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25/09/2016

Currenttransformers,VoltagetransformersandInstrumenttransformers:India

TechnicalinformationonKappaproducts
Instrumenttransformersareusedformeasurementand
protectiveapplication,togetherwithequipmentsuchas
metersandrelays.Theirroleinelectricalsystemsisof
primaryimportanceastheyareameansof"steppingdown"
thecurrentorvoltageofasystemtomeasurablevalues,
suchas5Aor1Ainthecaseofacurrenttransformersor
110Vor100Vinthecaseofavoltagetransformer.This
offerstheadvantagethatmeasurementandprotective
equipmentcanbestandardizedonafewvaluesofcurrent
andvoltage.
Voltagetransformers
Currenttransformers
Kappahaspublishedareferencemanualon
instrumenttransformers
Voltagetransformers
Principleofoperation
Definitions
Standards
Tests
TypicalSpecifications
Principleofoperation
Thestandardsdefineavoltagetransformerasoneinwhich
"thesecondaryvoltageissubstantiallyproportionaltothe
primaryvoltageanddiffersinphasefromitbyanangle
whichisapproximatelyzeroforanappropriatedirectionof
theconnections."
This,inessence,meansthatthevoltagetransformerhasto
beascloseaspossibletothe"ideal"transformer.Inan
"ideal"transformer,thesecondaryvoltagevectorisexactly
oppositeandequaltotheprimaryvoltagevector,when
multipliedbytheturnsratio.
Ina"practical"transformer,errorsareintroducedbecause
somecurrentisdrawnforthemagnetizationofthecoreand
becauseofdropsintheprimaryandsecondarywindings
duetoleakagereactanceandwindingresistance.Onecan
thustalkofavoltageerror,whichistheamountbywhich
thevoltageislessthantheappliedprimaryvoltage,andthe
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Currenttransformers,VoltagetransformersandInstrumenttransformers:India

phaseerror,whichisthephaseanglebywhichthereversed
secondaryvoltagevectorisdisplacedfromtheprimary
voltagevector.
KappadesignsitsVT'ssothattheresistanceandreactance
dropsareminimized.Italsousesthebestgradesofcold
rolledgrainorientedelectricalsteelswhichenables
operationatoptimumlevelsofmagneticinduction,thus
reducingboththesizeandthecostoftheVT.
Definitions
Typicaltermsusedforspecifyingavoltagetransformer
(VT)
a.Ratedprimaryvoltage:Thisistheratedvoltageof
thesystemwhosevoltageisrequiredtobestepped
downformeasurementandprotectivepurposes.
b.Ratedsecondaryvoltage:Thisisthevoltageat
whichthemetersandprotectivedevicesconnectedto
thesecondarycircuitofthevoltagetransformer
operate.
c.Ratedburden:Thisistheloadintermsofvolt
amperes(VA)posedbythedevicesinthesecondary
circuitontheVT.Thisincludestheburdenimposed
bytheconnectingleads.TheVTisrequiredtobe
accurateatboththeratedburdenand25%ofthe
ratedburden.
d.Accuracyclassrequired:Thetransformationerrors
thatarepermissible,includingvoltage(ratio)error
andphaseangleerror.Phaseerrorisspecifiedin
minutes.TypicalaccuracyclassesareClass0.5,
Class1andClass3.Bothmeteringandprotection
classesofaccuracyarespecified.InameteringVT,
theVTisrequiredtobewithinthespecifiederrors
from80%to120%oftheratedvoltage.Ina
protectionVT,theVTisrequiredtobeaccuratefrom
5%uptotheratedvoltagefactortimestherated
voltage.
e.Ratedvoltagefactor:Dependingonthesystemin
whichtheVTistobeused,theratedvoltagefactors
tobespecifiedaredifferent.Thetablebelowis
adoptedfromIndianandInternationalstandards.
Rated Rated
voltage time
factor
1.2
Continuous

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Methodofconnecting
primary
windinginsystem
Betweenphasesinany
network
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Currenttransformers,VoltagetransformersandInstrumenttransformers:India

