are made of nucleic acids
and protein
(Any other definition)
C. Given
Red hair Mother Recessive bb
Black hair father Dominant BB
Father
Mother
Parents
BB/Bb
X
Bb/bb
F1

Bb
(Black)

Thus, the child will have black hair


22

A.
1
2
3
4

Acquired Traits
Trait acquired during its lifetime
Not inheritable
Not present in the genetic make up
Change in DNA will not result in
any change in such traits

Inherited Traits
Traits
inherited
from
its
predecessors
Inheritable
Present in the genetic makeup
Change is DNA will bring about
change in such traits

(Any two difference)

Marking Scheme 2

Pg 4 of 6

B. The mouse continue to have information for presence of tail in its


DNA
So, will continue to have tail, because it is an acquired trait
C. Nature selects the best trail in a species, leading to survival of
fittest and evolution of species
(Any other difference)
23

(i)

No, magnified image of an object cannot be formed by a concave


lens ever.
(ii) At 2f.

1
1
1

(iii)

24

Image obtained is virtual, erect and diminished in case of concave


lens

(i)

When an object is placed between the pole and focus of concave


mirror a magnified, erect and virtual image is obtained.
(ii) For glass slab refer:

Marking Scheme 2

Pg 5 of 6

For prism refer:


1

In case of a rectangular glass slab, emergent rays of light are always


parallel to the direction of incident rays. Whereas when an incident light
passes through a prism, it bends towards the base of the prism hence
incident ray and emergent ray are not parallel to each other.
(iii) f 50cm

100
100
D
2 D
f
50

25

c) Only C

26

b) Esters of long chain of fatty acids

27

a) Foaming capacity increases

28

d) parallel beam of light, after reflection meet at focus

29

a)

30

c) when the oject is placed between F and P, virtual image is obtained

31

a) Micropyle

32

c) 10% sugar solution

33

d) III

34

Turnip, Carrot, Sweet Potato are modified root Homologous organs


Potato modified stem.

35

B, for better result, the angle of incidence should be in the range 30o
60o and larger separation between pins will give better collinearity of
pin and accuracy of result.

36

He should move the lens towards the screen. As the distance of object
increased, the image formed by a convex lens will be more close to
the focus.

Marking Scheme 2

Pg 6 of 6

CBSE Sample Paper-01


SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT II
SCIENCE (Theory)
Class X
Time allowed: 3 hours

Maximum Marks: 90

General Instructions:
a) All questions are compulsory.
b) The question paper comprises of two sections, A and B. You are to attempt both the sections.
c) Questions 1 to 3 in section A are one mark questions. These are to be answered in one word
or in one sentence.
d) Questions 4 to 6 in section A are two marks questions. These are to be answered in about 30
words each.
e) Questions 7 to 18 in section A are three marks questions. These are to be answered in about
50 words each.
f) Questions 19 to 24 in section A are five marks questions. These are to be answered in about
70 words each.
g) Questions 25 to 27 in section B are 2 marks questions and Questions 28 to 36 are multiple
choice questions based on practical skills. Each question of multiple choice questions is a one
mark question. You are to select one most appropriate response out of the four provided to
you.

Section A
1.
2.

Name any two non-biodegradable wastes.


Name the classes of organic compounds represented by the following formulae:
O
(i) C2H5 NH2
(ii)
H3C C CH3

3.

A ray of light incident on a convex mirror as shown in figure. Redraw the ray diagram after
completing the path of the light ray after reflection from the mirror.

4.
5.
6.

Describe Total internal reflection of light. What is the essential condition for it occurance?
Why does Silicon have valency 4 and Chlorine 1?
Use the mirror formula to show that an object lying between the pole and focus of a concave
mirror, the image formed is always virtual in nature.

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7.

A concave lens has the focal length of 20 cm. At what distance from the lens a 5 cm tall object
be placed so that it forms an image at 15 cm from the lens? Also calculate the size of the image
formed.
8. (i) State Snells law of reflection of light.
(ii) A transparent medium A floats on another transparent medium B. When a ray of light
travels obliquely from A into B, the reflected ray bends away from the normal. Which of the
two media A and B if optically denser and why?
9. What is the need for sign convention? Write them.
10. What are optical fibres? Give three applications of these fibres.
11. Suggest three ways to maintain a balance between environment and development to survive.
12. How would you dispose the following waste:
(i) Domestic wastes like vegetable peels.
(ii) Industrial wastes like metallic cans.
(iii) Plastic material.
13. Give three drawbacks (limitations) of Mendeleevs Periodic Table.
14. A mother always wants her child to drink milk. As it is a boon for health. If one do not drink
milk, he can face severe health problems.
Answer the following questions on the basis of above text.
(a) Name the major constituent / nutrient present in the milk.
(b) Write the chemical symbol, atomic number and valency of that nutrient.
(c) What value do you infer from the given text?
15. (i) Which are two main types of reproduction in living organisms?
(ii) Classify the following under these two types:
Amoeba, Frog, Earthworm, Yeast
16. What are the male and female gonads in human beings? State any two functions of each of
them.
17. Name any three organs homologous to human hand. Why are they considered homologous?
18. Who was Mendel? Why was he called the Father of Genetics?
19. (i) What is genetics?
(ii) Give the common name of the plant on which Mendel performed his experiments.
Or
(i) What are chromosomes? Where are they located in the cells?
(ii) What is a sex chromosome?
(iii) Explain the mechanism of sex determination in human beings.
20. Draw a ray diagram to show the formation of image of an object placed between the pole and
focus of a concave mirror. Obtain the relation between u , v and f for a given concave mirror.
State clearly the assumption involved and sign convention used.
Or

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One half of a convex les is covered with a black paper. Will this lens produce a complete image
of the object? Verify your answer experimentally. Explain your observations.
21. Draw a ray diagram in each case to show the position and nature of the image formed when
the object is places:
(i) At the centre of curvature of a concave mirror.
(ii) Between the pole P and focus F of a concave mirror.
(iii) In front of a convex mirror.
(iv) At 2F of a convex lens.
(v) In front of a concave lens.
Or
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

During its passages from one medium to another, when does a light ray change its path?
Define the term absolute refractive index of a medium.
With the help of a ray diagram, explain the term critical angle.
What is the value of refractive index of the medium if the critical angle of incident in a
denser-rarer interface is equal to 45 ?
22. An organic compound A is widely used as a preservative in pickles and has a molecular
formula C2H4O2. This compound reacts with ethanol to form a sweet smelling compounds B.
(i) Identify the compounds A.
(ii) Write the chemical equation for its reaction with ethanol to form compounds B.
(iii) How can we get compounds A back from B?
(iv) Name the process and write corresponding chemical reaction.
(v) Which gas is produced when compounds A reacts with washing soda? Write the chemical
equation.
Or
(a) Why does carbon form largest number of compounds?
(b) Why are some of these are called saturated and other unsaturated compounds?
(c) Which of these two is more reactive?
(d) Write the names of the compounds:
(i) CH3 CH2 Br

H H H H

(ii)

HCCCCC CH
H H H H

23. (a) Draw an electron dot structure of (i) N2, (ii) O2, (iii) CaCl2, (iv) Na2O
(b) Write IUPAC name of (i) CH3COCH3, (ii) CH3CH2CH2CHO
(c) How will you test the presence of carboxylic acid?
(d) Complete the following reaction:
CH3CH2OH + Na

Or
(a) Give electron dot structure of (i) CO2, (ii) H2S, (iii) CaCl2, (iv) AlF3

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(b) How will you differentiate between Ethane and Ethene by a suitable chemical test? Give
chemical reactions involved.
(c) Why are detergents preferred over soaps? Give two reasons.
24. Trace the events that would take place in a flower from the time the pollen grains of the same
species fall on the stigma up to the completion of fertilization.
Or
Discuss briefly the different types of reproduction.
Section B
25. Five mL of acetic acid was added to 5 mL of water in a test tube.
(a) The resulting mixture is correctly represented in which diagram.
(b) Justify your answer.

26. Which process is shown in the figure of given slides A and B? Give reason also.

27. Which of the following pictures depict the correct image formation and why?

28. Glacial acetic acid is:


(a) 10% acetic acid

(b) 50% acetic acid (c) 100% acetic acid (d) 5% acetic acid

29. Acetic acid, when dissolve in water, it dissociates into ions reversely because it is:
(a) It is a weak acid. (b) It is a strong acid.
(c) It is a weak base. (d) It is a strong base
30. Binary fission occurs in:
(a) Plasmodium
(b) Hydra

(c) Pomegranate

(d) Paramecium

31. In which of the following reproduction parental identity is lost


(a) Budding
(b) Binary fission
(c) Multiple fission (d) All of above
32. The sex of the human child depends on the sex chromosome present in the:
(a) Egg
(b) Sperm
(c) Both (a) & (b)
(d) None of these
33. Who proposed the law of heredity:
(a) Darwin
(b) Mendel

(c) Morgan

(d) Dalton

34. The convex lens having surface of same radii is called as:

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(a) Equi-convex lens


(c) Plano-convex lens

(b) Equi-planar lens


(d) Water lens

35. If parallel beams, non-parallel to principal axis fall on the convex lens, they converge at a point:
(a) On principal axis
(b) Away from principal axis
(c) Centre of curvature
(d) Called focus on the axis
36. Rajiv put the 10 g raisins in 100 mL distilled water which is at 10o C below the room
temperature while Ajay put the same amount of raisins in 100 mL distilled water at 10o C
above the room temperature. After an hour, percentage of water absorbed by the raisins will
be:
(a) Same in both cases.
(b) More in Rajivs beaker.
(c) More in Ajays beaker.
(d) Exactly twice as much as in Ajay as in Rajiv beaker.

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CBSE Sample Paper-01


SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT II
SCIENCE (Theory)
Class X

(Solutions)
SECTION-A
1.
2.
3.

DDT and polythene bags.


(i) Amines, (ii) Ketones

4.

Total internal reflection: When a ray of light passes from a denser to rarer medium in such a
way that its angle is incident exceeds the critical angle, it undergoes reflection instead of
refraction. This phenomenon is called total internal reflection.
Essential conditions for total internal reflection:
(i) Light should pass from denser to rarer medium.
(ii) Angle of incident should be greater than the critical angle for the pair of media in contact.
Si has 4 valence electrons, it needs four electrons to complete its octet so its valency is 4.
Cl has 7 valence electrons, it needs 1 electron to complete its octet so its valency is 1.
1 1 1
Mirror formula is, = + where u , v and f are object distance, image distance and focal
f v u
length respectively.
1 1 1
=

v f u

5.
6.

Focal length and object distance are both negative for concave mirror and it is given that
u< f,

7.

1 1
1
becomes + and is positive.
v
f u

v becoming positive denotes a virtual image.

f = 20 cm, ho = 5 cm, v = 15 cm
Using

1 1 1
= we get,
f v u
1 20 + 15 5
=
=
u
300
300

1 1 1
=
u v f

1
1
1
=

u 15 20

u = 60 cm

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Since m =

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

hi v
=
ho u

hi =

( 15) 5 = 5
v
ho =
4
u
( 60 )

Image is enlarges and virtual.


