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Centre Number

Candidate
Number

Candidate Name

International General Certificate of Secondary Education


UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE LOCAL EXAMINATIONS SYNDICATE

CHEMISTRY

0620/3

PAPER 3
MAY/JUNE SESSION 2000

1 hour 15 minutes

Candidates answer on the question paper.


Additional materials:
Mathematical tables.

TIME

1 hour 15 minutes

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
Write your name, Centre number and candidate number in the spaces at the top of this page.
Answer all questions.
Write your answers in the spaces provided on the question paper.
INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES
The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question.
Mathematical tables are available.
You may use a calculator.
A copy of the Periodic Table is printed on page 16.

FOR EXAMINERS USE


1
2
3
4
5
TOTAL

This question paper consists of 14 printed pages and 2 blank pages.


SB (KN/TC) QF05703/2
UCLES 2000

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1

Germanium is an element in Group IV. It was first isolated in Germany by C Winkler in 1886.
(a) It has a similar macromolecular structure to diamond. Predict two physical properties of
germanium.
..........................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................[2]
(b) Explain why graphite, which is also a macromolecular form of carbon, has different
physical properties to diamond and germanium.
..........................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................[2]
(c) The electron distribution of a germanium atom is 2.8.18.4.
Draw a diagram to show the arrangement of the valency electrons in the covalent
compound germanium tetrachloride.

Use o to represent an electron from germanium.


Use x to represent an electron from chlorine.

[3]

(d) Germanium forms a series of saturated compounds with hydrogen which resemble the
alkanes.
(i)

Predict the general molecular formula of these compounds of germanium and


hydrogen.
...............................................................................................................................[1]

(ii)

Draw the structural formula for one of the above compounds that contains four
germanium atoms per molecule.

[1]

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Examiners
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3
(e) When aqueous solutions of germanium(II) chloride and of iron(III) chloride are mixed,
the following reaction occurs.

For
Examiners
Use

GeCl2 + 2FeCl3 2FeCl2 + GeCl4


or

Ge2+ + 2Fe3+ 2Fe2+ + Ge4+

(i)

Is the germanium(II) chloride acting as an oxidising agent or reducing agent?


Explain your choice using the idea of electron transfer.
...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[2]

(ii)

Describe a test to show that an iron(III) salt had been changed into an iron(II) salt.
test ............................................................................................................................
result for iron(III)salt .................................................................................................
result for iron(II) salt .................................................................................................
[3]

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2

Ammonia is made by the Haber process from nitrogen and hydrogen.


N2 + 3H2

2NH3

H = 92 kJ/mole (reaction is exothermic)

(a) Describe how nitrogen can be obtained from the air.


..........................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................[2]
(b) Describe how hydrogen can be made from an alkane.
..........................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................[2]
(c) The diagram below shows how the percentage of ammonia in the equilibrium mixture
changes with the conditions.

%
NH3

%
NH3

pressure

temperature

The y axis is the percentage of ammonia at equilibrium.


Fig. 2.1
(i)

What is the effect of increasing the temperature on the percentage of ammonia in


the equilibrium mixture?
...............................................................................................................................[1]

(ii)

What is the effect of increasing the pressure upon the position of equilibrium. Does
it move to the the left, stay the same or move to the right?
...............................................................................................................................[1]

(iii)

Why does the position of equilibrium move as stated in (ii)?


...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[2]

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(iv)

Suggest an explanation why an increase in pressure increases the reaction rate.

For
Examiners
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...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[1]
(d) Large amounts of ammonia are used in the manufacture of ammonium sulphate.
(i)

What is the main use of this salt?


...............................................................................................................................[1]

(ii)

Describe how crystals of ammonium sulphate can be made in the laboratory from
aqueous ammonia.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[4]

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(e) Car engines and flue gases from power stations both release oxides of nitrogen into the
air. These oxides are a cause of acid rain.
flue gases are acidic due to NO2

chimney

furnace
oxides of nitrogen form
Fig. 2.2
(i)

Explain how these oxides are formed.