Betweentransformerstar
pointandearthinanynetwork
1.2
1.5
1.2
1.9

1.2
1.9

Continuous
for30
seconds
Continuous
for30
seconds

Betweenphaseandearthinan
effectivelyearthedneutral
system
Betweenphaseandearthina
noneffectivelyearthedneutral
systemwithautomaticfault
tripping
Continuous Betweenphaseandearthinan
for8hours isolatedneutralsystem
withoutautomaticfault
trippingorinaresonant
earthed
systemwithoutautomaticfault
tripping

f.Temperatureclassofinsulation:Thepermissible
temperatureriseoverthespecifiedambient
temperature.Typically,classesE,BandF.
g.Residualvoltagetransformer(RVT):RVTsare
usedforresidualearthfaultprotectionandfor
dischargingcapacitorbanks.Thesecondaryresidual
voltagewindingisconnectedinopendelta.Under
normalconditionsofoperation,thereisnovoltage
outputacrosstheresidualvoltagewinding.When
thereisanearthfault,avoltageisdevelopedacross
theopendeltawindingwhichactivatestherelay.
WhenusingathreephaseRVT,theprimaryneutral
shouldbeearthed,asotherwisethirdharmonic
voltageswillappearacrosstheresidualwinding.3
phaseRVTstypicallyhave5limbconstruction.
h.MeteringUnits:11kVmeteringunitsconsistofone
3phaseVTand2CT'sconnectedtogetherinasingle
housing.Thiscanbeusedforthreephasemonitoring
ofenergyparameters.Itisusedwithtrivectormeters
andenergymeters.
Standards
TheIndianandinternationalstandardreferencesforVTs
areasgiveninthetablebelow:
Standard

StandardNumber

Year

Indian

3156

1992

British
British

BSEN600442
BS7729

1997
1994

International
Electrotechnical

IEC600442

1997

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Currenttransformers,VoltagetransformersandInstrumenttransformers:India

Commission(IEC)
Australian

AS1243

1982

Australian

AS600442

2007

American

ANSIC.57.13

1993

KappamanufacturesVTstointernationalstandards.Our
designsarebackedupbyextensivetypetestingatnational
andinternationallaboratories.
Tests
Anumberofroutineandtypetestshavetobeconductedon
VTsbeforetheycanmeetthestandardsspecifiedabove.
Thetestscanbeclassifiedas:
a.Accuracyteststodeterminewhethertheerrorsof
theVTarewithinspecifiedlimits
b.Dielectricinsulationtestssuchaspowerfrequency
withstandvoltagetestonprimaryandsecondary
windingsforoneminute,inducedovervoltagetest,
impusetestswith1.2u/50uwave,andpartial
dischargetests(forvoltage>=6.6kV)todetermine
whetherthedischargeisbelowthespecifiedlimits.
c.Temperaturerisetests
d.Shortcircuittests
e.Verificationofterminalmarkingsandpolarity
KappaconductsroutinetestsoneachandeveryVT
producedandalldesignsaretypetested.
Typicalspecificationfora11kVVT
Systemvoltage:11kV
Insulationlevelvoltage(ILV):12/28/75kV
Numberofphases:Three
VectorGroup:Star/Star
Ratio:11kV/110V
Burden:100VA
Accuracy:Class0.5
VoltageFactor:1.2continuousand1.5for30seconds
Withprovisionforfuse
DoubleandtriplesecondaryVTsarealsomanufactured.
Currenttransformers
Principleofoperation
Definitions
Standards
Tests
TypicalSpecifications
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Currenttransformers,VoltagetransformersandInstrumenttransformers:India