(i) Snells law : The ratio of the sine of the angle of incident to the sine of the angle of
refraction is a constant called refractive index of the medium.
(ii) A ray will bend away from the normal only on entering a rarer medium from denser
medium. So B is rarer and A is optically denser medium.
For various reflecting and refracting surfaces, the mirror and lens formula are different. To
standardize it for reflection and refraction, we need sign convention. According to sign
convention,
(i) All measurements should be made from pole or optical centre.
(ii) All measurements made in the direction of incident ray, will be considered + ve.
(iii) All measurements done above the principal axis are to be considered + ve.
Optical fibres are tubes of glass which transmit light without significant absorption of light
energy. T.I.R is the phenomenon used for this purpose. It is used for (i) Communication, (ii)
Bio-medical engineering and (iii) Medical applications without operating the patient.
The three ways to maintain a balance between environment and development to survive are as
follows:
(i) Forest resources should be used in an environmently and developmently sound manner.
(ii) The benefits of controlled exploitation of resources go to the people and the environment
is also preserved.
(iii) If the exploitation is too high, economic and social development will be faster but the
environment will further deteriorate.
We should use natural resources cautiously so that economic growth and ecological
conservation go hand in hand.
(i) Domestic wastes like vegetable peels can be disposed by composting.
(ii) Industrial wastes like metallic cans can be disposed by melting and recycling into solid
metal once again.
(iii) Plastic material can also be recycled and can be reused; for example, plastic bags, bucket
etc.
(a) Isotopes needed separate place if basis of classification is atomic mass which is not
possible
because they have same chemical properties. That is why basis of classification must be
atomic number and not atomic weight.
(b) Increasing order of atomic masses could not be maintained.
(c) Some elements with similar properties were kept in different groups whereas some
elements with dissimilar properties we kept in same group.
(a) Placenta is mainly responsible for providing nutrition to growing embryo.
(b) The measures to maintain a womans health during pregnancy care:
(i) Mother should eat healthy, balanced and nutritious diet and should be stress free.
(ii) She should not take any medicine without doctors advice.

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15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

(c) The learner will appreciate the idea that it is very important for all of us to help somebody
in need and cooperate them. It is also inferred that mutual benefits are the spine of a
healthy and successful society. Moreover, the nutritional rights for a healthy life should be
provided to everyone.
(i) The two main types of reproduction in living organisms are
Asexual reproduction and Sexual reproduction
(ii) Asexual reproduction : Amoeba, Yeast
Sexual reproduction : Frog, Earthworm
Male gonads are testes and female gonads are ovaries in human beings.
Function of testes:
(i) Testes produce sperms, the male haploid gametes.
(ii) They produce male sex hormone, i.e. testosterone.
Functions of ovaries:
(i) They produce ova, the female haploid gametes.
(ii) They produce female sex hormone, i.e. estrogen and progesterone.
The three organs homologous to human hand are whales flipper, bats wing and cats paw.
They are considered homologous because they have a similar plan and contain approximately
the same number of bones. The pattern of their embryonic development is also similar hence
they are called homologous organs.
Gregor Johann Mendel (1822 1884) was an Austrian genetics.
He lives as a monk from 1843. He sowed the garden pea (Pisumsativum) and found flowers of
different colours. He formulated the law of heredity by his experiments. His laws gave the base
for further study of genetics. Therefore he was called the Father of Genetics.
Image formed by concave mirror when object is placed between the pole and the focus of the
mirror.
Image is erect and enlarged.

Consider a concave mirror. Light from object OA placed beyond C will form a real, inverted and
diminished image between F and C.

From similar triangles OAP and IBP, we get,

OA PO u
=
=
IB
PI v

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From similar triangles, MPF and IBF, we get

MP OA PF
f
=
=
=
IB
IB FI v f

u
f
=
v v f

Cross-multiplying and then dividing all terms by uvf , we get

1 1 1
=
f v u

1 1 1
= +
This is required mirror formula.
f u v
Assumption:
(i) Aperture of mirror is small.
(ii) Rays fall close to the principal axis.
Sign convention:
(i) All distances are measured from the pole.
(ii) Length in the direction of incident ray are positive, while in the opposite direction are
negative.
20. Types of reproduction: There are two main methods in which organisms give rise to new
individuals:
(i) Asexual reproduction: It is the process of reproducing new organism from a single
parent without the involvement of sex cells or gametes.
Examples:
Fission: This is the simplest method in unicellular forms of life chas Amoeba,
Paramoecium and other protozoa. Fission is of two types, Binary fission and Multiple
fission.
Fragmenatation: Multicellular organisms with simple body organization such as
filamentous algae Spirogyra breaks up into two or more samlle pieces or fragments upon
maturation.
Regenration: It is the ability of a fully differentiated organism to give rise to new
individual organisms from its body part. Example: Hydra
Budding: In budding a small part of the body of the parent grows out as a bud which then
detaches and becomes a new organism.
Vegetative propagation: In this method, new plants are obtained from the parts of old
plants like stems, roots and leaves without the help of any reproductive organ. There are
two types of vegetative propagation, (i) Natural vegetative propagation and (ii) Artificial
vegetative propagation.
Tissue Culture: It is the production or propagation of new plants from isolated plant cells
or small pieces of plant tissue in a synthetic medium of culture solution.
Spore formation: When a slice of bread is kept in moist dark place for a few days, spores
of Rhizopus present in air settle on the bread to form new fungus plants of Rhizopus.
(ii) Sexual Reproduction: It is the process of reproducing new organism from two parents by
making use of their sex cells or gametes.

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The male sexual unit is known as male gamete or sperm while female sexual unit is termed
as female gametes or ova.
Thus, the two major process, i.e. formation of gametes and fusion of gametes constitute
sexual reproduction.
Examples: Humans, fish, frogs, cats dogs and most flowering plants.Or
(i) Chromosomes are long thread-like structures which contain hereditary information of
the individual and thereby the carriers of gene.
(ii) Sex chromosomes are the chromosomes that carry genes for sexual characters i.e. those
chromosomes determine the sex of a person.
There are two types of sex chromosomes, one is called X chromosome and the other is
called Y chromosome. X chromosome posses the genes for femaleness and Y chromosome
for maleness.
(iii) Mechanism of Sex determination in human beings: It is a process by which the sex of a
person is determined. Genetics is involved in the determination of sex of a person which is
explained as follows:
A female has one X chromosome and one Y chromosome, i.e. half of the male gametes or
sperms will have X chromosome and the other half will have Y chromosome.
A female has two X chromosomes, i.e. all the female gametes or ova will have only an X
chromosome.
Sex of a child depends upon on what happed at fertilization.

(a) If a sperm carrying X chromosome fertlizes an ovum, which carries X chromosome,


then the child born will be a girl.
(b) If a sperm carrying Y chromosome fertilizes an ovum, which carries X chromosome,
then the child born will be a boy.
Thus, the sperm determines the sex of a child.
21.

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Or
(i) Light ray changes its path at the interface or boundary separating two media.
(ii) Absolute refractive index of a medium: The refractive index of a medium with respect to
the vacuum or air is called the absolute refractive index of a medium.

(iii) Critical angle: The angle of incident in the denser medium for which the angle of
refraction in rarer medium is 90 , called critical angle for the given pair of contact.
1 i = ic r = 90
2 i < ic Refraction
3 i > ic Total internal reflection
As shown in figure, if the incident angle is less than the critical angle, the ray is partially
refracted and partially reflected in the denser medium. But when angle of incident
increases and equal to an angle for which the refracted ray travels along the interface
and makes refracting angle 90 and light cannot escape the denser medium. So angle is
the critical angle. From Snells law, i = ic , r = 90
sin i
1
= n21 =
sin 90
n12

n12 =

1
sin ic

Where n12 is refractive index of denser medium with respect to rarer medium and ic is
called critical angle.
(iv) Given ic = 45
n12 =

1
1
=
= 2 = 1.41
sin 45 1 2
Refractive index of a denser medium with respect to air is 1.41.

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22. (i) Compound A is CH3COOH.


(ii) CH3COOH + C2H5OH
CH3COOC2H5 + H2O
(iii) A can be obtained back from B by hydrolysis in presence of base (aq. NAOH)
(iv) The process is known as saponification.
NaOH
CH3COOC2H5 + H2O
CH3COOH + C2H5OH
(v) The gas produced is CO2 (Carbon dioxide).
2CH 3COOH( l ) + Na 2 CO3
2CH 3COONa ( aq ) + H 2 O ( l ) + CO 2 ( g )
Or
(a) Carbon forms large number of compounds due to its tetravalency as well as property of
catenation.
(b) Those compounds in which valency of carbon is satisfied by single bonds only are
saturated whereas those compounds in which valency of carbon is satisfied by double or
triple bonds are called unsaturated compounds.
(c) Unsaturated compounds are more reactive than saturated compounds.
(d) (i) Bromoethane (ii) Hex 1 yne

23. (a) (i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(b) IUPAC name (i) Propanone, (ii) Butanal.


(c) Add sodium bicarbonate solution, If there is brisk effervescence due to evolution of CO2,
the presence of carboxylic acid is confirmed.
CH3COOH + NaHCO3
CH3COONa + H2O + CO2
(d) 2CH3CH2OH + 2Na
2CH3CH2ONa + H2 (g)
Or

(a) (i)
(iii)

(ii)
(iv)

(b) Add Bromine water. Ethene will decolourise bromine water whereas ethane does not.

(d)

(i) Detergents are more effective than soaps.


(ii) They can work well even with hard water whereas soap does not.