...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[2]

(ii)

The emission of the oxides is decreased by mixing the flue gases with ammonia
and passing over a catalyst. Complete the balancing of the equation.
6NO2 + ...........NH3 7N2 + .........H2O

(iii)

[1]

Suggest how the pH of the flue gases can show that just the right amount of
ammonia is being used.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[2]

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3

Nantucket is an island twenty five miles off the coast of the USA. Some of the different fuels
and sources of energy that have been used on the island over the years are listed below.
wood
whale oil
coal and coal gas
petroleum products
electricity by cable from mainland

For
Examiners
Use

earliest

at present
future

(a) Wood was the first carbon-based fuel used. Explain why the cycle of cutting down trees,
burning the wood and the regrowth of the forest does not cause any long term changes
in the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................[3]
(b) Whale oil contains unsaturated esters. As well as being used as a fuel, a number of
valuable products can be made from this oil.
(i)

Describe how you could show that whale oil contains compounds that have
carbon-carbon double bonds.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[3]

(ii)

How could a soap be made from the oil?


...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[2]

(iii)

Margarine used to be made from the oil by changing the unsaturated hydrocarbon
chains into saturated hydrocarbon chains. Complete the word equation for this
reaction.
unsaturated + ................................. saturated
hydrocarbon
hydrocarbon

[1]

(c) Coal gas was made on the island by heating coal. It is a mixture of hydrogen, methane,
carbon monoxide, nitrogen etc. Explain how the percentage of hydrogen in the mixture
is increased by diffusion through a porous barrier.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................[3]

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(d) A typical electricity cable would have a copper core surrounded by a polymer as an
outer casing.
cross-section of an
electricity cable

outer case
of a polymer

central core
of copper
Fig. 3.1

(i)

Give two reasons why the core is made from copper.


...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[2]

(ii)

Give two reasons why a polymer might be a suitable material for the outer casing.
...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[2]

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9
4

For
Examiners
Use

(a) Copper is refined by electrolysis.


anode
+

cathode

electrolyte
aqueous copper(II) sulphate
remains unchanged

copper electrodes
mass changes
Fig. 4.1
Explain with equations why the electrodes change in mass and why the concentration of
aqueous copper(II) sulphate remains unchanged.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................[4]
(b) An alloy contains contains zinc and copper. A small sample of this alloy was dissolved in
acid to give a solution containing zinc and copper ions. Explain what would happen
when an excess of each of the following reagents is separately added to this solution.
(i)

iron filings
...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[2]

(ii)

sodium hydroxide
...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[2]

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For
Examiners
Use

(c) The following diagram shows a simple cell.


voltmeter

magnesium
electrode

iron
electrode

electrolyte
dilute sulphuric
acid
Fig. 4.2
(i)

What is a cell?
...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[2]

(ii)

Mark on the diagram the direction of the electron flow.

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(d) A sample of impure copper was dissolved in nitric acid. The solution of copper(II) nitrate
was filtered to remove solid impurities and evaporated to dryness. The solid nitrate was
heated to constant mass to leave only copper(II) oxide.
Results
Mass of impure copper
Mass of copper oxide

For
Examiners
Use

= 4.21 g
= 4.80 g

2Cu(NO3)2(s) 2CuO(s) + 4NO2(g) + O2(g)


(i)

Complete the following to determine the percentage purity of the sample of copper.
The mass of one mole of CuO = 80 g
number of moles of CuO formed

= ......................

[1]

mass of copper in copper(II) oxide = ......................

[1]

percentage of copper

[1]

= ......................

(ii) Calculate the total volume of gas formed at r.t.p.

total number of moles of gas formed = .....................

[2]

volume of gas formed = .......................dm3

[1]

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5

For
Examiners
Use

(a) The structure of the synthetic polymer Terylene is given below.


O

Fig. 5.1
(i)

Name the type of linkage in this polymer.


...............................................................................................................................[1]

(ii)

What naturally occurring substance contains the same linkage?


...............................................................................................................................[1]

(b) Another synthetic polymer is nylon. Draw the structure of a nylon.

[3]
(c) Complex carbohydrates such as starch are natural polymers.
(i)

Name the three elements present in carbohydrates.


...............................................................................................................................[1]

(ii)

Draw the structure of a complex carbohydrate.