Principleofoperation
Acurrenttransformerisdefinedas"asaninstrument
transformerinwhichthesecondarycurrentissubstantially
proportionaltotheprimarycurrent(undernormal
conditionsofoperation)anddiffersinphasefromitbyan
anglewhichisapproximatelyzeroforanappropriate
directionoftheconnections."Thishighlightstheaccuracy
requirementofthecurrenttransformerbutalsoimportantis
theisolatingfunction,whichmeansnomatterwhatthe
systemvoltagethesecondarycircuitneedbeinsulatedonly
foralowvoltage.
Thecurrenttransformerworksontheprincipleofvariable
flux.Inthe"ideal"currenttransformer,secondarycurrent
wouldbeexactlyequal(whenmultipliedbytheturnsratio)
andoppositetotheprimarycurrent.But,asinthevoltage
transformer,someoftheprimarycurrentortheprimary
ampereturnsisutilizedformagnetizingthecore,thus
leavinglessthantheactualprimaryampereturnstobe
"transformed"intothesecondaryampereturns.This
naturallyintroducesanerrorinthetransformation.The
errorisclassifiedintotwothecurrentorratioerrorandthe
phaseerror.
KappaCTsaredesignedtominimisetheerrorsusingthe
bestqualityelectricalsteelsforthecoreofthetransformer.
Bothtoroidal(round)andrectangularCTsare
manufactured.
Definitions
Ratedprimarycurrent:Thevalueofcurrentwhichisto
betransformedtoalowervalue.InCTparlance,the"load"
oftheCTreferstotheprimarycurrent.
Ratedsecondarycurrent:Thecurrentinthesecondary
circuitandonwhichtheperformanceoftheCTisbased.
Typicalvaluesofsecondarycurrentare1Aor5A.Inthe
caseoftransformerdifferentialprotection,secondary
currentsof1/root3Aand5/root3Aarealsospecified.
Ratedburden:Theapparentpowerofthesecondary
circuitinVoltamperesexpressedattheratedsecondary
currentandataspecificpowerfactor(0.8foralmostall
standards)
Accuracyclass:InthecaseofmeteringCTs,accuracy
classistypically,0.2,0.5,1or3.Thismeansthattheerrors
havetobewithinthelimitsspecifiedinthestandardsfor
thatparticularaccuracyclass.ThemeteringCThastobe
accuratefrom5%to120%oftheratedprimarycurrent,at
25%and100%oftheratedburdenatthespecifiedpower
factor.InthecaseofprotectionCTs,theCTsshouldpass
boththeratioandphaseerrorsatthespecifiedaccuracy
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Currenttransformers,VoltagetransformersandInstrumenttransformers:India

class,usually5Por10P,aswellascompositeerroratthe
accuracylimitfactoroftheCT.
Compositeerror:Thermsvalueofthedifferencebetween
theinstantaneousprimarycurrentandtheinstantaneous
secondarycurrentmultipliedbytheturnsratio,under
steadystateconditions.
Accuracylimitfactor:Thevalueofprimarycurrentupto
whichtheCTcomplieswithcompositeerrorrequirements.
Thisistypically5,10or15,whichmeansthatthe
compositeerroroftheCThastobewithinspecifiedlimits
at5,10or15timestheratedprimarycurrent.
Shorttimerating:Thevalueofprimarycurrent(inkA)
thattheCTshouldbeabletowithstandboththermallyand
dynamicallywithoutdamagetothewindings,withthe
secondarycircuitbeingshortcircuited.Thetimespecified
isusually1or3seconds.
Instrumentsecurityfactor(factorofsecurity):This
typicallytakesavalueoflessthan5orlessthan10though
itcouldbemuchhigheriftheratioisverylow.Ifthefactor
ofsecurityoftheCTis5,itmeansthatthecompositeerror
ofthemeteringCTat5timestheratedprimarycurrentis
equaltoorgreaterthan10%.Thismeansthatheavy
currentsontheprimaryarenotpassedontothesecondary
circuitandinstrumentsarethereforeprotected.Inthecase
ofdoubleratioCT's,FSisapplicableforthelowestratio
only.
ClassPS/XCT:Inbalancesystemsofprotection,CTs
withahighdegreeofsimilarityintheircharacteristicsare
required.TheserequirementsaremetbyClassPS(X)CTs.
Theirperformanceisdefinedintermsofakneepoint
voltage(KPV),themagnetizingcurrent(Imag)attheknee
pointvoltageor1/2or1/4thekneepointvoltage,andthe
resistanceoftheCTsecondarywindingcorrectedto75C.
Accuracyisdefinedintermsoftheturnsratio.
Kneepointvoltage:Thatpointonthemagnetizingcurve
whereanincreaseof10%inthefluxdensity(voltage)
causesanincreaseof50%inthemagnetizingforce
(current).
SummationCT:Whenthecurrentsinanumberoffeeders
neednotbeindividuallymeteredbutsummatedtoasingle
meterorinstrument,asummationcurrenttransformercan
beused.ThesummationCTconsistsoftwoormore
primarywindingswhichareconnectedtothefeederstobe
summated,andasinglesecondarywinding,whichfeedsa
currentproportionaltothesummatedprimarycurrent.A
typicalratiowouldbe5+5+5/5A,whichmeansthatthree
primaryfeedersof5aretobesummatedtoasingle5A
meter.
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CorebalanceCT(CBCT):TheCBCT,alsoknownasa
zerosequenceCT,isusedforearthleakageandearthfault
protection.TheconceptissimilartotheRVT.IntheCBCT,
thethreecorecableorthreesinglecoresofathreephase
systempassthroughtheinnerdiameteroftheCT.When
thesystemisfaultfree,nocurrentflowsinthesecondaryof
theCBCT.Whenthereisanearthfault,theresidualcurrent
(zerophasesequencecurrent)ofthesystemflowsthrough
thesecondaryoftheCBCTandthisoperatestherelay.In
ordertodesigntheCBCT,theinnerdiameteroftheCT,the
relaytype,therelaysettingandtheprimaryoperating
currentneedtobefurnished.
InterposingCT's(ICT's):InterposingCT'sareused
whentheratiooftransformationisveryhigh.Itisalsoused
tocorrectforphasedisplacementfordifferentialprotection
oftransformers.
Standards
TheIndianandinternationalstandardreferencesforCTs
areasgiveninthetablebelow:
Standard