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24. The events that would take place in a flower from the time the pollen grains of the same
species fall on the stigma up to the completion of fertilization are as follows:
(i) The pollen grains deposited on the stigma are held by the sticky secretion of stigma and
start their germination.
(ii) A short cytoplasmic outgrowth called germ tube emerges through a germ pore and
continuous to grow as a pollen tube.
(iii) The vegetable nucleus first move to the tip of the tube followed by the generative nucleus.
(iv) The pollen tube secretes enzymes that hydrolyze the reserved food materials in the
tissues of stigma and style and utilize them.
(v) The generative nucleus divides mitotically into two male nuclei.
(vi) The pollen tube enters the ovule through the micropyle and discharges the two male
gametes into the embryo sac.
(vii) One of the male gametes fuses with the egg nucleus to form a zygote and the other fuses
with the secondary nucleus (triple fusion) primary endosperm nucleus; the two fusions
are termed as double fertilization.
Section B
25. (a) Figure IV is the correct representation of the resulting mixture.
(b) Acetic dissolves in water forming true solution which is homogeneous solution (clear
solution).
26. Slide A Binary fission in Amoeba, Slide B Daughter cells of Amoeba.
In binary fission of Amoeba, nucleus divides first, then the cytoplasm and daughter cells are
formed.
27. Figure d depicts the correct image formation because parallel beams getting reflected from
the concave mirror will converge at focus to produce a sharp image.
28. (c)
29. (a)
30. (d)
31. (b)
32. (b)
33. (a)
34. (a)
35. (b)
36. (c)

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CBSE Sample Paper-02


SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT II
SCIENCE (Theory)
Class X
Time allowed: 3 hours

Maximum Marks: 90

General Instructions:
a) All questions are compulsory.
b) The question paper comprises of two sections, A and B. You are to attempt both the sections.
c) Questions 1 to 3 in section A are one mark questions. These are to be answered in one word
or in one sentence.
d) Questions 4 to 6 in section A are two marks questions. These are to be answered in about 30
words each.
e) Questions 7 to 18 in section A are three marks questions. These are to be answered in about
50 words each.
f) Questions 19 to 24 in section A are five marks questions. These are to be answered in about
70 words each.
g) Questions 25 to 27 in section B are 2 marks questions and Questions 28 to 36 are multiple
choice questions based on practical skills. Each question of multiple choice questions is a one
mark question. You are to select one most appropriate response out of the four provided to
you.
Section A
1.

Name any two biodegradable substances.

2.

Write the (i) name and (ii) formula of the functional group present in the compound CH3COOH.

3.

Figure below shows an incident ray and normal on a plane mirror MN. Draw the reflected ray
and find the angle between the incident ray and reflected ray.

4.

6.

Why does it take some time to see objects in dim light when you enter the room from bright
sunlight outside?
Explain why atomic number is more important than atomic weight in determining chemical
properties?
Mention any four details that can be inferred about organisms from their fossils.

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

What is accommodation? Explain how does the ciliary muscles do help in accommodation?
What is persistence of vision? How do we make a motion picture possible?
Industrialization is one main cause of deterioration of environment. Discuss.
Write the cause of depletion of ozone layer in the atmosphere.
What are homologous organs? How do they provide evidence in support of evolution?

5.

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12. Explain how a new species is generated.


13. Define Mendeleevs Periodic Law. Give two advantages of Mendeleevs Periodic Table.
14. Why was it necessary to change the basis of classification from atomic mass to atomic number.
15. Define the term unisexual and bisexual giving one example of each.
16. Explain double fertilization in plants.
17. Pankaj is a student of class 7. He is very passionate about doing Science experiments. Recently
he visited Delhi with his parents to witness Science fair. He purchased different types of lenses,
mirror and other articles. One day, during games period, a student of same class fell down and
his lips started bleeding.
On observation, it was found by physical education teacher that very fine pieces of glass,
difficult to observe, stranded over there. Pankaj immediately rushed to Physical Lab and
brought a Lens. The bigger image of stranded glass pieces eased the first aid job.
Read the above passage and answer the following questions:
(a) Name the lens or mirror brought by Pankaj.
(b) Draw the ray diagram showing formation of very big image of object by lens. What should
be the position of object to get such image?
(c) What values are shown by Pankaj
18. An object 3 cm high is placed perpendicular to the principal axis of a concave lens of focal
length 15 cm. The image is formed at a distance of 10 cm from the lens. Calculate:
(a) Distance at which the object is placed.
(b) Size and nature of the image formed.
19. Explain: (i) Analogous organs

(ii) Natural selection


Or

What are homologous organs? How do they differ from analogous organ? How does the study
of comparative anatomy provide evidence in favour of Organic Evolution?
20. (i) Define: (a) Centre of curvature (b) Pole of a concave mirror
(ii) State the mirror formula and its magnification.
(iii) Using the same find the distance at which an object to be placed for getting a real, inverted
enlarged image at 45 cm using a concave mirror of focal length 20 cm.
Or
(i) State the basic laws of refraction.
(ii) Describe about refractive index.
(iii) Does the incident and emergent ray coincide in a glass slab refraction? Give reason.
21. Explain how the ray of white light is dispersed. Why does this take place? Which colour
deviates more and why?
Or
What is long-sightedness? List two causes for development of long-sightedness. Describe with
the ray diagram, how this effect may be corrected by using spectacles.

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22. (a) Write the name and symbol of alkali metal with the smallest atomic number.
(b) Which element has atomic number 14? Give its valency.
(c) Write IUPAC name of the following:
(i) CH3CH2Br
(ii) CH3CH2 C CH
(d) Give one example each of (i) diprotic acid, (ii) triprotic acid.
(e) What is meant by catenation? Why does carbon show catenation to maximum extent.
Or
(a) Write the name and symbol of group 17 elements belonging to second period.
(b) Write electronic configuration of K (19). To which group of periodic table does it belong?
(c) What are substitution reactions? Give one example.
(d) What happens when acetic acid reacts with sodium bicarbonate? Give chemical reaction
involved.
(e) Why does carbon form covalent bond?
23. (a) Name two elements of group 13.
(b) Name most electro-negative element in periodic table. Write its atomic number.
(c) Draw electron dot structures of (i) H2O, (ii) CH4, (iii) NH3, (iv) BF3
(d) Differentiate between ores and minerals.
Or
(a) Name elements of group 2 belonging to 3rd and 4th period.
(b) Name the element having highest ionization energy in periodic table.
(c) Give limitation of Dobereiners law of triads.
(d) Why do ionic compounds not conduct electricity in solid state?
(e) Name the chief ore or iron. Give its formula.
24. Name two bacterial diseases which are sexually transmitted. Name their causal organisms,
symptoms and preventive measures.
Or
What are the advantages and disadvantages of self and cross pollination? Which of them is
better and why?
Section B
25. If burning candle is brought near each of the following test tube:

(a) In which of the following candle will get extinguished?


(b) Give the reason for your answer.
26. Watch the diagram given below:

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(a) Which process is being shown here?


(b) Give reason for your answer.
27. Watch the given diagrams and answer the following questions:

(i) Which of the following is/are correct?


(ii) Justify your answer.
28. The gas evolved in the experiment shown here:

(a) O2
(b) H2
(c) CO2
(d) Cl2
29. When we put acetic acid in H2O, the ions formed are

II. H3O+
I. CH3COO
(a) Only I
(b) Only Ii
30. Types of reproduction are:
(a) Asexual
(b) Sexual

(c) Both I and II


(c) Cloning

(d) Neither I nor II

(d) All of these

31. Which of the following organisms shows budding:


(a) Spirogyra
(b) Hydra
(c) Amoeba
32. A male child will be born if:
(a) father is healthy.
(b) mother is well fed during pregnancy.
(c) genetic composition of child has XY set of chromosomes.
(d) genetic composition of child has XX set of chromosomes.
33. Chromosomes are made up of:
(a) Protiens
(b) DNA
(c) Both of the above
(d) RNA
34. While performing the experiment with glass slab, pins should:

(d) Paramecium

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(a) be fixed vertically


(b) stand in a line
(c) not be hammered
(d) All of these
35. As light gets in from air into glass, light will bend:
(a) towards the normal
(b) away from the normal
(c) parallel to incident surface
(d) retrace its path
36. The II medium shown with refracted ray for the given incident ray is:

(a) denser
(b) rarer
(c) may be denser or rarer
(d) none of these

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CBSE Sample Paper-02


SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT II
SCIENCE (Theory)
Class X

(Solutions)
SECTION-A
1.
2.
3.

Cloth and paper.


(i) Carboxyl, (ii) COOH

4.

In bright sunlight, the iris contacts the pupil to allow less light to enter the eye and in dim light,
the iris expands the pupil to admit more light to see the object so it takes some time to increase
the size of pupil in dim light.
Chemical properties depend upon valence electrons which depend upon electronic
configuration. Electronic configuration depends upon atomic number, therefore chemical
properties depend upon atomic number and not upon atomic mass.
Atomic number is equal to number of protons and also equal to number of electrons in case of
neutral atom.
(i) Phylogeny can be reconstructed from fossils.
(ii) The habits and behaviour of extinct organism can be inferred from well preserved fossils.
(iii) Some fossils indicate the connecting link between two groups of organisms.
(iv) By analysis of distribution of fossils in different states of rocks, the time in history when
different species were forms or become extinct can be inferred.
The ability of the eye lens to adjust its focal length to see objects at varying distance is called
Accommodation.
Eye lens has fibrous jelly like material. The curvature of the eye lens is altered by the ciliary
muscles. When the muscles are relaxed, the focal length of the eye lens is 2.5 cm and distant
objects can be seen clearly. But when the nearby objects are to be seen, the muscles contract
and assume a more rounded shape. This decreases the focal length on the photo-sensitive
screen retina.
1
Image formed on the retina stays for about
th of a second after the object is removed. This
16
is called Persistence of vision.
In order to produce smooth sequence of still picture possible in films, the images are to be
projected on the screen more than 24 times per second. This principle of more than 24 frames
per second makes possible motion picture.

5.

6.

7.

8.

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9.

Industrialization is one main cause of deterioration of our environment. The main reasons are:
(i) Noise pollution: Pollution caused by machines in the factories disturbs the environment.
(ii) Industrial waste: It is the main cause of water pollution. Plastic, cans, aluminium etc. are
highly toxic and major pollutants of our environment.
(iii) Poisonous gases: SO2, NO2 and other toxic gases emitted by industries pollute the air.
(iv) Thermal pollution: It is caused by hot water released from factories. This hot water kills
many aquatic plants and animals and thus affects aquatic flora and fauna.
(v) Acid rain: Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulphur emitted by industries cause acid rain. This rain
damages historical monuments and pollutes water.
(vi) Radioactive wastes: Radioactive wastes are produced from nuclear reactors in the
laboratories. They should be set up away from the cities.
10. Causes of depletion of ozone layer: There are several reasons for depletion of ozone layer:
The foremost is the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The other factor responsible for
ozone destruction is the pollutant nitrogen monoxide (NO).
When the harmful chemicals like chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are released into the air, it
accumulates in the upper atmosphere and reacts with ozone resulting in reduction of the
ozone layer by forming a hole.
Thus, the ozone layer in the atmosphere becomes thinner and gets depleted allowing more
ultraviolet rays to pass through the earth.
The Antarctic hole in ozone layer is caused due to chlorine molecules present in
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), that are used by human beings.
11. Homologous organs are those organs which have the same basic structural design and
developmental origin but have different functions and appearance.
Example: The forelimb of a frog, a lizard, a bird and a man seem to be built from the same basic
design of bones, but they perform different functions.