[2]

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(d) Chromatography is used to identify simple carbohydrates, such as sugars, in plant
material.

solvent front

chromatography
paper
fructose
sucrose
glucose
datum line

level of solvent

original positions
of samples of sugar
Fig. 5.2
A leaf is ground with 50% aqueous alcohol to give a colourless solution of the sugars.
This solution is concentrated and a chromatogram is obtained. The paper is sprayed
with resorcinol solution.
(i)

A common use of ethanol is in alcoholic drinks. In this experiment it is used as a


solvent. Give one other use.
...............................................................................................................................[1]

(ii)

Why is the datum line drawn in pencil?


...............................................................................................................................[1]

(iii)

Suggest a reason why it is necessary to spray the chromatogram with resorcinol.


...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[2]

(iv)

Describe how chromatography could be used to show that the hydrolysis of starch
produces only one sugar, glucose.
...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[2]
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For
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14
BLANK PAGE

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15
BLANK PAGE

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Magnesium

Sodium

Calcium

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Strontium

89

Key

72

b = proton (atomic) number

X = atomic symbol

a = relative atomic mass

*58-71 Lanthanoid series


90-103 Actinoid series

88

Ac

Actinium

Ra

Radium

Fr

Francium

87

Hafnium

Lanthanum

57

178

Hf

40

Zirconium

Zr

91

Titanium

139

Yttrium

22

48

Ti

La

39

89

Scandium

21

227

56

Barium

Caesium

45

Sc

226

55

137

Ba

133

Cs

38

Rubidium

37

88

Sr

85

Rb

20

Potassium

19

40

Ca

39

12

24

Mg

23

Na

Beryllium

Lithium

11

Be

II

Li

93

Ta

181

Niobium

Nb

90

58

73

52

96

Mo

184

Protactinium

Thorium

55

Tc
186

Re

144

Nd

92

60

Uranium

238

Neodymium

75

Rhenium

43

Technetium

25

Manganese

Mn
27

59

28

59

29

64

30

65

Ru

101

Iron

190

Pm

Osmium

Os

Np
93

Neptunium

61

Promethium

76

44

Ruthenium

26

56

Fe

Sm

150

Iridium

Pu
94

Plutonium

62

152

Eu

Am
95

Americium

63

Europium

78

Platinum

195

Pt

Ir

46

Palladium

Pd

106

Nickel

Ni

192

Samarium

77

45

Rhodium

Rh

103

Cobalt

Co

Gd

157

Gold

Au

197

Silver

96

64

Curium

Cm

Gadolinium

79

47

Ag

108

Copper

Cu

201

Bk

Terbium

Tb

159

Mercury

Hg

97

Berkelium

65

80

48

Cadmium

Cd

112

Zinc

Zn

11

Dy

162

Thallium

Tl

204

Indium

Cf
98

Californium

66

Es

Holmium

Ho

165

Lead

Pb

207

Tin

99

Einsteinium

67

82

50

119

Sn

115

32

Germanium

Ge

73

Silicon

In

Gallium

Dysprosium

81

49

31

70

Ga

14

28

Si

Carbon

27

Aluminium

13

12

Al

Boron

B
7

14

75

Sb

122

Arsenic

As

Bi

209

Fermium

Fm

Erbium

Er

167

Bismuth

100

68

83

51

Antimony

33

15

Phosphorus

31

Nitrogen

N
8

Se

79

Sulphur

32

Oxygen

Po

169

Md

Thulium

Tm

101

Mendelevium

69

84

Polonium

52

Tellurium

Te

128

Selenium

34

16

16

O
9

Yb

173

Astatine

At

Iodine

127

Bromine

Br

80

Chlorine

No
102

Nobelium

70

Ytterbium

85

53

35

17

Cl

35.5

Fluorine

19

Lr

Lutetium

Lu

175

Radon

Rn

Xenon

Xe

131

Krypton

Kr

84

Argon

Ar

40

Neon

103

Lawrencium

71

86

54

36

18

10

Ne

20

Helium

Hydrogen

VII

VI

He

IV

III

The volume of one mole of any gas is 24 dm3 at room temperature and pressure (r.t.p.).

91

Pa

Th

232

Praseodymium

Cerium

59

141

Pr

140

74

Tungsten

42

Molybdenum

24

Chromium

Cr

Ce

Tantalum

41

23

Vanadium

51

Group

DATA SHEET
The Periodic Table of the Elements

16