StandardNumber

Year

Indian
British
International
Electrotechnical
Commission(IEC)

2705
BSEN600441
IEC600441

1992
1999
2000

Australian
Australian
American

AS1675
AS600441
ANSIC.57.13

1986
2007
1993

KappamanufacturesCTstointernationalstandards.Our
designsarebackedupbyextensiveupbyextensivetype
testingatnationalandinternationallaboratories.
Tests
Anumberofroutineandtypetestshavetobeconductedon
CTsbeforetheycanmeetthestandardsspecifiedabove.
Thetestscanbeclassifiedas:
a.Accuracyteststodeterminewhethertheerrorsof
theCTarewithinspecifiedlimits.
b.Dielectricinsulationtestssuchaspowerfrequency
withstandvoltagetestonprimaryandsecondary
windingsforoneminute,interturninsulationtestat
powerfrequencyvoltage,impulsetestswith1.2u/50
wave,andpartialdischargetests(forvoltage
>=6.6kv)todeterminewhetherthedischargeis
belowthespecifiedlimits.
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Currenttransformers,VoltagetransformersandInstrumenttransformers:India

c.Temperaturerisetests.
d.Shorttimecurrenttests.
e.Verificationofterminalmarkingsandpolarity.
KappaconductsroutinetestsoneachandeveryCT
producedandalldesignsaretypetested.
Typicalspecificationfora11kVCT
Systemvoltage:11kV
Insulationlevelvoltage(ILV):12/28/75kV
Ratio:200/110.577A
Core1:1A,metering,15VA/class1,ISF<10
Core2:1A,protection,15VA/5P10
Core3:0.577A,ClassPS,KPV>=150V,ImagatVk/2
<=30mA,RCTat75C<=2ohms
Shorttimerating:20kAfor1second
InstrumenttransformersAreferencemanual
Kappahaspublishedahandyreferencemanualfor
instrumenttransformers.Themanualrunstoabout160
pagesandfurtherdetailsonalloftheabovetopicsaswell
asonmuchmore,includingAustralianandANSIstandards
canbefoundinthemanual.Thetableofcontentsofthe
manualisreproducedbelow:
Introductiontoinstrumenttransformers
Currenttransformersadiscussionontheory,
specificationsandoperationalaspects.DefinitionsIdeal
andpracticalCTMagneticalloysforcoresequivalent
circuitsopencircuitsvoltagesinCTsleakagereactance
modificationofcurrenttransformererrorsoperational
aspectsstandardspecificationsforCTs.
Meteringormeasurementcurrenttransformers
Accuracyinstrumentsecurityfactoraccuracy
requirementsforvariousapplicationsuseofCTsin
indicatingandmeteringunitssummationCT.
ProtectionCTs
CompositeerrorAccuracylimitstransientstabilityand
classPSCTsBasicprotectionschemesCTrequirement
forvariousprotectionschemesCBCTs.
Furthernotesoncurrenttransformers
TransientperformancenonconventionalCTsscreening
ofCTs.
Voltagetransformertheoryandspecifications
Operatingprinciplesdifferencebetweenpower
transformerandVTcirclediagramsandVTerrorsthree
phaseVTsvoltagetransformerprotectiontransientsin
VTsconstructionofVTs.specificationsforVTs.
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Voltagetransformersformeasurementandprotection
MeasurementVTsprotectionVTsResidualVTsCascade
VTsCapacitorsVTs.
Adiscussiononpartialdischarge
Definitionpartialdischargeandbreakdowninacavity
studyofpartialdischarges
AppendixITestingofinstrumenttransformersbythe
user
AppendixIIInformationrequiredwithenquiriesand
orders
AppendixIIIListofIndianandinternationalstandards
thatmaybereadinconjunctionwiththisbook.
Bibliography
Ifyouwouldliketohavetobuyacopyofthemanual,
pleasecontactKappa.
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