12. When a population of a species splits into two, it cannot reproduce with each other and then a
new species is generated. For example:
A huge population of beetles feed on bushes spread a wide mountain range.
Individual beetle however feed on nearby bushes.
There is sub-population of beetles in a neighbourhood and reproduction takes place within
the sub-population. Occasionally a migrant beetle enter a different sub-population and
reproduce with them, thus genes of the migrant beetle enter in a new population.
Change due to genetic drift and natural selection will result in isolation of two subpopulation which becomes more and more different from each other.
Ultimately these two groups will be incapable of reproducing with each other and two
generation of beetles are being generated.
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13. Mendeleevs Periodic Law: The physical and chemical properties of elements are the periodic
function of their atomic masses.
(a) He could classify all the 63 elements discovered at that time on the basis of similarities in
properties.
(b) He left gaps for some undiscovered elements and predict their properties.
14. Isotopes have different atomic mass therefore they should be given separate place in periodic
table which is not possible because they have similar chemical properties. Therefore it was
necessary to change the basis of classification from atomic mass to atomic number.
15. Unisexual is the plant whose flowers contain either stamens or carpels but not both.
Example : Papaya, watermelon
Bisexual is the plant whose flowers contain both stamens and carpels.
Example : Hibiscus, Mustard
16. Double Fertilization in plants. Pollination is followed by fertilization in plants.

After the pollen lands on a suitable stigma, it has no reach the female germ cells in the
ovary.
The pollen tube grows out of the pollen grain through the style to reach the ovary.
After fertilization the zygote divides several times to form an embryo within the ovule.
The ovule then develops a tough coat and gets converted into a seed.
The seeds contain the future embryo which develops into seedling.
The ovary develops and ripens to form a fruit.
The process of double fertilization occurs inside each embryo sac, in which two fusions,
syngamy and triple fusion take place.
When one male gamete fuses with the egg contained in the embryo sac of the ovule, this
fusion of male and female gametes is called syngamy and its product is the zygote.
The other male gamete fuses with the two polar nuclei and this process is called triple
fusion, where three nuclei are involved in the fusion process, one male gamete and two
polar nuclei.
17. (a) Pankaj brought the double convex lens because it forms the magnified image of the object
thus it helps to see the fine pieces of glass.
(b) The object should be placed between optical centre and focus of lens.

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(c) Values shown by Pankaj are sincerity, friendship, concern for others and learning attitude.
18. Here h = 3 cm, f = 15 cm, v = 10 cm
(a) From lens formula,

1 1 1
=
f v u

1 1 1
1
1
= =

u v f ( 10 ) ( 15 )

1 1 1 1

u = 30 cm
= =
u 15 10 30
h' v
v
10

(b) m = =
h' = h =
3 = +1
h u
u
30

From the above, it is clear that image is formed on the same side of object placed at a distance
of 30 cm and image is virtual, erect and of same size.
19. (i) Analogous organs are those organs which
have different basic structural design and
developmental origin but have similar
appearance and perform similar functions.
Example: The wings of the birds and bats look similar but have different design in their
structure. Wings of the bats are skin folds stretched between elongated fingers but wings of
birds are covered by feathers all along the arm.
(ii) Natural selection is the process, according to Darwin, which brings about the evolution of
new species of animals and plants.
It was noted that the size of any population tends to remain constant despite the fact that
more offsprings are produced than are needed to maintain.
Darwin found that variations existed between individuals of the population and concluded
that disease, competition and other forces acting on the population eliminated those
individuals less well adapted to their environment.
The surviving population would pass the hereditary advantageous characteristics to their
offsprings.
But with time this process would give rise to organisms different from the original
population and new species are formed.
Or
Homologous organs are those organs which have the same basic structural design and
developmental origin but have different functions and appearance.

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Example: The forelimb of a frog, a lizard, a bird and a man seem to be built from the same
basic design of bones, but they perform different functions.
Difference between Homologous organs and Analogous organs:
Homologous Organs
Analogous Organs
(i) These organs have similar embryonic (i) These organs have different embryonic
origin and basic structure.
origin and basic structure.
(ii) These may look different and may (ii) These look alike and perform same
perform different function, e.g. forelimb
functions, e.g. wings of birds and insects.
of man and flipper of a whale.
The study of comparative anatomy provide evidence in favour of Organic Evolution in the
following ways:
(i) Presence of vestigial organs, the organs which are rudimentary and functionless in the
evolved form but are complete and functional in the ancestral forms, provides evidence for
evolution of organisms, e.g. presence of vestige of pelvic girdle in python and porpoises
indicates that they have evolved from four-footed organisms.
(ii) Presence of homologous and analogous organs also provides evidence for common
ancestory of organisms.
20. (i) (a) The point on the principal axis, about which the spherical surface is generated is called
centre of curvature. Any ray passing through this will retrace its path after reflection in
the spherical mirror.
(b) The centre of the spherical surface (reflecting) is called pole. Any ray falling at this point
coming from one side of the principal axis, will emerged at the same angle on the other
side of the principal axis.
1 1 1
= +
(ii) Mirror formula:
f v u
v
Magnification: m =
u
(iii) v = 45 cm, f = 20 cm,
Using

1 1 1
1 1 1
1
1
45 + 20 65
= + , we get,
= =
=

=
f v u
u f v 20 45
900 900
900
u=
= 13.8 cm
65
Or

Laws of Refraction:
(i) The incident ray, the normal and the refracted ray all lie in a plane.
(ii) The ratio of the sine of the angle of the incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction is a
sin i
constant, i.e.
= constant, for the light of a given colour and for the given pair of media.
sin r
This law is also known as Snells law of refraction.

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Refractive Index:

sin i
is called refractive index ( ) of one medium with respect to
sin r

another
(iii) No, since the velocity of light in the two media differ the ray of light after refraction bends.
This causes a shift laterally. The emergent ray will be parallel to the incident ray and do
not coincide.
21. Dispersion: The splitting of white light into its constituent colours is called Dispersion. The
colour sequence is given by the acronym V I B G Y O R Violet, Indigo, Blue, Green, Yellow,
Orange and Red. This colour pattern is called spectrum.
Dispersion occurs because refraction of bending differs with the colour. The speed of light of
different colours in a medium like glass, water etc. is different. Varying speed for different
colours leads to different refractive indices for different colours. It has been observed that the
refractive index of glass for violet colour is more than that of red colour. So red colour deviates
less and violet colour deviates more.

Or
Hypermetropia or Long sightnedness: The inability of eye in viewing the nearby objects. The
image in this case falls beyond the retina. For hypermetropic eye, there exists a near point.
Long sightedness is caused due to (i) greater focal length of the lens or (ii) eye-ball becoming
smaller. It is corrected by using a convex lens, which converges and shifts the image to the
retina from beyond.

22. (a) Lithium is alkali metal with smallest atomic number. Its symbol is Li.
(b) Silicon has atomic number 14. Its electronic configuration is 2, 8, 4. Its valency is 4.
(c) (i) Bromoethane, (ii) But-1-yne
(d) (i) H2SO4 is diprotic acid. (ii) H3PO4 is triprotic acid.
(e) Catenation is property due to which an element can form covalent bonds with atoms of
same element. Carbon shows catenation to maximum extent due to small size and it can
form strong covalent bonds
Or
(a) The element is Fluorine. Its symbol is F.

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(b) K (19), 2, 8, 8, 1. It belongs to group 1 of periodic table.


(c) Substitution reaction: These reactions in which an atom or group of atoms are replaced by
another atom or group of atoms are called substitution reactions. e.g.
Sunlight
CH 4 ( g ) + Cl 2 ( g )
CH 3Cl ( g ) + HCl ( g )
(d) Brisk effervescence due to CO2 will be observed and sodium acetate (CH3COONa) salt is
formed.
CH3COOH + NaHCO3
CH3COONa + H2O + CO2
(e) Carbon has four valence electrons. It can neither lose 4 electrons nor gain four electrons
because high energy will be needed. Therefore it can share four electrons forming covalent
bonds.
23. (a) Boron and Aluminium.
(b) Fluorine is the most electronegative element in periodic table. Its atomic number is 9.

(c)
(d) Ores are rocky materials which contain sufficient quantity if mineral that metal can be
extracted profitably. Minerals are naturally occurring substances from which metal may or
may not be extracted profitably.
Or
(a) Element belonging to group 2 and 3rd period is Magnisium (Mg) and 4th period is Calcium
(Ca).
(b) Helium is element which has highest ionization energy in periodic table.
(c) He could not classify all the elements discovered at that time. He could classify only few
element into triads.
(d) It is because in solid state, ions are not free to move, therefore it does not conduct
electricity.
(e) The chief ore of iron is haematite. Its formula is Fe2O3.
24. Two bacterial diseases which are sexually transmitted are Syphilis and Gonorrhoea.
Syphilis is caused by bacterium Treponema palladium.
Symptoms: It affects the mucus membrane in genital, rectal and oran region and causes
lesions.
Prevention: This disease can be easily cured by the use of antibiotic. Intercourse with the
diseased person should be prevented.
Gonorrhoea: It is caused by bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
Symptoms: (i) Inflammation of mucus membrane in urinogenital tract.
(ii) Burning sensation during urination.
Prevention: (i) It may be cured by antibiotic.
(ii) By avoiding prostitution.
(iii) By avoiding homosexuality.
(iv) Penicillin and antibiotic injections can also be used.
Or

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Self-pollination is the transfer of pollen grain from the anther if a flower to the stigma of the
same plant. It is seen in Pea and China rose plant.
Advantages:
(i) Self pollination is bisexual flowers ensures continuity of the race.
(ii) It helps to preserve the parental characters as the gametes from the same flower are
involved.
(iii) It is not necessary for flowers to produce nectar or scent or be colourful.
Disadvantages:
(i) New varieties cannot be obtained by self pollination.
(ii) The genetic defects of the breed cannot be removed.
(iii) Repeated self pollination leads to loss of vigour and vitally of the species.
Better method: In nature cross pollination is a better method because:
(i) It avoids recessive lethal or harmful genes to become homozygous.
(ii) It produces healthier plants due to the phenomenon of hybrid vigour.

(iii) It keeps the variability and hence adaptability of race intact.


Section B
25. (a) I and II candles will get extinguished.
(b)In, candle I and II gas evolved will be CO2 which is non-supporter of combustion, therefore
candle will get extinguished.
26. (a) Binary fission in Amoeba.
(b) Because in binary fission, the nucleus elongates first.
27. (i) (a) and (b) are correct.
(ii) Both are correct since parallel beams converge at focus. If parallel to axis, the convergence
is on the axis, while for lines not parallel to axis, the convergence will be away from
principal axis.
28. (b)
29. (c)
30. (d)
31. (b)
32. (c)
33. (c)
34. (a)
35. (a)
36. (a)

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CBSE Sample Paper-03


SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT II
SCIENCE (Theory)
Class X
Time allowed: 3 hours

Maximum Marks: 90

General Instructions:
a) All questions are compulsory.
b) The question paper comprises of two sections, A and B. You are to attempt both the sections.
c) Questions 1 to 3 in section A are one mark questions. These are to be answered in one word
or in one sentence.
d) Questions 4 to 6 in section A are two marks questions. These are to be answered in about 30
words each.
e) Questions 7 to 18 in section A are three marks questions. These are to be answered in about
50 words each.
f) Questions 19 to 24 in section A are five marks questions. These are to be answered in about
70 words each.
g) Questions 25 to 27 in section B are 2 marks questions and Questions 28 to 36 are multiple
choice questions based on practical skills. Each question of multiple choice questions is a one
mark question. You are to select one most appropriate response out of the four provided to
you.
Section A
1.
2.

What is the focal length of a lens, whose power is given as +2.0 D?


In a food chain comprising lion, grass and deer, which will:
(a) transfer the maximum amount of energy?
(b) receive minimum amount of energy?
3. What is denaturated alcohol?
4. What are fossils? Of what interest are fossils to the evolutionary biologists?
5. With respect to air, the refractive index of ice is 1.31 and that of rock salt is 1.54. Calculate the
refractive index of rock salt with respect to ice.
6. Why is K more reactive than Li?
7. What do you understand by periodicity? Are the properties of elements placed in a group
same? Illustrate.
8. What was Dobereiners basis of classification of elements?
9. Explain double fertilization in plants.
10. What is vegetative propagation? When is it used? Name thee methods of vegetative
propagation.
11. Define the term Heridity. In which type of organisms in heredity supposed to be better
defined in sexually reproducing or asexually reproducing kind? Why?
12. Explain with an example. How evolutionary relationship liked to classification?

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13. The radius of curvature of a convex mirror used on a moving automobile is 2.0 m. A truck is
coming behind it at a constant distance of 3.5 m. Calculate (i) the position and (ii) the size of
image relative to the size of truck. What will be the nature of image?
14. Define (i) regular reflection and (ii) diffused reflection. List the differences between them.
15. Ramesh and his friends performed well in SA-1. They wanted to go for outing, so they made a
request to the principal in this regard. It was decided that they will go by cycle to witness the
famous Ranapur water fountain show, situated nearly eight kilometers from their place, with
their physical education teacher.
It was sunny day. They all enjoyed, rejuvenated and rejoiced mind and body. Ramesh was
thrilled as he saw an exciting natural spectrum appearing in the sky when he looked at the sky
through the water fountain, with the sum behind him. He came back with a number of
questions in his mind.
Read the given passage and answer the following questions:
(a) Name the natural spectrum appearing in the sky. How does it form?
(b) Draw a ray diagram showing formation of natural spectrum appearing in the sky.
(c) What value of shown by Ramesh
16. How do we see colours? Explain the role of cells to respond (i) intensity, (ii) colour.
What is colour blindness?
17. What is ten percent law? Explain with an example how energy flows through different trophic
levels?
18. Replenishment of forests is essential. Justify the statement by giving any three reasons.
19. Explain the cleansing action of soaps and detergents.
Or
Write in short, how carbon compounds are named according to IUPAC nomenclature?
20. Explain double bond and triple bond with help of two examples in each case.
Or
Explain the following terms:
(a) Emulsifying
(b) Substitution reaction
(d) Saponification
(e) Methylated spitit

(c) Polymerization

21. Tabulate the process of reproduction into its various types, giving one example of each type.
Or
Define grafting. Suggest any two advantages and disadvantages of grafting.
22. Describe the anatomy of human male reproductive system.
Or
What is meant by tissue culture? How this technique is performed? In which area this
technique is finding its application?
23. (i) State the lenss formula and its magnification.

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(ii) Using the lens formula, locate the position of an image formed due to an object at infinity
by a convex lens of focal length f .
Or
(i) How will you find the net focal length of a combination of lenses whose focal length are 15
cm and 5 cm respectively?
(ii) Define power. Find the power of the combination and express whether it is converging or
diverging combination.
24. Draw a labelled diagram of human eye and explain the image formation.
Or
What is cause for (i) Myopia and (ii) Hypermetropia
Show the defective eye and explain how it is corrected?
Section B
25. (i) When acetic acid reacts with ethyl alcohol, we add conc. H2SO4. It acts as __________ and the
process is called __________.
(ii) Write the chemical equation for the same.
26. (i) A student observed a slide of yeast under a microscope and saw collection of cells in
different parts of the slide marked A, B, C and D as shown below:

(ii) Justify your answer.


27. (a) Given below are few steps (not in proper sequence) followed in the determination of focal
length of a given convex lens by obtaining a sharp image of a distant object:
(i) Measure the distance between the lens and screen.
(ii) Adjust the position of the lens to form a sharp image.
(iii) Select a suitable distant object.
(iv) Hold the lens between the object and the screen with its faces parallel to the screen.
Write the correct sequences of steps for determination of focal length.
(a) Justify your answer.
28. A student is asked to add a tea spoon full of solid sodium bicarbonate to a test tube containing
approximately 3 mL of acetic acid. He observed that the solid sodium bicarbonate:
(a) floats on the surface of acetic acid.
(b) remains suspended in the acetic acid.
(c) settles down in the test tube.
(d) reacts with acetic acid and a clear solution is obtained.
29. Sodium bicarbonate solution is added to dilute ethanoic acid. It is observed that:
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30.
31.
32.

33.

34.
35.

(a) a gas evolves.


(b) a solid settles at the bottom.
(c) the mixture becomes warm.
(d) The colour of the mixture becomes light yellow.
Regeneration observed in:
(a) Starfish
(b) Earthworm
(c) Hydra
(d) All of these
Fission of two types of gamete known as:
(a) Fertilization
(b) Zygote
(c) Binary fission
(d) Cytokinesis
In binary fission:
(a) The identity of the parent body is maintained after reproduction.
(b) The parent body is lost after reproduction.
(c) The parent body enlarges.
(d) None of these
A yeast cell in which budding occurs, it can have:
(a) One bud cell
(b) Two bud cells
(c) Three bud cells
(d) A chain of bud cells
The point at the centre of a lens is called as:
(a) Pole
(b) Optical centre
(c) Focus
(d) Aperture
A lens of focal length f is cut into two equal parts without affecting its curvature. The two
pieces will have equal focal length of:

f
f
(d)
2
3
36. Vinita took 20 grams of seeds and placed them in distilled water in a petridish. She weighted
the seeds kept in water at regular interval of two hours. She performed this activity four times
continuous. In which interval of time she found more water had been imbibed by them:
(a) Two hours
(b) Four hours
(c) Six hours
(d) Eight hours

(a) f

(b) 2 f

(c)

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CBSE Sample Paper-03


SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT II
SCIENCE (Theory)
Class X

(Solutions)
SECTION-A
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

6.
7.

8.

9.

1
1
= +50 cm
=
P +2.0
(a) Grass, (b) Lion
Denaturated alcohol is Ethanol mixed with poisonous substance like CuSO4 or pyridine or
methanol.
A fossil is the remnant or impressions of an organism that lives in the remote past e.g.
Archaeopteryx.
Use of fossils:
(i) The fossil record has helped in building the broad historical sequence of biological
evolution.
(ii) Phylogeny, the evolutionary history can be reconstructed from fossils.
(iii) The habits, habitats and behaviour of extinct organisms can be inferred from well
preserved fossils.
air ice = 1.31,
air rock = 1.54
1.54
air rock
=
= 1.18
ice rock =
1.31
air ice
f =

K is larger in atomic size, therefore, it can lose electrons easily due to less force of attraction
between valence electrons and nucleus than Li.
The repetition of similar properties after a definite interval of time is called periodicity
ofproperty. Yes the properties of elements placed in a group are similar e.g.
(i) Group I elements form monopositive ions. Li+ , Na + , K + etc.
(ii) Group I elements are soft metals.
(iii) Group I elements form basic oxides.
(iv) They are highly electropositive and most reactive.
Dobereiner classified elements in triads such that atomic mass of middle element was average
ofatomic mass of first and third element. e.g.
Li
Na
K
7
23
39
7 + 39
Average atomic mass of Li and K =
= 23 which is atomic mass of Na.
2
Double Fertilization in plants. Pollination is followed by fertilization in plants.
After the pollen lands on a suitable stigma, it has no reach the female germ cells in the
ovary.
The pollen tube grows out of the pollen grain through the style to reach the ovary.
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After fertilization the zygote divides several times to form an embryo within the ovule.
The ovule then develops a tough coat and gets converted into a seed.
The seeds contain the future embryo which develops into seedling.
The ovary develops and ripens to form a fruit.
The process of double fertilization occurs inside each embryo sac, in which two fusions,
syngamy and triple fusion take place.
When one male gamete fuses with the egg contained in the embryo sac of the ovule, this
fusion of male and female gametes is called syngamy and its product is the zygote.
The other male gamete fuses with the two polar nuclei and this process is called triple
fusion, where three nuclei are involved in the fusion process, one male gamete and two
polar nuclei.

10. The method of developing new plants from the vegetative parts of a plant, such as root, stem of
leaf is called Vegetative propagation.
Vegetative propagation can be classified into natural and artificial methods.
(i) By natural method from
Leaves e.g. Bryophyllum
Stems e.g. Ginger
Roots e.g. Guava
(ii) By artificial method ofCutting of stem, root, leaf, bulb scale
Layering of stem
Grafting
Parthenogenesis
The method of vegetative propagation is used when some plants like banana, orange, rose and
jasmine have lost the capacity to produce seeds.
The three methods of vegetative propagation which have developed by artificial methods of
vegetative propagation are cutting, layering and grafting.
11. Heredity refers to the transmission of characters or traits from the parents to their
offsprings.
Heredity is better defined as asexually reproducing kinds.
Heredity is better defined as asexually reproducing kinds, because asexual reproduction tends
to preserve the similarities among all the individuals belonging to a given line of descent.
12. Evolutionary relationship is liked with classification in the following ways:
The more common characteristics two species have, the more closely they are related.
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The more closer the species are, the more nearer they have a common ancestor.
For example, a brother and a sister are closely related and they have a common ancestor,
their parents in the first generation.
A girl and her first cousin are closely related but less related than her brother. The cousins
have a common ancestor, their grandparents in the second generation. Thus, evolutionary
relationships are traced in the classification of organisms.
13. For convex mirror, Given: R = 2.0 m, u = 3.5 m
1 1 1
R
2 1 1

(i)
= +

= +
f =

R u v
2
f u v

1 2 1 2
1
10 9
= =
= 1+
=
v R u 2 ( 3.5 )
35 7

7
v=+ m
9
Since v is positive so image is formed behind the mirror and it is virtual.
7

2
h ' v
v
9
(ii) Magnification ( m ) = =

h' =
h = h = h <1
9
h
u
u
( 3.5 )
2
times the size of object i.e. diminished in size.
9
14. (i) Regular reflection: When the beam of light falls on any polished or smooth surface, it gets
reflected in only one direction. This phenomenon is known as regular reflection.
(ii) Diffused reflection: When the light falls on any uneven surface, it gets scattered back in all
the directions. This phenomenon is known as diffused reflection.
Difference between Regular and Diffused reflection:
Regular Reflection
Diffused Reflection
(a) i = r
(a) i r
(b) Reflection takes place from smooth (b) Reflection takes place from uneven
surface.
surface.
(c) Reflected rays are parallel to each other. (c) Reflected rays are not parallel to each
other.

Size of image is

15. (a) A rainbow is a natural spectrum appearing in the sky after a rain shower. A rainbow is
always
formed in a direction opposite to that of the sun. The water droplets act like small prisms.
They disperse the white light due to which rainbow forms.
(b) A ray diagram for the formation of natural spectrum appearing in the sky:

(c) Value shown by Ramesh are faith in authority, discipline and friendship.

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16. Colours are seen associated with an object, if it reflects that colour when light falls on it.
(i) Intensity of light is responded by the rod-shaped cells on the retina.
(ii) Cones in the retina are special cells which respond and distinguish various colours.
Role: The cells generate the electrical nerve pulse.
If the person ahs less of no cone cells, then he will not be able to distinguish between the
colours. This is called colour blindness.
17. Energy available at each successive trophic level of food chain is 10 percent of the previous
level. This is called 10 percent law. This is due to the fact that 90% energy is lost to the
environment at each trophic level.

18. Replenishment of forests is essential because of the following reasons:


(i) Trees give out enormous amounts of water by the process of transpiration. This helps in
the rain clouds.
(ii) Plants prevent the washing away of top soil which is rich in organic matter. It prevents soil
erosion.
(iii) Forests provide raw materials for many industries and form a natural habitat for wildlife.
19. Male reproductive system: It consists of portions that produce the germ-cells and other
portions that deliver the germ-cells to the site of fertilization. The human male reproductive
system consists of the following organs:

Testes (singular testis) are the oval-shaped primary reproductive organ in man. A pair of
testis lies in a small sac-like muscular structure outside the abdominal cavity called
scrotum. The function of testis is to produce sperm and male sex hormones called
testosterone. The scrotum provides the optimal temperature for formation of sperms.

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Epididymis is a coiled tube like structure firmly attached to the testis and serves as the
storehouse of sperms. Inside the epididymis, sperms become mature and develop motility.
Vas deferens. The sperms are carried by a long tube called Vas deferens or sperm duct into
organs called seminal vesicles, where the sperms get nourished and stored.
Urethra is a common duct for the passage of both urine and spermatic fluid. Urethra
carries the sperms to an organ called penis which opens to the outside through a male
genital pore.
Penis forms the external male genital organ. It is a copulatory organ which thick muscular
walls.
Accessory Glands. Seminal vesicles are a pair of thin-walled muscular elongated sac which
secretes fluid for nourishment of sperms.
Prostate glands also produce fluid which is released in the urethra along with secretion of
seminal vesicle. The secretion of accessory glands together with sperms is called semen.
Sperms are tiny bodies that consist of mainly genetic material and a long tail which help
them to move towards the female germ cell.
Or

Tissue culture is the production or propagation of new plants from isolated plant cells or
small pieces of plant tissue in a synthetic medium of culture solution. Tissue culture for
producing new plants is done as follows:
Plants are grown by removing tissues or separating cells from the growing tip of the plant
and put in an artificial medium.
The plant tissue divides to form small group of cells or callus.
The callus is transferred to another medium containing hormones for growth and
differentiation that form plantlets.
The plantlets produced are transplanted into pots or soil where they can grow to form
mature plant.
This techniques is also known as micro-propagation in vitro because it takes place outside
the body of the parent plant in a test tube using an artificial environment.
Micro-propagation technique is being used for the production of ornamental plants like
Orchids, Dahlia and Carnation.
1 1 1
20. (i) Lenss formula : =
f v u
v
Magnification ( m ) =
u
1 1 1
(ii) Since u = and = ,
f v u
The image distance should be equal to focal length. The image is formed at the focus.

Or
(i) Net focal length of a combination of lenses can be found by using the relation,
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1 1 1
= +
f
f1 f 2

If f1 = 15 cm and f 2 = 15 cm, then

1 1 1 1 3 2
= =
=
f 15 5 15 15
f = 7.5 cm

(ii) Power is defined as the ability to converge or diverge the light after refraction. It is the
1
and is expressed in dioptres.
reciprocal of focal length, i.e. P =
f
Power of the combination of two lenses is P = P1 + P2
Since f1 = 15 cm and f 2 = 15 cm, then
+100
100
= 6.6 dioptre and P2 =
= 20 dioptre
15
5
Since P1 + P2is the equivalent power is negative and so the combination behaves as a
concave lens.

P1 =

21.

Image formation: Light enters through a thin membrane called cornea. The lens made up of
cornea and aqueous humour do refract the light and forms image on the light-sensitive screen
called retina. The iris, a dark muscular portion controls the size of the pupil. It becomes very
small on very bright light and opens up on dim light. The retina has rods and cones as two
cells. The rods responds to the intensity of light and the cones respond to the colour
Or
(i) Cause for Myopia: Excessive curvature of the cornea or the elongation of the eye-ball.

It is corrected by concave lens of suitable focal lens.


(ii) Cause for Hypermetropia: The focal length of the lens becomes too short and so nearby
objects cannot be seen clearly. The eye-ball may become too short.

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It is correct by the convex lens of suitable focal length.


22. Soaps and detergents consist of a large hydrogen chain as tail and a negatively charged
functional group as head. The tail is hydrophobic (water repelling) and the head is hydrophilic
(water loving).

In aqueous solution, water molecules being polar in nature, surround the ions (hydrophilic
part) and not the hydrophobic part of the soap or detergent. In cleansing clothes, the
hydrocarbon or hydrophobic part attaches itself to oily dirt, thus forming a cluster called
micelles. When water is agitated, the oily dirt tends to lift off from the surface of the clothes
and dissociate into fragments. This gives opportunity to other tails to stick to oily dirt. The
solution now contains small globules of oily dirt surrounded by soap/detergent molecules. The
negatively charged heads present in water prevent the small globules from coming together
and form aggregates. This results in the removal of dirt when clothes are further washed with
water.

Or
Naming of carbon compounds can be done by the following method:
(i) Identify the number of carbon atoms in the compounds. For example a compounds
containing three carbon atoms would have the name propane, containing five carbon
atoms would have the name pentane.
(ii) In case, a functional group present, it is indicated in the name of the compound with either
a prefix or a suffix as given in table below.
(iii) If the name of the functional group is to be given as a suffix, the name of the chain is
modified by deleting the final e and adding the appropriate suffix. For example, a three
carbon chain with a ketone group would be named in the following manner:
Propane e = Propan + one = Propanone

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(iv) If the carbon chain is unsaturated, then the final ane in the name of the carbon chain is
substituted by ene or yne as given in the table below. For example, a three carbon chain
with a double bond would be called propene and if it has a triple bond, it would be called
propyne.

23. Double bond: The bond formed between two atoms by sharing of two pairs of electrons is
called a double bond.
Examples: Formation of Oxygen molecule.

Formation of Ethylene molecule

Triple bond: The bond formed between two atoms by sharing of three pairs of electrons is
called a triple bond.
Examples: Formation of Nitrogen molecule.

Formation of Acetylene molecule

Or

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(i) Emulsifying action: The action of soaps and detergents on dirt in clothes is called
emulsifying action.
(ii) Substitution reaction: Reactions in which an atom or group of atoms of a compound is
replaced by other atom of group of atoms.
(iii) Polymerisation: Process in which similar of different molecules combine together in the
presence of catalyst to form long chain compounds.
(iv) Saponification: Process in which an ester reacts with sodium hydroxide to form alcohol
and sodium salt of acid.
(v) Methylated spirit: Ethyl alcohol contaminated with methyl alcohol and other impurities.
24.

Or
Grafting: In this method of reproduction, two plants of closely related varieties are joined
together so that they live as one plant.
The portion of a plant that is grafted on the other plant is called scion and the plant in which
grafting is performed is called the stock.
This method is applied to improve variety of fruits like mango, apple, peas, citrus and guava.

Advantages:
(i) A young scion can be made to flower when it is grafted on a mature true.
(ii) Different varieties can be grafted on the same stock.
Disadvantages:
(i) Sexual reproduction is a necessity for evolution.
(ii) Plants produce very few seeds.

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Section B
25. (i) dehydrating agent, esterification
26.
27.

28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.

conc. H2SO4

CH3COOC2H5 + H2O
(ii) CH3COOH + C2H5OH
(i) Slide A is showing the budding in yeast.
(ii) Because buds appear as protuberances.
(a) The correct sequence is: (iii), (iv), (ii), (i)
(b) Unless an object is chosen and setting of lens and screen in proper, image distance and
thereby the focal length cannot be found.
(d)
(a)
(d)
(b)
(b)
(d)
(b)
(a)
(d)

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CBSE Sample Paper-04


SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT II
SCIENCE (Theory)
Class X
Time allowed: 3 hours

Maximum Marks: 90

General Instructions:
a) All questions are compulsory.
b) The question paper comprises of two sections, A and B. You are to attempt both the sections.
c) Questions 1 to 3 in section A are one mark questions. These are to be answered in one word
or in one sentence.
d) Questions 4 to 6 in section A are two marks questions. These are to be answered in about 30
words each.
e) Questions 7 to 18 in section A are three marks questions. These are to be answered in about
50 words each.
f) Questions 19 to 24 in section A are five marks questions. These are to be answered in about
70 words each.
g) Questions 25 to 27 in section B are 2 marks questions and Questions 28 to 36 are multiple
choice questions based on practical skills. Each question of multiple choice questions is a one
mark question. You are to select one most appropriate response out of the four provided to
you.
Section A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

9.

Write a food chain in a forest ecosystem.


Name the product formed beside soap that is obtained during saponification process.
Are the laws of reflection applicable to plane surfaces also valid for curved surfaces?
In what S.I. unit is power of lenses rated? A convex lens has a focal length of 50 cm, Calculate
its power.
What discrepancies were there in Mendeleevs Periodic Table?
Name one organ analogous to the wing of the bird. Why are they both analogous? Can you
include the wing of bat also with them under the same category? Give reason.
An object of size ' l ' cm is placed in front of a (i) convex mirror and (ii) concave mirror. With a
neat ray-diagram, explain how an erect image is formed.
(i) Is the speed of light a constant?
(ii) Which colour has the greatest speed in the visible region?
(iii) Is it possible to combine the seven colours in the spectrum to form white?
Sheeba studies in grade 9 and is a secretary of schools club. As per practice in the school, all
members of science club assemble in Physics lab in last two periods on every Friday.
Sheeba also extends help to her mother in kitchen. One day she observed that the apparent
random wavering or flickering of objects seen through a turbulent stream of hot air rising

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above the fire in the kitchen. She discussed about this with her friends and decided to raise the
question in schools science club meeting.
Read the given passage and answer the following questions:
(a) Explain the reason behind the observation.
(b) Name the similar phenomenon on a larger scale. Also, draw the ray diagram.
(c) What values are shown by Sheeba?
10. Draw a neat labelled diagram of human eye.
11. Vegetarian food habits can sustain a larger number of people. Justify the statement in terms
of food chain.
12. List any three measures of the projection of wildlife.
13. What is electron affinity? The electron affinity values of three elements A, B and C of a group
are 324, 295 and 333 kJ mol-1. Arrange these in increasing order of their atomic numbers.
14. The atomic number of an element is 16. Predict its:
(a) valency
(b) group number (c) whether it is a metal of non-metal
(d) nature of the oxide formed
(e) name of the element.
15. Differentiate between Self pollination and Cross pollination. Describe double fertilization in
plants.
16. (i) When does ovulation occur during the menstrual cycle in a normal healthy female?
(ii) Draw a labelled diagram to show the reproductive system of a human female.
17. How are fossils formed?
18. Explain Mendels experiment with peas on inheritance of traits considering only one visible
contrasting character.
19. Discuss in brief the various modes of reproduction used by single organisms.
Or
Explain with example how characteristics of a population changes over the years for the
following situations:
(a) To gain survival advantage.
(b) Due to accidental survival.
(c) Temporary change of characteristics.
20. A square wire of side 3.0 cm is placed 25 cm away from a concave mirror of focal length 10 cm.
What is the area enclosed by the image of the wire? The centre of the wire is on the axis of the
mirror, with its two sides normal to the axis.
Or
A small candle 2.5 cm in size is placed 27 cm in front of a concave mirror of radius of curvature
0.36 m. At what distance from the mirror should a screen be placed in order to receive a sharp
image? Describe the nature and size of the image. If the candle is moved to the mirror, how
would the screen have to be moved?
21. Draw a labelled diagram which shows th refraction of light through a triangular glass prism.
Mark the:
(i) Angle of deviation
(ii) Angle of emergence
(iii) Angle of prism

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Or
Give some points of similarities and dissimilarities between a camera and a human eye.
22. Give five differences between diamond and graphite.
Or
(a) A compound X is formed by the reaction of carboxylic acid having the molecular formula
C2H4O2 and alcohol (Y) in the presence of conc. H2SO4. The same carboxylic acid is obtained
by the oxidation of alcohol (Y). Name the compounds X and Y. Give the chemical equation
for the reaction.
23. (a) Which hydrocarbons burn with
(i) non-sooty blue flame
(ii) sooty yellow flame
(b) What happens when methane reacts with chlorine?
(c) What is rectified spirit?
(d) Why does soap not work in hard water?
(e) What is glacial acid?
Or
(a) What is hydrogenation? Give one reaction. What is its industrial application?
(b) What is esterification?
24. Describe the human female reproductive system with the help of a labelled diagram.
Or
Describe the process of fertilization in the human female.
Section B
25. (i) Which of the following reagents gives brisk effervescene with ethanoic acid and why?
(a) Calcium hydroxide
(b) Sodium chloride
(c) Sodium bicarbonate
(d) Ammonium chloride
(ii) Write the chemical equation.
26. (i) Which is the correct diagram showing an Amoeba undergoing binary fission?

(ii) Justify your answer.


27. Who among the following uses a concave mirror and why?
(a) Automobile rider
(b) Shopkeeper
(c) Dentist
28. The functional group present in acetic acid:
(a) Carboxylic
(b) Alcohol
(c) Aldehyde
29. The physical state of pure acetic acid is:

(d) All of these


(d) Ketone

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(a) Solid
(b) Liquid
30. The figure given below shows:

31.
32.
33.
34.

(c) Aq. Solution

(d) Gaseous state

(a) Amoeba undergoing binary fission


(b) Yeast undergoing binary fission
(c) Yeast undergoing budding
(d) Amoeba undergoing budding
Meosis, Mitosis and Amitosis are the types of:
(a) Cell division
(b) Cytokinesis
(c) Karyokinesis
(d) All of these
How many times the process of budding continuous in the yeast:
(a) 2-3 times
(b) 3-4 times
(c) 50-70 times
(d) 100-500 times
The outgrowth of hydra is termed as:
(a) Bulb
(b) Bud
(c) Daughter hydra (d) Tentacles
The light from a distant object on passing through the convex lens ( f focal length):
(a) converges at focus ( f ) .

(b) Appears to diverge from focus.

(c) Converges at 2 f .

(d) Appears to diverge from 2 f .

35. When red, blue and green light coming parallel to principal axis fall on a convex lens, they will
converge on the axis at:
(a) One point
(b) Two points
(c) Three points
(d) Always at one point
36. The correct formula to calculate the percentage of water absorbed by raisins is:
W W1
W W2
W1
W2
(a) 2
= 100
(b) 1
= 100
(c)
= 100
(d)
= 100
W1
W2
W2 W1
W2 W1

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CBSE Sample Paper-04


SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT II
SCIENCE (Theory)
Class X
Time allowed: 3 hours

Maximum Marks: 90
(Solutions)
SECTION-A

1.
2.
3.
4.

Grass

Deer
Lion
(producers)
(herbivore)
(carnivore)
Glycerol.
Yes, the same laws of reflection are valid for both plane and curved surfaces.
The S.I. unit of power is dioptre.
If f = 50 cm =

5.

6.

7.

1
1
m, then P = = 2 D
f
2

(a) It was based on increasing order of atomic weight and vertical similarly in properties, but
vertical similarity of properties was given preference over increasing order. Consequently
some elements with higher atomic weight were placed before the elements with lower
atomic
weight.
(b) Isotopes were not given separate place in the periodic table although they had different
atomic masses.
(c) Certain elements with similar properties were placed in separate groups whereas some
elements having dissimilar properties were placed in same groups.
The wings of insects are analogous to the wing of the bird. They both are analogous because
they perform the same function, but are not similar in structural plan and development origin.
Yes, the wings of birds are analogous to wings of bats. Bat wings consist of flaps of skin
stretched between the bones of the fingers and arms. Bird wings consist of feathers extending
all along the arm. They both have separate evolutionary origins, but are superficially similar
because they evolved to serve the same function. Analogies are the result of convergent
evolution.
Note (just for knowledge, not for examination purpose): Though bird and bat wings are
analogous as wings, but as forelimbs they are homologous. Birds and bats did not inherit wings
from a common ancestor with wings, but they did inherit forelimbs from a common ancestor
with forelimbs.
(i) Convex mirror

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(ii) Concave mirror

8.

9.

(i) Yes, speed of light is constant in free space.


(ii) In free space all colours will travel with same speed.
(iii) Yes, by keeping a prism inverted after a prism to split the white light, it is possible to reunite the colours to form white light.
(a) The air just above the fire becomes hotter than the air further up. The hotter air is lighter
(less dense) than the cooler air above it and has a refracting index slightly less than that of
the cooler air. Since, the physical conditions of the refracting medium (air) are not
stationary, the apparent position of the object as seen through the hot air, fluctuates.
(b) Twinkling of stars is a similar phenomenon on a much larger scale.

(c) Values shown by Sheeba are friendship, concern for each other, practical mind and
cooperative attitude
10.

11. Vegetarian food habits involve two steps food chains. These two steps are producer plants and
herbivorous animals.
As energy flows as per 10% law from one trophic level to the next trophic level. So, vegetarian
would get more energy than the non-vegetarians and more energy means more food for larger
number of people.
Therefore, vegetarian food habits can sustain a larger number of people.
12. Three measures for protection of wildlife:
(i) Controlling the deforestation of forest: Forests provide natural habitat to the wildlife.
(ii) Controlling the unlawful poaching (hunting of the animals): Because of this, many
species of wildlife have become endangered and some have even become extinct.

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(iii) By developing Wildlife Parks and Sanctuaries in which wild animals could be kept
protected in their natural habitat.
13. Electron Affinity: Affinity is the energy change when an electron is gained by a gaseous atom.
Itdepends on atomic size and electronic configuration.
It decreases down a group. C (333) > A (324) > B (295) are in increasing order of atomic
numbers.
14. (a) Its valency is 2.
(b) It belongs to group 16 of periodic table.
(c) It is non-metal.
(d) It forms acidic oxide.
(e) The name of element is sulphur
15. Difference between Self-pollination and Cross-pollination:
Self pollination
Cross pollination
(i) Self-pollination occurs within a flower or (i) Cross-pollination occurs between two
between two flowers of the same plants.
flowers borne on different plants of the
same species.
(ii) Flowers do not depend on other (ii) Agents such as insects, water and wind
agencies for pollination.
are required for pollination.
(iii) Pollen grains are produced in small (iii) Pollen grains are produced in large
numbers.
numbers.
(iv) No wastage of pollen grains occur and (iv) Wastage of pollen grains occurs and
thus economical.
hence not economical.
(v) Flowers are not attractive nor do they (v) Flowers attract insects by various means
produce nectar.
like coloured petals, scent and nectar.
(vi) The offsprings produced are of the same (vi) The offsprings produced may show
genetic make up, so purity of the race is
variations and differ in genetic make up.
maintained.
16. (i) Ovulation occurs in the mid of the menstrual cycle around 14th day in a normal healthy
woman.

17. Fossils are formed layer by layer in the earths crust.


100 millions ago invertebrates that were dead on the sea bed were buried in the sand and
with time more sands accumulated and sandstones are formed.
After million years, the dinosaurs living in the area die and get buried in mud which are
compressed into rocks above the earlier invertebrate fossils.

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Eventually again million years later, the bodies of horse-like creature dies and their fossils
are found in rocks above the earlier rocks.
But much later, due to erosion, the water flow wears some of the rocks and the horse-like
fossils are exposed and as we dig into deeper layers the older fossils are found.

18. Mendel experiments with peas on inheritance of traits considering only one visible
contrasting character are as follows:
Mendel took pea plants with different characteristics as a tall plant and a short plant.
The first generation of F1 progeny thus formed are all tall.
Mendel then allowed the F1 progeny plants foe self-pollination.
The second generation of F2 progeny of the F1 tall plants are not all tall, some are short. This
indicates that both tallness and shortness traits were inherited in F1 plants but only the
tallness trait was expressed.
Thus, two copies of the traits are inherited in each sexually reproducing organisms.
In the figure, both TT and Tt are tall plants, while only tt is a short plant.
A single copy of T is enough to make the plant tall while both copies have to be t for the
plant to be short. Therefore, traits like T are dominant traits while t are recessive traits.

19. The various modes of reproduction used by single organisms or sexual methods of
reproduction are as follows:
(i) Fission: This is the simplest method of asexual reproduction in unicellular forms of life
such as Amoeba, Paramoecium and other protozoa. In this process, the parent organism
splits or divides to form two or more new organisms.
(ii) Fragmentation: Multicellular organisms with simple body organization such as
filamentous algae Spirogyra breaks up into two or more small pieces or fragments upon
maturation. These fragments grow into new individuals.
(iii) Regeneration: It is the ability of a fully differentiated organism to give rise to new
individual organism from its body parts. For example, simple organisms like Hydra and

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Planaria can be cut into any number of pieces and each piece grows into a complete
organism.
(iv) Budding: In budding, a small part of a body of the parent grows out as a bud which then
detaches and becomes a new organism.
(v) Vegetative Propagation: In vegetative propagation, new plants are obtained from the
parts of the old plants like stems, roots and leaves without the help of any reproductive
organ. There are two ways of vegetative propagation: (i) Natural vegetative propagation
and (ii) Artificial vegetative propagation.
(vi) Spore formation: When a slice of a bread is kept in moist dark place for a few days,
spores of Rhizopus present in air settle on the bread to form new fungus plant of
Rhizopus.
Or
The characteristics of a population changes over the years for the following situations:
For example: 12 red beetles live in a green leafy bush grows by sexual reproduction and
generate variation.
(a) Situation to gain survival advantage:
Crows eat these beetles, leaving only fewer beetles available for reproduction.
Due to colour variation during reproduction, only one green beetle evolves and
therefore, all its progeny beetles become green.
Crows cannot see green coloured beetles on green leaves and hence cannot eat them,
resulting more green beetles than red ones in the beetle population.
(b) Situation due to accidental survival:
Due to colour variation during reproduction, a blue colour beetle appears and all its
progeny beetles become blue.
Crows can see red and blue beetles and therefore, eat them.
Initially there are less number of blue beetles and more of red beetles.
Then an elephant stumps on the bushes and kills most of the beetles. By chance, few
beetles that survived were mostly blue.
Thus the blue beetle population slowly expands.
There is no survival advantage on this variation and provides diversity without
adaptation.
(c) Situation of temporary change of characteristics:
As the beetle population begins to expand, the bushes suffer from a disease and amount
of leaf available for beetles have reduced.
Thus the beetles are poorly nourished and the average weight of an adult beetle has
decreased.
After few years, the plant disease is eliminated and enough food is available for the
beetles. Thus the beetles have come back to its normal size and weight.
This change in not inherited over generation.

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20. For concave mirror, u = 25 cm, f = 10 cm, side of square = 3 cm,


From mirror equation,

1 1 1
= +
f u v

1 1 1
1
1
3
= =

=
v f u 10 25 50

50
= 16.67 cm
3
Therefore the image of the square wire us formed on the same side of object at 16.6 cm.
v ( 50 3) 2
=
=
Also Magnification ( m ) =
u
25
3
Size of image of one side of square.
2
h1 = 3 = 2 cm
3
Image in inverted.
Area enclosed by the image of wire = (Size of image)2 = 22 = 4.0 cm2

v=

Or
For a concave mirror, u = 27 cm, R = 36 cm, h = 2.5 cm
1 1 1
1
1 2 1
2
1
1
= =
From mirror equation, = =

=
v f u R 2 u R u
36 27 54
v = 54 cm
h ' v
h'
54
h ' = 5.0 cm

=
=
h
u
2.5
27
Screen should be placed at 54 cm on the same side of object in order to receive a sharp
image.
The image is real, inverted, magnified having the size of 5.0 cm. We know that if the object
distance decreases, the image distance will increase. SO if the candle is moved closer to the
mirror, the position of image increases continuously. If the candle is placed at the focus of a
concave mirror, i.e. at 18.0 cm, the image is formed at infinity and if the candle moves further
towards the pole, i.e. between the pole and the focus, the image gets virtual, erect, magnified
and cant be obtained on the screen.

Also Magnification ( m ) =

21.

(i)
(ii)
(iii)

= Angle of deviation
e = Angle of emergence
A = Angle of prism

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Or
Points of similarities
Camera
Human Eye
(i) Image is formed by a convex lens made (i) Image is formed by the eye lens (a
of glass.
convex lens) made of fibrous jelly like
material.
(ii) A real and inverted image is formed on (ii) A real and inverted image is formed on
the photographic film.
the retina.
(iii) Diaphragm controls the amount of light (iii) Pupil in the iris controls the amount of
entering the camera.
light entering the eye.
(iv) Time of exposure is controlled by a (iv) Time of exposure is controlled by the
shutter.
eyelids.
Points of dissimilarities
Camera
(i) Focal length of camera lens is fixed.
(ii) Focussing is done by changing the
distance between the camera lens and
the photographic film.
(iii) Photographic film retains the image
permanently.

(iv) A photograph has to be changed for


getting next image.
(v) The angular region covered is about 60 .

22. Difference between Diamond and Graphite:


Diamond
(i) It is the hardest substance.
(ii) It is transparent and colourless.
(iii) It is a non-conductor of electricity.
(iv) In diamond, all carbon atoms are
tetrahedrally bonded.
(v) It has high refractive index.
Or

Human Eye
(i) Focal length of eye lens can be changed
with the help of ciliary muscles.
(ii) Focussing is done by changing the
shape of the eye lens by the action of
ciliary muscles.
(iii) The retina of the eye retains the
1
impression of an image for about
th
16
of a second.
(iv) The same retina can be used for
viewing an unlimited number of
images.
(v) The angular region covered is about
150.

Graphite
(i) It is soft and slipperty.
(ii) It is opaque and black coloured.
(iii) It is a good conductor of electricity.
(iv) In graphite, there are some free
valencies.
(v) Its refractive index is very low.

(a) Alcohols on oxidation with alkaline KMnO4 or acidified K2Cr2O7 give acids. Carboxylic acid
(C2H4O2) contains 2-carbon atoms, therefore alcohol (Y) should also contain 2-carbon
atoms. So it is ethanol and the a carboxylic acid is ethanoic acid.
Alk. KMnO4 ,
CH3CH 2OH
CH3COOH
or acidified K Cr O ,
2

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Ethanol (2-C)
(Y)

Ethanoic acid

The carboxylic acid and alcohol in presence of conc. H2SO4 react to produce ester (X).
Conc. H 2SO 4
CH3COOH + C2 H5OH
CH3COOC2 H5 + H 2 O
Heat

Ethanoic
Ethanol
Acid
(Y)

Ethyl ethanoate
(X)

So compound X is ethyl ethanoate and compound Y is ethanol.


(b) Alkanes give substitution reaction. General formula for alkanes is CnH2n+2.
Butane (C4H10) and pentane (C5H12) correspond to the general formula of alkanes. These
are saturated hydrocarbon and undergo substitution reaction which is their characteristic
property.
23. (a) (i) Saturated hydrocarbons generally burn with a non-sooty blue flame.
(ii) Unsaturated carbon compounds burn with sooty yellow flame.
(b) In the presence of sunlight, chlorine reacts with methane. It can replace the hydrogen
atoms by one (substituiotn reaction).
Sunlight
CH 4 +
Cl 2
CH 3Cl + HCl
Methane Chlorine

Monochloro
metane

Sunlight
CH 3Cl + Cl2
CH 2 Cl 2 + HCl

Monochloro
methane

Dichloro
methane

Sunlight
CH 2 Cl2 + Cl 2
CHCl3 + HCl

Dichloro
methane

Trichloro
methane (chloroform)

Sunlight
CHCl3 + Cl 2
CCl 4 + HCl

Trichloro
Methane (chloroform)

Carbon
tetrachloride

(c) An aqueous solution of ethanol containing 95% ethanol and 5% water is called rectified
spirit.
(d) Hard water contains Ca 2 + and Mg 2+ ions. Soap reacts with these ions of hard water and
forms scum (precipitate) of insoluble calcium salt and magnesium salt. Scum sticks to the
clothes. Thats why soap does not produce lather or foam with hard water.
(e) Pure acetic acid is called glacial acetic acid.
Or
(a) When unsaturated hydrocarbons react with hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst like
Nickel, the hydrogen gets added across the double/triple bond and saturated hydrocarbons
are formed. Such reactions is called hydrogenation.
Ni
CH 2 = CH 2 + H 2
CH 2 CH 2 or CH3 CH3
Catalyst

H
Ethene

H
Ethane

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(Unsaturated)

(Saturated)

Industrial Use: It is used in the preparation of vanaspati ghee from vegetable oil.
Ni
Vegetable oil + H2
Vanaspati ghrr
473 K
(b) When carboxylic acid reacts with alcohol in presence of conc. H2SO4, ester is formed. This is
called esterification.
Conc. H2SO4
Ester + water
Carboxylic acid + Alcohol
24. Female Reproductive system: The female germ-cells or eggs are made in the ovaries and are
responsible for the production of some hormones. The human female reproductive system
consists of the following organs:

(i) Ovaries are a pair of small and oval-shaped organs, located in the abdominal cavity near
the kidney. Ovaries are the female primary reproductive organs which perform dual
functions of production of female gamete or ovum and the secretion of female sex
hormones, estrogen and progesterone.
(ii) Fallopian tubes or Oviduct are a pair of long convoluted tubes that carry ova or eggs
from the ovary to the uterus. The fallopian tube has a funnel shaped opening near the
ovary. These tubes from both the sides open into an elastic bag-like structure, the uterus.
(iii) Uterus or womb is a hollow, pear-shaped organ within which the embryo develops. Its
upper portion is broader, while its lower portion is narrower, called cervix.
(iv) Vagina: The uterus opens into the vagina through the cervix. Vagina is a tabular structure
called Birth canal. It receives sperms from the male and also serves as the passage
through which the fully developed foetus is born.
Or
The process of fertilization in human female is internal, i.e. it takes place inside the female
human body.
Sexual Reproduction in Human Beings:
The male gamete (sperm) is introduced inside the female genital tract (vagina) by the
process of copulation or mating. Fertilization occurs in the fallopian tube.
Sperms are highly active and mobile which move up through cervix into the uterus and
then pass into the fallopian tubes.

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In the fallopian tube only one sperm fertilizes the ovum to form a zygote. This is called
fertilization.
Fertilization occurs only is copulation takes place during the ovulatory period.
The embryonic development of the zygote starts immediately in the fallopian tube and
pregnancy starts while menstruation stops.
The embryo moves down to reach the uterus. The embedding of embryo in the thick inner
lining of the uterus is called implantation.
Then, a special tissue develops between the uterine wall and the embryo (foetus) called
placenta, where the exchange of nutrients, oxygen and waste products takes place.
The time period from the development of foetus inside the uterus till birth us called
gestation.
The act of living birth of the fully developed foetus at the end of gestation period is termed
as parturition.
The development of the child inside the mothers body takes approximately nine months.
Section B

25. (i) Sodium bicarbonate reacts with ethanoic to give brisk effervescene due to evolution of CO2.
(ii) NaHCO3 + CH3COOH
CH3COONa + H2O + CO2
26. (i) Figure III is showing the correct binary fission in Amoeba.
(ii) Because the nucleus of Amoeba divides first.
27. Dentist uses the concave mirror to focus light on the spot required to be seen clearly.
28. (a)
29. (b)
30. (c)
31. (c)
32. (b)
33. (b)
34. (a)
35. (c)
36. (a)

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